APA PsycTests® Database Guide
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APA PsycTests® is an electronic database providing descriptive summaries, full text, and relevant citations on the development and assessment of tests and measures that can be used in research and teaching. The database serves as a repository for the full text (when available) of psychological tests and measures as well as a source of structured information about tests of relevance to psychologists and professionals in related fields such as psychiatry, management, business, education, social science, neuroscience, law, medicine, and social work. Updated monthly, APA PsycTests® includes unpublished tests, tests developed by psychologists for which no source document has been located, and information about published tests available from commercial publishers.

For current information including the number of records in the database and other details, please view the APA PsycTests® Fact Sheet

For more information, please contact the APA PsycInfo® Department at the American Psychological Association. The APA PsycInfo® Department can be contacted by phone at (800) 374-2722 (in North America). Phones are answered 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday (EDT). The APA PsycInfo® Department can also be contacted by email at [email protected], or visit us at our website, http://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/.

Browse also through OVID product catalog to learn more: APA PsycTests® Ovid Catalog.

APA PsycTests® is produced and copyrighted (c) by the American Psychological Association, all rights reserved.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
PSYT   1910 to Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 1 segment.

This database is updated online monthly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Accession Number (AN) Factors/Subscales (FC) Publisher (PU) Source Used (ZO)
  Acronym (AC) Fee (FE) Purpose (PR) Subject Headings (SH)
  Administration Method (AD) Format (FM) Reliability (RL) Supporting Documentation (DS)
  Affiliation (IN) Heading Word (HW) Source Citation (RF) Supporting Documentation Link (DL)
  Age Group (AG) Institutional Author (CA) Source Citation Author (CU) Test Description (TD)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Instrument Type (IT) Source Citation Author ID (CT) Test Location (TL)
  Alternate Title (AT) Key Concepts (ID) Source Citation Date (CB) Test Name (TI)
  Author (AU) Language Available (LZ) Source Citation DOI (CD) Test Record Type (TR)
  Author ID (AI) Language Present (LG) Source Citation Institution (CK) Test Review (TG)
  Commercial (CM) Methodology (ML) Source Citation Issue (CI) Test Type (LP)
  Construct (RC) Number of Test Items (NI) Source Citation Journal (CS) Update Code (UP)
  Correction Date (CH) Other Version Type (OY) Source Citation Pagination (CG) URL (UR)
  Correspondence Address (CQ) Permissions (PM) Source Citation Publication Type (CJ) Validity (VL)
  Data Source (ZA) Population Details (OP) Source Citation Publisher (CE) Year of Publication (YR)
  DOI (DO) Population Group (PO) Source Citation Title (CV)  
  Email (MA) APA PsycTests Classification Code (PC) Source Citation UID (CZ)  
  Factor Analysis (FA) APA PsycTests Classification Word (PW) Source Citation Volume (CL)  
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ti,td,hw,id.
  Heading Word (HW) Key Concepts (ID) Test Description (TD) Test Name (TI)
         
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Accession Number (AN) Correspondence Address (CQ) Other Version Type (OY) Supporting Documentation (DS)
  Acronym (AC) DOI (DO) Permissions (PM) Supporting Documentation Link (DL)
  Administration Method (AD) Email (MA) Population Details (OP) Test Description (TD)
  Affiliation (IN) Factor Analysis (FA) Population Group (PO) Test Location (TL)
  Age Group (AG) Fee (FE) APA PsycTests Classification Code (PC) Test Name (TI)
  Alternate Title (AT) Format (FM) Publisher (PU) Test Record Type (TR)
  Author (AU) Institutional Author (CA) Purpose (PR) Update Code (UP)
  Author ID (AI) Instrument Type (IT) Reliability (RL) URL (UR)
  Commercial (CM) Key Concepts (ID) Source Citation (RF) Validity (VL)
  Construct (RC) Language Present (LG) Subject Headings (SH) Year of Publication (YR)
  Correction Date (CH) Number of Test Items (NI)    
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Accession Number (AN) DOI (DO) Permissions (PM) Subject Headings (SH)
  Acronym (AC) Email (MA) Population Details (OP) Supporting Documentation (DS)
  Administration Method (AD) Factor Analysis (FA) Population Group (PO) Supporting Documentation Link (DL)
  Affiliation (IN) Fee (FE) APA PsycTests Classification Code (PC) Test Description (TD)
  Age Group (AG) Format (FM) APA PsycTests Classification Word (PW) Test Location (TL)
  Alternate Title (AT) Institutional Author (CA) Publisher (PU) Test Name (TI)
  Author (AU) Instrument Type (IT) Purpose (PR) Test Record Type (TR)
  Author ID (AI) Key Concepts (ID) Reliability (RL) Update Code (UP)
  Commercial (CM) Language Present (LG) Source Citation (RF) URL (UR)
  Construct (RC) Number of Test Items (NI) Source Citation Author (CU) Validity (VL)
  Correction Date (CH) Other Version Type (OY) Source Citation Author ID (CT) Year of Publication (YR)
  Correspondence Address (CQ)      
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AC

Acronym [Word Indexed]
aavs.ac.
acculturation.ac.

