Petroleum Abstracts® TULSA Database Guide
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Petroleum Abstracts® TUSLA Database is a weekly electronic bulletin providing abstracts (brief summaries) of technical literature of the exploration and production segments of the petroleum industry. Abstracted material comes from U.S. and foreign periodicals, patent journals, meeting papers, and other publications. Approximately 22,000 literature citations and 4,000 patent citations are prepared from these sources each year. This service is designed to assist technical professionals in staying current with developments within the industry.

Petroleum Abstracts® TULSA Database references over 950,000 technical articles, patents, meeting papers and government reports of interest to geologists, geophysicists, petroleum engineers, and other technical professionals and managers in the oil and gas exploration and production industry. Subscriptions are maintained to technical periodical publications and patent gazettes. Full-copy patents, preprints and/or proceedings of major technical meetings, graduate theses from pertinent universities, technical books from major publishers, and research reports from various international government agencies are also obtained for abstracting and indexing. The material represents technical literature of lasting value, gathered from worldwide sources.

The following subjects are covered:

Petroleum exploration geology, geophysics, and geochemistry, Development drilling and well completion, servicing, and work over Petroleum production, recovery methods, and transportation Supplemental technology, statistics, environmental energy-related topics, and alternate fuels and energy sources.

Full-text copies of most of the citations in TULSA are available from the Petroleum Abstracts Document Delivery Service (PADDS), McFarlin Library, The University of Tulsa (telephone: 800-247-8678 or 918-631-2231; fax: 918-631-3823). Copies also may be ordered via e-mail to [email protected] or go to http://www.pa.utulsa.edu and click on Order Documents.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
PTLM   1965 to present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 1 segment.

This database is updated online weekly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) Journal Translation (JT) Priority Country (PX)
  Accession Number (AN) Journal Word (JX) Priority Date (PZ)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Language (LG) Priority Information (PR)
  Author (AU) Main Heading (MH) Publication Type (PT)
  Bulletin Date (BD) Main Word (MW) Publication Year (YR)
  Conference Title (CF) Original Source (SO) Report Number (RT)
  Category (CT) Original Title (OT) Secondary Term (ST)
  Corporate Affiliation or Patent Assignee (CA) Pagination (PG) Secondary Word (SW)
  Cross Reference (CR) Patent Application (PA) Subject Heading (SH)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) Patent Application Date (PE) Title (TI)
  Heading Word (HW) Patent Application Number (PB) Update Code (UP)
  International Classification Codes (IC) Patent Country (PC) URL (UR)
  ISBN (IB) Patent Date (PD) Volume (VO)
  ISSN (IS) Patent Information (PI) Weighted Term (WT)
  Issue/Part (IP) Patent Number (PN) Weighted Word (WW)
  Journal Name (JN) Priority Application Number (PO)  
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ab,ca,cx,hw,ti.
  Abstract (AB) Corporate Name Word (CX) Title (TI)
  Corporate Source or Patent Assignee (CA) Heading Word (HW)  
Go: Table of Contents or Back 

Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Issue/Part (IP) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) Journal Translation (JT) Publication Year (YR)
  Author (AU) Language (LG) Report Number (RT)
  Bulletin Date (BD) Main Heading (MH) Secondary Term (ST)
  Category (CT) Original Source (SO) Subject Heading (SH)
  Corporate Affiliation or Patent Assignee (CA) Original Title (OT) Title (TI)
  Cross Reference (CR) Pagination (PG) Update Code (UP)
  International Classification Codes (IC) Patent Application (PA) Volume (VO)
  ISBN (IB) Patent Information (PI) Weighted Term (WT)
  ISSN (IS) Patent Number (PN) Weighted Word (WW)
  Conference Title (CF) Priority Information (PR)  
Go: Table of Contents or Back 

All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) ISBN (IB) Patent Number (PN)
  Accession Number (AN) ISSN (IS) Priority Information (PR)
  Author (AU) Journal Translation (JT) Publication Type (PT)
  Bulletin Date (BD) Language (LG) Publication Year (YR)
  Category (CT) Local Messages (LM) Report Number (RT)
  Corporate Affiliation or Patent Assignee (CA) Main Heading (MH) Subject Heading (SH)
  Conference Title (CF) Original Source (SO) Title (TI)
  Cross Reference (CR) Original Title (OT) Update Code (UP)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) Patent Application (PA) URL (UR)
  International Classification Codes (IC) Patent Information (PI)  
Go: Table of Contents or Back 
Elements of Original Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  ISBN (IB) Journal Name (JN) Publication Year (YR)
  ISSN (IS) Pagination (PG) Volume (VO)
  Issue/Part (IP)    
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
dril$.ab.
 

The Abstract (AB) field contains the English-language abstract of the document. Most documents processed 1978 to the present contain abstracts. Prior to 1978, only selected documents in the field of enhanced recovery have abstracts. All abstracts are in English, regardless of the original language of the text.

The AB field is word indexed.

Example: dril$.ab

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AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
change.af.
 

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Heading (SH).

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AN

Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
"242373".an.

 

The Accession Number (AN) field contains a unique number that is assigned to each record. The number in this field corresponds to the Petroleum Abstracts bulletin abstract number.

The AN field is phrase indexed.

Example: 242373.an

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AU

Author [Phrase Indexed]
ramey h j jr.au.

 

The Author (AU) field identifies the person(s) responsible for the intellectual content of the document. Authors are formatted last name then the initials separated by spaces, followed by relevant titles (Jr, Sr, III, etc.). The AU field is phrase indexed.

Example: ramey h j jr.au

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BD

Bulletin Date [Phrase Indexed]
199925.bd

 

The Bulletin Date (BD) field contains the year and the week in which the bulletin was added in the database. It has 6 digits in YYYYWW format wherein YYYY is the entry year and WW is the entry week.

The BD field is phrase indexed.

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CA

Corporate Affiliation or Patent Assignee [Word Indexed]
exxonmobil.ca.

 

The Corporate Affiliation or Patent Assignee (CA) field contains the affiliation(s) of the Author(s) at the time the material was written. This field was initiated on literature citations in September 1984 and on patent citations in October 1986. Affiliations which are a part of the Petroleum Abstracts Companies List are entered in their controlled vocabulary form. However, the affiliation may also be a term which is not part of the controlled vocabulary.

Example: exxonmobil.ca

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CF Conference Title [Word Indexed]
AAPG Hedberg.cf.
 

The Conference Title (CF) field contains the title of the conference associated with the record.

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CR

Cross Reference [Phrase Indexed]
"800441".cr.

 

The Cross Reference (CR) field is used to retrieve information from later portions of the database which has been related to earlier portions of the file. The related record may be retrieved by searching the number listed in the Cross Reference field as an Accession Number (AN).

Example: 800441.cr

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CT

Category [Phrase Indexed]
geology.ct.

 

The Category (CT) field indicates the section of the Petroleum Abstracts bulletin that contains the citation.

The following categories are searchable:

Alt Fuels and Energy Sources       Pipelining Ship and Storage
Drilling Well   Producing Oil and Gas
Ecology and Pollution   Reservoir Eng and Rec Method
Geochemistry   Supplemental Technology
Geology   Well Compl Serv and Workover
Geophysics   Well Logging and Surveying
Mineral Commodities    

Example: "reservoir eng and rec method".ct

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CX Corporate Name Word [Word Indexed]
cinemateca.cx.
 

The Corporate Name Word (CX) is a word index containing the values of Corporate Name field.

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DO Digital Object Identifier [Word Indexed]
101007 s00015 011 0051 7.do.
 

The Digital Object Identifier (DO) field contains the record's Digital Object Identifier.

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HW

Heading Word [Word Indexed]
anadarko.hw.

 

The Heading Word (HW) field allows you to retrieve individual words within the Subject Heading (SH) field.

The HW field is word indexed.

Example: anadarko.hw

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IB

ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
"9990104018".ib.

 

The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number as assigned by the publisher. This number uniquely identifies the book and facilitates ordering. ISBN was added to the database in 1970.

The IB field is phrase indexed.

Example: 9986615101.ib

Example: 9990104018.ib

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IC

International Classification Codes [Phrase Indexed]
"e21b 004 00".ic.

 

The International Classification Codes (IC) field was added to the database beginning with Petroleum Abstracts v29, No.27, July 8. 1989. It identifies the subject classification of the patent based on international standards.