 

The Acronym (AC) field contains the test acronyms of the test described in the record.

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AD

Administration Method [Phrase Indexed]
electronic.ad.
physical object.ad.

 

The Administration Method (AD) field describes the methods used to administer the test.
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AF

All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
parents.af.

 

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Headings (SH).
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AG

Age Group [Phrase Indexed]
infancy 1 23 mo.ag.
adolescence 13 17 yrs.ag.

 

The Age Group (AG) field contains a standardized description of specific population age groups related to the content of the document. The results are displayed as part of the Population Group (PO) field. A record may contain multiple Age Groups:

100 Childhood (birth-12 yrs)

120 Neonatal (birth-1 mo)

140 Infancy (1-23 mo)

160 Preschool Age (2-5 yrs)

180 School Age (6-12 yrs)

200 Adolescence (13-17 yrs)

300 Adulthood (18 yrs & older)

320 Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs)

340 Thirties (30-39 yrs)

360 Middle Age (40-64 yrs)

380 Aged (65 yrs & older)

390 Very Old (85 yrs & older)

Both the code and the term are searchable, e.g., 100.ag. or childhood birth 12 yrs.ag. Age Groups are also available as limits.

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AI

Author ID [Phrase Indexed]
openid0000 0002 4510 0400.ai.
vivo0000 0002 4510 0385.ai.

 

The Author ID (AI) contains the type of Author such as ORCID, VIVO or OpenID together with their corresponding ID number.

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AN

Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
9999 00001 000.an.
9999 00001 001.an.

 

The Accession Number (AN) field appears in every record, and uniquely identifies the record. You can retrieve any specific record in the database with its accession number.

It contains 12 numeric characters with hyphens, structured as follows:

9999 Static prefix for all APA PsycTests® records

NNNNN Test Master Record unique identifier

LLL (000 identifies Test Master Record; Test Child Records will be 001, 002, 003, and so on)

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AT

Alternate Title [Word Indexed]
acquiesence.at.
activity.at.

 

The Alternate Title (AT) field includes any alternate names given for the test.

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AU

Author [Phrase Indexed]
adams lily j.au.
adams russell l.au.

 

The Author (AU) field contains the names of individual persons responsible for creation of the work represented by the record.

If all authors are not included, the last name listed is followed by "et al."

The author names are entered into the index as they appeared in the original document, in the format of last name followed by first and middle names or up to two initials. Thus, a person named "James C. Smith" may appear as "Smith James C," "Smith J Charles," "Smith, JC" or "Smith J". Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name, a space, and the first initial.

Patronymic suffixes, such as Jr., Sr., III, and so on, are included for display, but are not indexed, as are non-author roles, which include:

Anon: Anonymous

Col: Collaborator

Dir: Director

Ed: Editor

Comp: Compiler

Illus: Illustrator

Photo: Photographer

Pres: Presenter

Prod: Producer

Revwr: Reviewer

Trans: Translator

If no role is present, the role may be assumed to be "author".

Data in the author field may also comprise one or more of the following special cases:

et al: subsequent authors were not captured, although they exist

No authorship indicated: the document lists no author

Numerous contributors: the record represents a cluster of chapters, the authors of which are identified in the Abstract field.

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CA

Institutional Author [Word Indexed]
aviation.ca.
collaborative.ca.

 

The Institutional Author (CA) field contains the corporation or institution of the authors or editors as well as the department, sub-departments and location.

Enter the most significant words from a corporate author name to search this field.

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CB

Source Citation Date [Word Indexed]
1982.cb.
1983.cb.

 

The Source Citation Date (CB) field contains at least the publication year of the source document. The Source Citation Date displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CD

Source Citation DOI [Phrase Indexed]
http dxdoiorg.cd.
http dxdoiorg 101002 erv984.cd.

 

The Source Citation DOI (CD) field contains the Digital Object Identifier of the electronic document cited in a record. These DOIs may contain full text access. The Source Citation DOI displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CE

Source Citation Publisher [Word Indexed]
"29".ce.
baywood.ce.

 

The Source Citation Publisher (CE) field contains the publisher of the source document. The Source Citation Publisher displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CG

Source Citation Pagination [Word Indexed]
"1".cg.
"10".cg.