Example: e21b 004 00.ic

Example: v08g 014 00.ic

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IP

Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
"40".ip.

 

The Issue/Part (IP) field contains the issue, supplement, or part number. The IP field displays in the Original Source (SO) field.

The IP field is word indexed.
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IS

ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
"0001 5717".is.

 

The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number as assigned by the publisher. This number uniquely identifies the serial or journal and facilitates ordering. ISSN was added to the database in 1979.

The IS field is phrase indexed.

Example: 0001 5717.is

Example: 0001-5717.is
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JN

Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
energy sources.jn.

 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the name of the journal in which the article was published.

The JN field is phrase indexed.

Example: energy sources.jn

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JT

Journal Translation [Word Indexed]
american.jt.

 

The Journal Translation (JT) field contains the full journal title for records that use abbreviated titles. This field is present in some, but not all, records that use abbreviated titles.

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JX

Journal Word [Word Indexed]
soil.jx.

 

The Journal Word (JX) field contains individual words for journal names in Petroleum Abstracts.

The JX field is word indexed.

Example: energy.jx

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LG

Language [Phrase Indexed]
japanese.lg.

 

The Language (LG) field contains the language of the original document. If a document has both English and non-English versions, this field will contain English.

The following languages are searchable in this field:

Afrikaans       English       Japanese       Romanian
Albanian   Finnish   Korean   Russian
Arabic   French   Lithuanian   Serbo-Croatian
Azerbaijani   German   Macedonian   Spanish
Bulgarian   Greek   Malay   Swedish
Chinese   Hebrew   Norwegian   Turkish
Czech   Hindi   Persian   Ukrainian
Danish   Hungarian   Polish    
Dutch   Italian   Portuguese    

Example: japanese.lg

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LH

Locally Held [Display Only]

 

The Locally Held (LH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") whether a journal is held at your local library.

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LM

Local Messages [Display Only]

 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by the System Administrator to indicate information about journals held in your local library system.

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MH

Main Heading [Phrase Indexed]
new madrid fault zone.mh.

 

The Main Heading (MH) field is the term which most accurately describes the content of the citation if no other index term (subject heading) could be used.

The MH field is phrase indexed.

Example: new madrid fault zone.mh.

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MW

Main Word [Word Indexed]
new.mw.

 

The Main Word (MW) field allows you to retrieve individual words within the Main Heading (MH) field.

The MW field is word indexed.

Example: new.mw

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OT

Original Title [Word Indexed]
"1914".ot.

 

The Original Title (OT) field contains the title of the item in its original language.

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PA

Patent Application [Phrase Indexed]
au 19751030.pa.

 

The Patent Application (PA) field contains the digits of the patent application number (when available) and the date the patent application was filed in the format YYYYMMDD. If the patent has a priority, only the patent country and application date may appear in this field. This information also displays as a part of the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: us 001502 19971231.pa

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PB

Patent Application Number [Phrase Indexed]
601192.pb

 

The Patent Application Number (PB) field contains application number for the patent. The patent application is formatted with no punctuation and displays as a part of the Patent Application (PA) field and in the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: 60 226764.pb

Example: 601192.pb

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PC

Patent Country [Phrase Indexed]
fr.pc.

 

The Patent Country (PC) field contains the ICIREPAT Patent Country Designation. Results will display as a part of the Patent Information (PI) field and in the Original Source (SO) field.

The following Patent Country codes can be searched in this field:

Code   Country       Code   Country       Code Country       Code   Country
AR   Argentina   DD   Germany, East   IL Israel   RU   Russia
AU   Australia   DE   Germany   IN India   SE   Sweden
BE   Belgium   DE   Germany, West   IT Italy   SU   USSR
BO   Bolivia   DK   Denmark   JP Japan   US   United States
BR   Brazil   EU   Europe   LU Luxembourg   VE   Venezuela
CA   Canada   ES   Spain   MX Mexico   WO   World
CH   Switzerland   FI   Finland   NL Netherlands   YU   Yugoslavia
CL   Chile   FR   France   NO Norway   ZA   South Africa
CO   Colombia   GB   Great Britain   NZ New Zealand        
CU   Cuba   HU   Hungary   PL Poland        
CS   Czechoslovakia   IE   Ireland   PT Portugal        

Example: fr.pc

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PD

Patent Date [Phrase Indexed]
"20040615".pd.

 

The Patent Date (PD) field contains the date the patent was issued in the format YYYYMMDD. Results will display in the Patent Information (PI) field and in the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: 20040615.pd

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PE

Patent Application Date [Phrase Indexed]
"20031229".pe.

 

The Patent Application Date (PE) field contains the date of application for the patent. The patent application date is formated YYYYMMDD. It displays as a part of the Patent Application (PA) field and in the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: 20031229.pe

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PG

Pagination [Phrase Indexed]
"8".pg.

 

The Pagination (PG) field contains the initial and final pages of a document. The PG field displays in the Original Source (SO) field.

The PG field is phrase indexed.
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PI

Patent Information [Phrase Indexed]
US 6734144B2 20040511.pi.

 

The Patent Information (PI) field contains the two-character ICIREPAT Patent Country designation followed by the digits of the patent application number and the date the patent was issued in the format YYYYMMDD. Results displayed in the Patent Information (PI) field will also display in the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: US 6734144B2 20040511.pi

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PN

Patent Number [Phrase Indexed]
"2004019".pn.

 

The Patent Number (PN) field represents the digits of the patent's number. Results will display as a part of the Patent Information (PI) field and in the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: 2004019.pn

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PO

Priority Application Number [Phrase Indexed]
"pn6739".po.

 

The Priority Application Number (PO) field contains the application number of the first application for a patent. Results will display in the Priority Information (PR) field and in the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: 0203394.po
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PR

Priority Information [Phrase Indexed]
au 2007903701 20070709.pr.

 

The Priority Information (PR) field contains the two-character ICIREPAT Patent Country designation followed by the digits of the patent application number and the date the patent was first issued in the format YYYYMMDD. If the patent has not been previously filed, the Priority information is the same as the Patent Application (PA) information. Results displayed in the Priority Information (PR) field will also display in the Original Source (SO) field.

Example: us 100029 19870923.pr

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PT

Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
map.pt.

 

The Publication Type (PT) field contains a description of the item. Publication Type was added to the database in 1974 (with the exception of Patent, which has been in use since 1965 for records with an assigned patent number).

The following Publication Types are searchable:

Publication Type   Date Range       Publication Type   Date Range
Abstract Only   1974-P   Meeting Paper Visual   2003-p
Book   1974-P   News   1974-P
Government Report   1974-P   Patent   1965-P
Map   1974-P   Review or Survey   1974-1987
Meeting Paper Abstract   1974-P   Standard   1997-P
Meeting Paper Text   1974-P   Thesis   1974-P
             

Example: map.pt

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PX

Priority Country [Phrase Indexed]
no.px.

 

The Priority Country (PX) field contains the two-character ICIREPAT Patent Country designation for the country of the first filing of a patent. Results will display in the Priority Information (PR) field and in the Original Source (SO) field.

The following Priority Country codes can be searched in this field:

Code   Country       Code   Country       Code   Country       Code   Country
AM   Armenia   DK   Denmark   IS   Iceland   RO   Romania
AO   Angola   DZ   Algeria   IT   Italy   RU   Russia
AR   Argentina   EC   Ecuador   JP   Japan   SE   Sweden
AT   Austria   EE   Estonia   KR   Korea   SG   Singapore
AU   Australia   EG   Egypt   KZ   Kazakhstan   SI   Slovenia
AZ   Azerbaijan   EP   Europe   LR   Liberia   SK   Slovak Republic
BE   Belgium   ES   Spain   LU   Luxumbourg   SU   USSR
BG   Bulgaria   EU   European Union   MA   Morocco   TH   Thailand
BO   Bolivia   FI   Finland   MC   Monaco   TR   Turkey
BR   Brazil   FR   France   MX   Mexico   TT   Trinidad and Tobago
CA   Canada   GB   Great Britain   MY   Malaysia   TW   Taiwan
CH   Switzerland   GE   Georgia   NG   Nigeria   UA   Ukraine
CL   Chile   GR   Greece   NL   Netherlands   US   United States
CN   China   HR   Croatia   NO   Norway   UZ   Uzbekistan
CO   Colombia   HU   Hungary   NZ   New Zealand   VE   Vietnam
CU   Cuba   ID   Indonesia   OM   Oman   VN   Venezuela
CS   Czechoslovakia   IE   Ireland   PE   Peru   WO   World
DD   Germany, East   IL   Israel   PH   Philippines   YU   Yugoslavia
DE   Germany   IN   India   PL   Poland   ZA   South Africa
DE   Germany, West   IR   Iran   PT   Portugal   ZW   Zimbabwe

Example: MX 16004131 20160331

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PZ

Priority Date [Phrase Indexed]
"20030613".pz.