 

The Source Citation Pagination (CG) field contains the page number of a source document. This field displays as part of the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CH

Correction Date [Word Indexed]
20111010.ch.
20111107.ch.

 

The Correction Date (CH) field contains the date the Test Master Record was updated with additional Test Child Records or was corrected. Also the date an existing Test Child Record was updated.

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CI

Source Citation Issue [Word Indexed]
"1".ci.
"2".ci.

 

The Source Citation Issue (CI) field contains the issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal or other publication of the source document. This field displays as part of the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CJ

Source Citation Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
book.cj.
chapter.cj.

 

The Source Citation Publication Type (CJ) displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CK

Source Citation Institution [Word Indexed]
a.ck.
actnow.ck.

 

The Source Citation Institution (CK) field contains the corporate or institutional author of the source document. The Source Citation Institution displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CL

Source Citation Volume [Word Indexed]
"1".cl.
"10".cl.

 

The Source Citation Volume (CL) field contains the volume number of the source document. This field displays as part of the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CM

Commercial [Word Indexed]
no.cm.
yes.cm.

 

The Commercial (CM) field indicates whether or not the test is commercially available, if known.

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CQ

Correspondence Address [Word Indexed]
utah.cq.
astern.cq.

 

The Correspondence Address (CQ) field contains the contact information of the author of the test. The field will also contain the author's e-mail address when available.

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CS

Source Citation Journal [Phrase Indexed]
autism.cs.
appetitte.cs.

 

The Source Citation Journal (CS) field contains the full name of the journal of the source document. The Source Citation Journal displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CT

Source Citation Author ID [Phrase Indexed]
0000 0002 4510 0385.ct.
0000 0002 4510 0400.ct.

 

The Source Citation Author ID (CT) contains the Author ID type and the number. Source Citation Author ID also displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CU

Source Citation Author [Phrase Indexed]
aarons gregory a.cu.
aasland olaf g.cu.

 

The Source Citation Author (CU) field contains the author for the source document. The Source Citation Author displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CV

Source Citation Title [Word Indexed]
achievers.cv.
abuse.cv.

 

The Source Citation Title (CV) field contains the title of the source document. The Source Citation Title displays in the Source Citation (RF) field.

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CZ

Source Citation UID [Phrase Indexed]
1935 03381 001.cz.
1937 00529 001.cz.

 

The Source Citation UID (CZ) field contains a unique number that can be from APA PsycInfo®, APA PsycArticles®, APA PsycBooks®, or APA PsycExtra®.

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DL

Supporting Documentation Link [Display Only]

 

The Supporting Documentation Link (DL) field includes a link to the landing page that provides a list of all supporting documentation uploaded for the test.

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DO

DOI [Phrase Indexed]
101037 t00001 000.do.
101037 t00002 000.do.

 

The DOI (DO) field contains the registered DOI with CrossRef for a APA PsycTests® Test Master Record.

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DS

Supporting Documentation [Phrase Indexed]
other.ds.
test materials.ds.

 

The Supporting Documentation (DS) field is derived from a controlled list of values such as answer sheet, instructor/test manual/guide, student/study guide, test materials, directions/instructions, check lists, class record sheets, norms/analyses, lessons with tests, sample profile report, or other(supporting documentation) that support the administration of the test.

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FA

Factor Analysis [Phrase Indexed]
goodness.fa.
leadership.fa.

 

The Factor Analysis (FA) field describes the statistical measure of variance applied to the test.

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FC

Factors/Subscales [Word Indexed]
anxiety.fc.

 

The Factors/Subscales (FC) describes any factors or subscales related to the test. It is possible to have both factors and subscales in this field.

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FE

Fee [Word Indexed]
no.fe.
yes.fe.

 

The Fee (FE) field indicates whether or not there is a fee associated with the test's use.

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FM

Format [Word Indexed]
audiotape*.fm.
multiple.fm.

 

The Format (FM) field describes the format of the test.

Example: 5-point Likert Scale; Agree/Disagree with Survey Statements; Multiple Choice.

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HW

Heading Word [Word Indexed]
age.hw.
aged.hw.

 

The Heading Word (HW) index allows you to retrieve every subject heading that includes a particular word by searching a single word in the Subject Heading (HW) field.

These terms may also be searched by using the Permuted Index in the Tools menu.

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ID

Key Concepts [Word Indexed]
ability.id.
about.id.

 

The Key Concepts (ID) field concisely summarizes a document's subject content. Indexers use the Keywords to supplement Subject Headings (SH).

For experimental literature, Keywords typically contain the independent variable, the dependent variable, and the subject population.

For non-experimental literature, Keywords consist of major concepts, time lines, populations, implications, or genre -- whatever information the indexer thinks will supplement other indexing information.

Individual words from the Keywords may be searched in this field.

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IN

Affiliation [Word Indexed]
abbott.in.
116a.in.

 

The Affiliation (IN) field contains the author's name along with his/her affiliation, if indicated in the source document.

Enter the single most descriptive word in the institution name, e.g., "harvard," not "university."

Standard abbreviations, listed in the User Manual, are used in the institution field; the most critical ones include Co (Company), Coll (College), Dept (Department), Hosp(s) (Hospital(s)), Inc (Incorporated) and Lab(s) (Laboratory(ies)). Institutions which are commonly known by initials (IBM, NIMH, WHO, INSERM) may be listed in initialed form for some records and are spelled out for others.

State and Province names must be searched by both spelled-out name and postal abbreviation. Country names (except USA and USSR) are spelled out.

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IT

Instrument Type [Phrase Indexed]
interview schedule guide.it.
rating scale.it.

 

The Instrument Type (IT) describes the primary type of assessment tool used in the source document and represented by the Test Name in the Test Master Record.

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LG

Language Present [Phrase Indexed]
german.lg.
greek.lg.

 

The Language Present (LG) field indicates the language(s) of the test present in the source document.

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LP

Test Type [Word Indexed]
translation.lp.

 

The Test Type (LP) field describes its relation to other tests in the database. It has four controlled choices: Original, Revision, Translation, and Subtest. One test may have multiple test types.

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LZ

Language Available [Phrase Indexed]
chinese mandarin.lz.

 

The Language Available (LZ) field contains the language(s) in which the test is available.

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MA

Email [Display Only]

 

The E-Mail Address (MA) field contains the email addresses of the persons responsible for the work represented by the record.

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ML

Methodology [Phrase Indexed]
1000.ml.

 

The Methodology (ML) describes the methodological concepts associated with the research in the test development process or usage of the test in the source citation. It includes both a four-digit code and an associated description that are applied from an index.

Methodology four-digit code and description includes:

1000   Test Validity
1010   Concurrent Validity
1020   Construct Validity
1030   Content Validity
1040   Convergent Validity
1050   Criterion Validity
1060   Discriminant Validity
1070   Nomological Validity
1080   Predictive Validity
1100   Test Reliability
1110   Internal Consistency
1120   Interrater Reliability
1130   Split-Half Reliability
1140   Test-Retest Reliability
1200   Factor Analysis
1210   Confirmatory Factor Analysis
1220   Exploratory Factor Analysis
1230   Principal Component Analysis
1300   Item Response Theory
1400   Measurement Invariance
1500   Measurement Model
1600   Structural Equation Modeling
1700   Test Sensitivity
1800   Test Specificity
1900   Qualitative Assessment Methods
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NI

Number of Test Items [Word Indexed]
140.ni.
172.ni.

 

The Number of Test Items (NI) field describes the number of items in a test.

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OP

Population Details [Word Indexed]
alcoholics.op.
schools.op.

 

The Population Details (OP) field includes descriptive details about the population characteristics, such as information about the study samples race and ethnicity, location, patient status, educational level, etc. This information supplements the data in the Population Group field.

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OY

Other Version Type [Phrase Indexed]

 

The Other Version Type (OY) is a field linking tests that are translations, versions, short forms and long forms. It has Test Name and Test Type which has three controlled choices: Original, Revision, and Translation. The Other Version Type (OY) also have Unique ID associated with a test master record.

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PC

APA PsycTests Classification Code [Phrase Indexed]
"communication language and verbal processing".pc.
"treatment rehabilitation and therapeutic processes".pc.

 

The APA PsycTests Classification Code (PC) field describes what general area of psychology the test is designed to assess. It includes 4-digits numbers and an associated description such as "Addiction, Gambling, and Substance Abuse/Use" or "Legal and Forensic Evaluation.
The numerical Classifications are stored in the index. To view and select from the hierarchical list of codes, use the option "Search Tools."

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PM

Permissions [Phrase Indexed]
contact publisher.pm.
"not specified".pm.

 

The Permissions (PM) field indicates the level of permissions for use of the test, how the test may be used and, if applicable, whether or not the publisher or author needs to be contacted before the test can be used.

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PO

Population Group [Phrase Indexed]
human.po.
animal.po.

 

The Population Group (PO) field contains terms describing the subject population of the document.

Population Group codes and terms include:

10 Human

20 Animal

30 Male

40 Female

50 Inpatient

60 Outpatient

Both the code and the term are searchable. Population Groups are also available as limits.

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PR

Purpose [Word Indexed]
adjustment.pr.
rate.pr.