 

The Priority Date (PZ) field contains the application date for the first application for a patent. The priority date is formatted YYYYMMDD. Results will display in the Priority Information (PR) field and in the Original Source (SO) field formatted M/DD/YYYY.

Example: 20030613.pz

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RT

Report Number [Phrase Indexed]
spe 12004.rt.

 

The Report Number (RT) field contains the SPE Number of documents published by the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Example: spe 12004.rt

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SH

Subject Heading [Phrase Indexed]
chemical plugging.sh.

 

The Subject Heading (SH) field contains controlled vocabulary terms that describe the content of the document.

The SH field is phrase indexed.

Example: chemical plugging.sh

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SO

Original Source [Word Indexed]
gri.so.

 

The Original Source (SO) field contains bibliographic information for a document/journal including the journal name, volume number, issue number, pagination, publisher, and year of publication, as well as patent information.

Example: gri.so

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ST

Secondary Term [Phrase Indexed]
hydrogen embrittlement.st.

 

The Secondary Term (ST) field may be used to search for terms that have secondary significance to a record after that of a Weighted Term (WT). This field will display in the Subject Heading (SH) field.

The ST field is phrase indexed.

Example: hydrogen embrittlement.st

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SW

Secondary Word [Word Indexed]
sulfonate.sw.

 

The Secondary Word (SW) field may be used to search for individual words within the Secondary Term (ST) field. This field will display in the Subject Heading (SH) field.

The SW field is word indexed.

Example: sulfonate.sw

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TI

Title [Word Indexed]
ecology.ti.

 

The Title (TI) field contains the full title of the item in English. All non-English titles are translated into English. For all documents processed after 1977, the original language title prints in parentheses (except for non-Roman alphabet languages, such as Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Arabic, etc.) following the English translation.

Example: ecology.ti

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UP

Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
19790000.up.

 

The Update Code (UP) field contains the date the citation was loaded into the database. The date is formatted YYYYMMDD.

The UP field is phrase indexed.

Example: 20110000.up

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UR

URL [Phrase Indexed]
fmtkevmtxdissertationresdatxripqmrftdatxripqdiss1517014.ur.

 

The URL (UR) field contains the Internet Uniform Resource Locator of electronic documents and document collections that have URLs believed to be stable. Each part of the URL and file name is indexed, so enter the most descriptive word or words in a URL or file name.

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VO

Volume [Word Indexed]
"77".vo.

 

The Volume (VO) field contains the volume number of the periodical that contains the article. The Volume field displays in the Original Source (SO) field.

The VO field is word indexed.
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WT

Weighted Term [Phrase Indexed]
horizontal permeability.wt.

 

The Weighted Term (WT) field may be used to search for terms that have major significance to a record. This field will display in the Subject Heading (SH) field.

The WT field is phrase indexed.

Example: horizontal permeability.wt

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WW

Weighted Word [Word Indexed]
"16".ww
.

 

The Weighted Word (WW) field may be used to search for individual words within the Weighted Term (WT) field. This field will display in the Subject Heading (SH) field.

The WW field is word indexed.

Example: sawtooth.ww

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XH

Catalog Holdings [Display Only]

 

The Catalog Holdings (XH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") whether a journal is held at your local library.

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YR

Publication Year [Phrase Indexed]
"2002".yr.

 

The Publication Year (YR) field contains the four-digit year in which the original document was published.

The YR field is phrase indexed.

Example: 2002.yr

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax listed below to combine search terms or strategically develop a search. Full documentation is provided in the Advanced Searching Techniques section of the Online Help.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y peak oil or depletion This collection of essays presents a state-of-the-art outlook on oil and gas depletion that illustrates the concept of peak oil and encompasses discussions of government policy.

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y employment and diversity DELIVERING EMPLOYMENT DIVERSITY ON AN OFFSHORE OIL PROJECT

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y greenhouse gas not carbon monoxide International treaties like the Kyoto Protocol are supposed to contribute to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases.

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y peak oil A summary and discussion of its main findings are presented, followed by a critical comment from the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas (ASPO).

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y sedimentary adj3 mesozoic The folded Mesozoic sedimentary sequence contains two regional paleohydrostratigraphic units separated by a unit of low permeability.

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n mesozoic.ab. /freq=5 Retrieves records that contain n occurrences of the term in the specified field. The example will retrieve records containing the word "mesozoic," at least five times in the Abstract (ab) field.

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ camb$

The unlimited truncation symbol, $, retrieves records that contain the search term and all possible suffix variations of a root word. The example will retrieve records containing words such as Cambay, Cambrian, Cambridge, etc.

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or * (asterisk). For example, in the truncated search camb*, Ovid retrieves the word camb as well as the words cambay, cambrian, and more.
limited Truncation ($) x$n drill$3 The limited truncation symbol, $n, Retrieves records that contain the search term and all possible suffix variations of a root word with the maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase, specified by n. The example will retrieve records containing words such as drill and drilling, but not dogma.

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n The mandated wildcard symbol, #, retrieves records that contain the search term with substituted character(s) in the specified locations. The example will retrieve records containing woman and women.

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r The optional wildcard symbol, ?, retrieves records that contain the search term with either no characters substituted, or with substituted character(s) in the specified locations. The example will retrieve records containing color and colour.

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "sandstone sills / dykes"

Frequent occurrence of injected sandstone sills/dykes, injection breccias, as well as erosion and associated rip-down clasts along the upper boundaries of in situ sandstones, indicate thorough, post-depositional modification.

"n" "3".vo.

LNG OBSERVER v.3, no.1, pp.10-14, Jan.-March 2006.

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords
The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
  A limit to Abstracts restricts retrieval to documents that include an abstract.
Category Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to geology
  A limit to Category restricts retrieval to documents that include a specific category.
Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to french
  A limit to Language will result in only those records for Items in a specific language.
Latest Update Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to latest update
  New documents are added to the Petroleum Abstracts database at regular intervals. A limit to Latest Update restricts retrieval to the documents most recently added to the database.
Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
  A limit to Local Holdings restricts retrieval to documents from journals held in your local library or library system. If your System Administrator created any special messages about a journal's availability, this message displays with the document in the Locally Held (LH) field.
Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ovid full text available
  A limit to Ovid Full Text Available restricts retrieval to records that contain a link to the full text of an article.
Patent Country Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to belgium
  A limit to Patent Country restricts retrieval to records that contain information on patents granted to a specific country.
Publication Type Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to thesis
  A limit to Publication Type restricts retrieval to records of a specific type.
Publication Year Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to yr="2006"

Command Syntax ..l/1 yr="2006"
  A limit to Publication Year restricts retrieval to records between the selected dates. Use the dropdown lists to select a range of years.
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Tools
The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/ptlm
  Sentence Syntax: use ptlm
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number:
	1319943
Title:	
	A DIRECT METHOD FOR DETERMINING CO2 EMPLACEMENT
Author:	
	ZWAHLEN, C. HOLLAND, G. KAMPMAN, N. DENNIS, P.
Corporate Affiliation or Patent Assignee:	
	LANCASTER UNIV. EAST ANGLIA UNIV
Original Source:	
	25TH ANNUAL V. M. GOLDSCHMIDT CONFERENCE (Prague, Czech Republic, 8/16-21/2015) ABSTRACTS 2015. (Available at 		
    	http://goldschmidt.info as of 12/2/2016; 1 p; Abstract only)
Conference Title:	
	25TH ANNUAL V. M. GOLDSCHMIDT CONFERENCE (PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC, 8/16-21/2015) ABSTRACTS
Publication Type:	
	MEETING PAPER ABSTRACT, ABSTRACT ONLY
Language:	
	English
Category:	
	HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRON
Abstract:	
	[For information only - meeting paper abstract]
Main Heading:	
	CARBON DIOXIDE
Subject Heading:	
	CARBON DIOXIDE