 

The Purpose (PR) field describes the purpose of the test, or what the test is intended to measure.

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PU

Publisher [Word Indexed]
breckenridge.pu.
wisconsin.pu.

 

The Publisher (PU) field contains the name of the publisher of a commercially available test.

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PW

APA PsycTests Classification Word [Word Indexed]
cognitive.pw.
personality.pw.

 

If you want to retrieve every APA PsycTests Classification Code (PC) that includes a particular word or words, search for the desired word(s) in the APA PsycTests Classification Word (PW) field.

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RC

Construct [Word Indexed]
acculturation.rc.
adjustment.rc.

 

The Construct (RC) field describes what the test is intended to measure.

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RF

Source Citation [Display Only]

 

The Source Citation (RF) contains the complete citation for each Test Child Record—Test Development, Test Review, and Test Use—associated with the Test Master Record. A Test Primary Data record will never have a Source Citation. The citation data can be from APA PsycInfo®, APA PsycArticles®, APA PsycBooks®, or APA PsycExtra®.

A Test Child Record will have only one Source Citation; however, not every Test Child Record will have a Source Citation. A Test Master Record may have multiple Source Citations associated with it. In the case of Test Primary Data records, no Source Citation will be provided. There may be different styles of Source Citations (e.g., reports, monographs, etc.), particularly if source data are imported from APA PsycExtra®.

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RL

Reliability [Word Indexed]
scale.rl.
count.rl.

 

The Reliability (RL) field captures reliability data, when present. Reliability is the consistency, dependability and reproducibility of tests.

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SH

Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
ability.sh.
activism.sh.

 

The Subject Headings (SH) field contains the Subject Headings (also known as "descriptors" or "index terms") used by indexers at the American Psychological Association (APA) to describe the content of a document.

The Subject Headings are taken from APA's Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms. You can look up any of these terms by using the option "Tools/Thesaurus."

Subject Headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched exactly as they appear in the Thesaurus.

Subject headings which describe the major point (focus) of a document will be preceded with an asterisk (*).

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TD

Test Description [Word Indexed]
said.td.
sadness.td.

 

The Test Description (TD) field provides a descriptive summary of the test being profiled in the Test Master Record.

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TG

Test Review [Phrase Indexed]

 

The Test Review (TG) field allows information about test reviews related to the Test Record to be displayed.

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TI

Test Name [Word Indexed]
acculturative.ti.
accommodations.ti.

 

The Test Name (TI) field contains the name of the test described in the Test Master Record, or “Created by APA PsycInfo®” if a test name is not provided.

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TL

Test Location [Phrase Indexed]
supplemental.tl.
table.tl.

 

Test Location (TL) describes the location of the test or test items within the source document. The element contains a Source Citation UID, Descriptors (Appendix, Figure, Supplemental, Material, Table, Text), Pagination and Location when available.

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UP

Update Code [Word Indexed]
20110912.up.
20111010.up.

 

The Update Code (UP) field appears in all records and contains the date the record was released into the database.

The field consists of 8 digits, in YYYYMMDD format where YYYY is the release year, MM is the release month, and DD is the release day.

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UR

URL [Word Indexed]
frl.ur.
groups.ur.

 

The URL (UR) field contains the URL (Uniform Resource Locator), where an online version of the document, a full-text version of the document, or additional information can be found.

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VL

Validity [Word Indexed]
academic.vl.
data.vl.

 

The Validity (VL) field captures validity data, when present. Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it was designed to measure.

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YR

Year of Publication [Word Indexed]
1910.yr.
1916.yr.

 

The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which a test was published. The year may be searched using four digits, e.g., "1994."

Only individual years may be searched. Use the Limit to Publication Year to restrict sets to a range of years.

The Year of Publication is displayed as part of the Source Citation (RF) field.

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ZA

Data Source [Word Indexed]

 

The Data Source (ZA) field displays as part of the Source Citation (RF) field.

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ZO

Source Used [Phrase Indexed]

 

Source Used (ZO) field contains which source citation the bulk of metadata content for the Test Record comes from.

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax listed below to combine search terms or strategically develop a search. Full documentation is provided in the Advanced Searching Techniques section of the Online Help.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y

good or bad

"Job Preferences (What Makes A Job Good or Bad?) "

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y

violence and treatment

"Violence Treatment Readiness Questionnaire"

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y

depression not bipolar

"Male Depression Case Vignette and Vignette Rating Measure"

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y

mental illness

"Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center Version of the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale"

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y

patient adj6 care

"Content validity was assured by inclusion of all domains reported by carers to be important to their QOL: state of carer, patient well-being, quality of care, outlook, environment, finances and relationships."

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n

drugs.ab. /freq=3

"Contemplation Ladder for Alcohol and Drugs (Test Name Created by APA PsycTests®)"

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$

rat$

"Appraisal Ratings Scales"

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or * (asterisk). For example, in the truncated search rat*, Ovid retrieves the word rat as well as the words rats, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n

child$1

"Child Temperament Inventory (Test Name Created by APA PsycTests®)"

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y

wom#n

"Sexual Assertiveness Scale for Women"

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y

colo?r

"The Hatfield Image Test (HIT; Adlington, Laws, & Gale, 2009) is a corpus of 147 high-quality color photographs that cover a broad range of semantic subcategories and item difficulty."

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y"

"Child / Adult"

"Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised"

"n"

"50".ni

"The Autism Spectrum Quotient-Adolescent Version is composed of 50 items."

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax

Accommodations

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to accessible formats

 

A limit to Accommodations will restrict retrieval to documents that are available to ensure nondiscrimination in administering the measure to diverse populations.

Administration Method

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to interview

 

A limit to Administration Method will restrict retrieval to documents that describes the methods used to administer the test.

Age Group

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to infancy

 

A limit by Age Groups will restrict retrieval to any of the broad age groups or to specific childhood and adolescent years. If you choose this option, you will be presented with a list of ages from which to select. If you want to capture all records that deal with "Childhood" (birth to age 12 years), you should choose Childhood through School Age, or all of the entries that begin with a "1"

100 Childhood (birth-12 yrs)

120 Neonatal (birth-1 mo)

140 Infancy (1-23 mo)

160 Preschool Age (2-5 yrs)

180 School Age (6-12 yrs)

200 Adolescence (13-17 yrs)

300 Adulthood (18 yrs & older)

320 Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs)

340 Thirties (30-39 yrs)

360 Middle Age (40-64 yrs)

380 Aged (65 yrs & older)

390 Very Old (85 yrs & older)

To restrict retrieval to experimental studies in which specific human age ranges were explicitly studied, use "Empirical Human Populations."

Commercial

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "Yes(Commercial)"

 

A limit to Commercial will restrict retrieval to documents whether or not the test is commercially available, if known.

English Language

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to english language

 

A limit to English restricts retrieval to documents which are written in the English language. Non-English language documents include English abstracts, but these will be eliminated by a limit to English.

Fee Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "No(Fee)"

 

A limit to Fee will restrict retrieval to documents whether or not there is a fee associated with the test's use.

Human

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to Human

 

A limit to Human will restrict retrieval to documents which are primarily about human subjects.

Instrument Type

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "vignette/scenario"

 

A limit to Instrument Type will restrict retrieval to the primary type of assessment tool used in the source document. If you choose this limit, you will be presented with a list of instrument type from which to select:

Checklist
Interview Schedule/Guide
Screener
Rating Scale
Index/Indicator
Task
Battery
Survey
Q Sort
Coding Scheme
Vignette/Scenario
Inventory/Questionnaire
Test
Projective Measure
Diary

Language Present

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to Serbo-Croatian

 

A limit to Language Present will restrict retrieval to any of the languages indexed by the American Psychological Association (APA). If you choose this option, you will be presented with an alphabetic list of languages from which to select.

Latest Update

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to Latest Update

 

A limit to Latest Update will restrict retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.

Methodology Limit

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to 1000 test validity

 

A limit to Methodology (ML) will restrict retrieval to documents that describes the methodological concepts associated with the research in the test development process or usage of the test in the source citation. It includes both a four-digit code and an associated description that are applied from an index.
Methodology four-digit code and description includes:

1000   Test Validity
1010   Concurrent Validity
1020   Construct Validity
1030   Content Validity
1040   Convergent Validity
1050   Criterion Validity
1060   Discriminant Validity
1070   Nomological Validity
1080   Predictive Validity
1100   Test Reliability
1110   Internal Consistency
1120   Interrater Reliability
1130   Split-Half Reliability
1140   Test-Retest Reliability
1200   Factor Analysis
1210   Confirmatory Factor Analysis
1220   Exploratory Factor Analysis
1230   Principal Component Analysis
1300   Item Response Theory
1400   Measurement Invariance
1500   Measurement Model
1600   Structural Equation Modeling
1700   Test Sensitivity
1800   Test Specificity
1900   Qualitative Assessment Methods

Permissions

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to contact publisher

 

A limit to Permissions will restrict retrieval to documents that indicates the level of permissions for use of the test, how the test may be used and, if applicable, whether or not the publisher or author needs to be contacted before the test can be used.