CHEMICAL REACTION GAS DIFFUSION GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION HELIUM WATER (SUBSURFACE)
CHEMICAL PROCESS COMPOUND DIFFUSION ELEMENT (CHEMICAL) NOBLE GAS OXIDE SEQUESTRATION WATER
ANALOG CARBON ISOTOPE RATIO GAS WATER CONTACT GEOLOGIC AGE DETERMINATION SOLUTION UNDERGROUND STOR FACILITY
GAS DENSITY GREENHOUSE GAS
ANALYTICAL METHOD COMPOSITION DENSITY ENGLISH FLUID GAS GAS LIQUID CONTACT HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRON INTERFACE ISOTOPE RATIO ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION MEETING PAPER ABSTRACT MIXTURE MODEL PHYSICAL PROPERTY STORAGE FACILITY TESTING Publication Year: 2015 Bulletin Date: 201718 Update Code: 20170000
Sample 2
Accession Number:
	1319933
Title:	
	DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF LIQUID IN A HIGH PRESSURE GAS PIPELINE
Author:	
	STOCKWELL, P. WIDDUP, D. RAYNES, J.
Corporate Affiliation or Patent Assignee:	
	INT MOISTURE ANALYSERS LTD
Original Source:
	World 2016/189,300A1, p. 12/1/2016, f. 5/25/2016 (Appl. 1,651,507), pr. Gr. Brit. 5/26/2015 (Appl. 1,508,948) (G01N-0021/85;
    	G01N-0033/22). (33 pp)
Publication Type:	
	PATENT
Language:	
	English
Patent Information:	
	WO 2016/189300A1 20161201
Patent Application:	
	WO 1651507 20160525
Priority Information:	
	GB 1508948 20150526
IPC Code:	
	G01N-0033/22. G01N-0021/85
Category:	
	PIPELINING, SHIP AND STORAGE
Abstract:	
	An apparatus is described for detecting the presence of liquid in a high-pressure gas pipeline. The apparatus comprises a 
    	sight glass to provide a window into the inside of the pipeline, and a light sensor for receiving and sensing reflected light from
    	the inside of the pipeline through the sight glass. The apparatus also comprises a processor for automatically detecting the 		
    	presence of a liquid based on the sensed reflected light. In this way, automatic detection of the presence of liquid in a gas 
    	pipeline can be achieved based on the measurement of reflected light, which can be expected to differ when liquid is present 
    	compared with when no liquid is present. No visual inspection by an operator is required, although the data can be stored for 
    	later use.
Main Heading:	
	PIPELINE FLOW
Subject Heading:	
	PIPELINE FLOW

ENTRAINMENT HIGH PRESSURE MONITORING OPTICAL INSTRUMENT WET GAS
FLUID FLOW INSTRUMENT NATURAL GAS PETROLEUM PRESSURE TESTING
AEROSOL DROP SIZE FLOW VISUALIZATION GAS LIQUID RATIO INTERFACE DETECTOR VELOCITY PROFILE (FLOW)
ANNULAR FLOW BUBBLE FLOW DIAGRAM GAS FLOW IMAGING INT MOISTURE ANALYSERS LTD LIGHT PHOTOELECTRIC CELL REFRACTION (OPTICS) SLUG FLOW STRATIFIED FLOW TWO PHASE FLOW
CHART COMPOSITION DETECTOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ENGLISH FLUID VELOCITY MULTIPHASE FLOW PATENT (A) PIPELINING, SHIP AND STORAGE VELOCITY VISUALIZATION WAVE WAVE PHENOMENON WAVE PROPAGATION Publication Year: 2016 Bulletin Date: 201718 Update Code: 20170000
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Producer Information
Producer
Petroleum Abstracts
The University of Tulsa
800 South Tucker Drive - MLIC 1520 - Tulsa, OK 74104
US and Canada Toll-free Phone: (800) 247-8678
Main Phone: (918) 631-2296
Website: https://www.pa.utulsa.edu/home
Copyright

The Petroleum Abstracts® TULSA® database is copyrighted by Petroleum Abstracts, a Division of The University of Tulsa. Material contained in this database may not be copied, republished, or redistributed without the prior written consent of Petroleum Abstracts. Questions regarding file content should be addressed to Petroleum Abstracts® TULSA by telephone at 918-631-2297 or 800-247-8678 or by e-mail at [email protected]

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