Population Groups

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to 50 inpatient

 

A limit to Population Groups will restrict retrieval to the subject population of the document. If you choose this option, you will be presented with the following options from which to select:

10 Human

20 Animal

30 Male

40 Female

50 Inpatient

60 Outpatient

APA PsycTests Classification Code

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "5400 Cognitive Processes, Memory, and Decision Making"

 

A limit by APA PsycTests Classification Code will restrict retrieval to those records which contain the selected APA PsycTests Classification Code representing broad subject categories, such as "Addiction, Gambling, and Substance Abuse/Use" or "Legal and Forensic Evaluation". If you choose this limit, you will be presented with a list of classification codes from which to select:

5000 Addiction, Gambling, and Substance Abuse/Use
5100 Anxiety and Depression
5200 Aptitude and Achievement
5300 Attitudes, Interests, Values, and Expectancies
5400 Cognitive Processes, Memory, and Decision Making
5500 Communication, Language, and Verbal Processing
5600 Consumer Behavior, Marketing, and Advertising
5700 Culture, Racial, and Ethnic Identity
5800 Development and Aging
5900 Education, Teaching, and Student Characteristics
6000 Emotional States, Emotional Responses, and Motivation
6100 Family Relationships and Parenting
6200 Functional Status and Adaptive Behavior
6300 Human Factors and Environmental Engineering
6400 Human-Computer Interaction
6500 Intelligence
6600 Legal and Forensic Evaluation
6700 Mental Health/Illness Related Assessment
6800 Military Personnel, Adjustment, and Training
6900 Neuropsychological Assessment
7000 Organizational, Occupational, and Career Development
7100 Perceptual, Motor, and Sensory Processing
7200 Personality
7300 Physical Health/Illness Related Assessment
7400 Religious and Political Beliefs
7500 Sex, Gender Roles, and Sexual Behavior
7600 Social, Group, and Interpersonal Relationships
7700 Sports, Recreation, and Leisure
7800 Trauma, Stress, and Coping
7900 Treatment, Rehabilitation, and Therapeutic Processes
8000 General Assessment Tools

APA PsycTests PDF

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to APA PsycTests PDF

 

A limit to APA PsycTests PDF will restrict retrieval to documents that contains PDF.

Publication Year

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to yr=2010

 

A limit to Publication Year will restrict retrieval to the specified years covered.

If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year or year range.  The format is 4 digits, e.g., "1989" or "1992-1995."

Supporting Documentation

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to directions

 

A limit to Supporting Documentation will restrict retrieval to documents that are derived from a controlled list of values such as answer sheet, instructor/test manual/guide, student/study guide, test materials, directions/instructions, check lists, class record sheets, norms/analyses, lessons with tests, sample profile report, or other (supporting documentation) that support the administration of the test.

Test Items Available

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to test items available

 

A limit to Test Items Available indicates the presence of a test file for a Test Master Record.

There are range limits for the UP and CH fields. These limits are not listed in the drop-down menu, however they can be used from the command line. To run the limits use the following syntax from the command line.
limit 1 to ch=20190812-20200914
limit 1 to up=20190812-20200914
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Tools
The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/psyt
  Sentence Syntax: use psyt
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number
  9999-71888-000
DOI
  http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t71888...
Test Type
  Original
Test Name
  Consumer Sharing Frequency Measure (Test Name Created by PsycTESTS)
Source Used
  The majority of metadata for this record was created from PsycINFO Record: 
  2019-07774-020 [APA PsycInfo Record Link for subscribers]
Purpose
  The purpose of this survey is to measure the frequency of sharing various types of 
  marketer-generated content among consumers.
Test Description
  The Consumer Sharing Frequency Measure (Lee, Lee, & Quilliam, 2019) was developed to assess consumers' frequency of sharing 
  marketer-generated content (MGC) on Facebook. This measure was designed for an online survey conducted with samples of American 
  and Korean consumers. MGC sharing frequency was measured in the two samples with eight items identified from previous studies 
  (e.g., Brown et al., 2005) and a pretest. No reliability or validity results were reported for these items. (PsycTESTS Database 
  Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
Year of Publication
  2019
Author
  Lee, Mira
  Lee, Jieun
  Quilliam, Elizabeth
Correspondence Address
  Lee, Jieun, [email protected]
Instrument Type
  Survey
Format
  All eight items use a seven-point scale, anchored from "never" to "frequently."
Language Available
  English; Korean
Construct
  Marketer-Generated Content Sharing Frequency
Commercial
  No
Permissions
  Contact Corresponding Author
Fee
  No
Test Items Available
  No
APA PsycTests Classification Code
  Consumer Behavior, Marketing, and Advertising [5600]
Reliability
  No reliability indicated.
Validity
  No validity indicated. 
Factor Analysis
  No factor analysis indicated.
Number of Test Items
  This is an 8-item scale.
Administration Method
  Electronic
Age Group
  Adulthood (18 yrs & older); Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs); Thirties (30-39 yrs)
Population Group
  Human; Male; Female
Population Details
  Sample: Consumers (Ages 18-32)
  Location: South Korea; United States
Email
  Lee, Jieun: [email protected]
Affiliation
  Lee, Mira: Business School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
  Lee, Jieun: Business School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of
  Quilliam, Elizabeth: Department of Advertising and Public Relations, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States
Key Concepts
  Consumer Sharing Frequency Measure; Test Development; Marketer-Generated Content; Facebook
Subject Headings
  Consumer Behavior
  Consumer Surveys
  Human Computer Interaction
  Information Dissemination
  Marketing
  Test Construction
  Online Social Networks
Source Citation
  Development
  Lee, Mira, Lee, Jieun, Quilliam, Elizabeth (2019). Motivations for sharing marketer-generated content on social media: A comparison 
  between American and Korean college students. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 36(1), 206-217. United Kingdom: Emerald Publishing. 
  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JCM-07...
  PsycINFO Record: 2019-07774-020
  Document Delivery External Resolver Document Delivery Bibliographic Links External Resolver 
Update Code
  20190408
Sample 2
Accession Number
  9999-71863-000
DOI
  http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t71863...
Test Type
  Original
Test Name
  Marital Conflict Measure (Test Name Created by PsycTESTS)
Purpose
  The purpose of this scale is to measure the existence of conflict, such as infidelity, 
  within the context of the couple relationship.
Test Description
  The Marital Conflict Measure (Jeanfreau et al., 2018) was developed to assess the occurrence of multiple types of 
  conflict among couples. This scale was designed for a study of the behaviors associated with infidelity in an online 
  sample of participants who were either married or living with their partner. Conflict was measured in this sample with 
  five items created by the authors. No reliability or validity results were reported for these items. 
  (PsycTESTS Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
Year of Publication
  2018
Author
  Jeanfreau, Michelle
  Noguchi, Kenji
  Mong, Michael D
  Stadthagen, Hans
Instrument Type
  Rating Scale
Format
  The five items comprising this scale are rated using the following response options: Financial issues, Sexual 
  issues, Household responsibilities, Work issues, Issues with the children, or Others; Yes or No; and Not that I know of, Yes, or No.
Language Available
  English
Language Present
  English
Construct
  Marital Conflict
Commercial
  Contact Corresponding Author
Fee
  No
Test Items Available
  No
APA PsycTests Classification Code
  Family Relationships and Parenting [6100]
Reliability
  No reliability indicated.
Validity
  No validity indicated.
Factor Analysis
  No factor analysis indicated.
Number of Test Items
  This is a 5-item scale.  
Administration Method
  Electronic
Age Group
  Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Population Group
  Human; Male; Female
Population Details
  Location: United States
  Sample: Participants Who Were Either Married or Living with Their Partner
Affiliation
  Jeanfreau, Michelle: University of Southern Mississippi, Mississippi, United States
  Noguchi, Kenji: University of Southern Mississippi, Mississippi, United States
  Mong, Michael D.: University of Southern Mississippi, Mississippi, United States
  Stadthagen, Hans: University of Southern Mississippi, Mississippi, United States
Key Concepts
  Couples; Marital Conflict Measure; Test Development
Subject Headings
  Marital Conflict
  Test Construction
  Marriage and Partner Measures
Update Code
  20190408
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Producer Information
Producer
American Psychological Association
APA PsycTests®
750 First Street NE
Washington, DC 20002-4242
Telephone: (800) 374-2721; (202) 336-5500
TDD/TTY: (202) 336-6123
Website: http://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psyctests/
Copyright

The APA PsycTests® database is produced, trademarked, and copyrighted by the American Psychological Association (APA). Search results received by the user in machine-readable form remain the property of the American Psychological Association. No part of the database may be duplicated in hard-copy or machine-readable form without written authorization from APA. APA permits reproduction of up to 25 print copies of search output for use within the customer's organization; in addition, that search output may be stored temporarily in electronic media for editing or reformatting for the user's internal use or for one-time delivery to a single client for the client's own internal use.

APA takes care to provide accurate representation of the behavioral literature, but assumes no liability for errors or omissions and makes no warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. APA assumes no responsibility for the customer's use of the information.

Under no circumstances can any files be electronically stored, altered, or distributed further without the explicit permission of the American Psychological Association. To request permission for use other than authorized by this statement, please see APA Copyright and Permissions. For more information about educational use, please see the APA Policy on Coursepacks and Electronic Reserve.

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