Ovid Nursing Database Guide
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Ovid Nursing Database includes information from [email protected] and MEDLINE, the United States National Library of Medicine's (NLM®) premier bibliographic database.

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 5 segments.

This database is updated online weekly.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage Banner
OVRN   2019 – Present Ovid Nursing(R) <2019 to Weekly>
OVRN4   2015 – 2018 Ovid Nursing(R) <2015 to 2018>
OVRN3   2007 – 2014 Ovid Nursing(R) <2007 to 2014>
OVRN2   2001 – 2006 Ovid Nursing(R) <2001 to 2006>
OVRN1   1946 – 2000 Ovid Nursing(R) <1946 to 2000>
OVRNW   1946 – Present Ovid Nursing(R) <1946 to Weekly>
Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abbreviated Source (AS) Gene Symbol (GS) Original Title (OT)
  Abstract (AB) Grant Acronym (GR) Other Abstract (OA)
  Additional Author Information (AO) Grant Country (GC) Other ID (OI)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Grant Information (GI) Outline Headings (OH)
  Article Identifier (ID) Grant Number (NO) Ovid Descriptor (SH)
Authors (AU) Grant Organization (GO) PMC Identifier (PM)
  Authors Full Name (FA) Indexing Method (IG) Publication History Status (PH)
  Author Last Name (AX) Institution (IN) Publication Status (PP)
  Author Name ID (AI) Investigator (IR) Publication Type (PT)
  CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Publisher Item Identifier (DI)
  Catalog Holdings (XH) Investigator NameID (IX) Publishing Model (PI)
  Cited Reference Date (CQ) ISO Journal Abbreviation (IO) Pubmed Central Release (PQ)
  Cited Reference DOI (CD) ISSN Print (IS) Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS)
  Cited Reference Issue (RP) ISSN Electronic (ES) Protocol Supplementary Concept Word (PX)
  Cited Reference Page (CG) ISSN Linking (IL) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS)
  Cited Reference PMCID (CZ) Issue/Part (IP) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word (RX)
  Cited Reference Publisher Identifier (RY) Journal Abbreviation (JA) Record Owner (RO)
  Cited Reference Source (CS) Journal Name (JN) Reference Title Index (RL)
  Cited Reference UI (RZ) Journal Subset (SB) Revision Date (RD)
  Cited Reference Volume (CE) Journal Word (JW) Season (SE)
  Cited References (RF) Keyword Heading (KW) Secondary Source AN (SA)
  Comments (CM) Keyword Heading Word (KF) Secondary Source ID (SI)
  Conflict of Interest (CI) Language (LG) Secondary Source Link (SL)
  Copyright Index (CR) Local Messages (LM) Source (SO)
  Country of Publication (CP) Locally Held (LH) Space Flight Mission (SM)
  Create Date (DC) MeSH Date (DA) Status (ST)
  Date of Publication (DP) MeSH Subject Heading (DE) Subject Heading Word (HW)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) MeSH Heading Word (DW) Title (TI)
  Document Type (DT) Name of Substance Word (NM) Title Comment (TC)
  Electronic Date of Publication (EP) NLM Journal Code (JC) Unique Identifier (UI)
  Entry Date (ED) NLM Journal Name (NJ) Update Date (UP)
  Entrez Date (EZ) NLM Journal Word (NW) Version Date (VD)
  Equal Contributor (EC) Number of References (NR) Version ID (VI)
  Floating Sub-Heading (FS) Organism Supplementary Concept (OS) Volume (VO)
  Floating Sub-Heading Word (FX) Organism Supplementary Concept Word (OX) Year of Publication (YR)
  General Note (NT)    
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ti,ot,ab,ox,rx,px,nm,hw,fx,dw,kf.
  Abstract (AB) Keyword Heading Word (KF) Protocol Supplementary Concept Word (PX)
  MeSH Heading Word (DW) Name of Substance Word (NM) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word (RX)
  Floating Sub-Heading Word (FX) Original Title (OT) Title (TI)
  Subject Heading Word (HW) Organism Supplementary Concept Word (OX)  
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Record Owner (RO)
  Authors (AU) Keyword Heading (KW) CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN)
  Author's Full Name (FA) Original Title (OT) Source (SO)
  Cited References (RF) Other Abstract (OA) Title (TI)
  Date of Publication (DP) Ovid Descriptor (SH) Status (ST)
  Institution (IN) Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS) Unique Identifier (UI)
  Investigator (IR) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS)  
Go: Table of Contents or Back 

All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abbreviated Source (AS) Institution (IN) PMC Identifier (PM)
  Abstract (AB) Investigator (IR) Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS)
  Article Identifier (ID) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Publication History Status (PH)
  Authors (AU) Investigator NameID (IX) Publication Status (PP)
Author's Full Name (FA) ISO Journal Abbreviation (IO) Publishing Model (PI)
  Author Name ID (AI) ISSN Electronic (ES) Publication Type (PT)
  CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) ISSN Linking (IL) Pubmed Central Release (PQ)
  Cited References (RF) ISSN Print (IS) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS)
  Comments (CM) Journal Subset (SB) Record Owner (RO)
  Conflict of Interest (CI) Keyword Heading (KW) CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN)
  Copyright Index (CR) Language (LG) Revision Date (RD)
  Country of Publication (CP) Local Messages (LM) Season (SE)
  Create Date (DC) MeSH Date (DA) Secondary Source ID (SI)
  Date of Publication (DP) MeSH Subject Heading (DE) Source (SO)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) NLM Journal Code (JC) Space Flight Mission (SM)
  Document Type (DT) NLM Journal Name (NJ) Status (ST)
  Electronic Date of Publication (EP) Number of References (NR) Title (TI)
  Entry Date (ED) Organism Supplementary Concept (OS) Title Comment (TC)
  Entrez Date (EZ) Original Title (OT) Unique Identifier (UI)
  Equal Contributor (EC) Other Abstract (OA) Update Date (UP)
  General Note (NT) Other ID (OI) Version Date (VD)
  Grant Information (GI) Ovid Descriptor (SH) Version ID (VI)
  Indexing Method (IG) Personal Name as Subject (PN) Year of Publication (YR)
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Issue/Part (IP) Page (PG) Date of Publication (DP)
  Journal Name (JN) Volume (VO)  
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
zz.ab

Since 1975, NLM has included author-written abstracts from journals whose publishers gave the NLM permission for their use. These abstracts appear in the Abstract (AB) field. Over 50% of the documents in Ovid MEDLINE (R) contain abstracts. The abstract index contains all searchable words from the abstract.

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AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
COS.af.

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Abstract (AB)

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AI Author NameID [Word Indexed]
malone.ai
Author NameID (AI) field contains author's full name and its unique identifiers may be supplied by the publisher for records added or updated beginning in January 2013. The identifier may be an Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), an International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI),Ringgold, or from the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF).

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AO Additional Author Information [Word Indexed]
The Additional Author Information (AO) field contains additional information from the author about the methodology of the citation.

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AS Abbreviated Source [Display Only]
  The Abbreviated Source (AS) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Abbreviation (JA) or Monograph, the Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Page (PG) and Date of Publication (DP).
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AU Authors [Phrase Indexed]
aade.au.
smith $.au.
 

The Authors (AU) field contains the authors of the article. The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

Misspelled and corrected names are also included in the Authors Index to ensure all possible matches. Only correct author names display, while incorrectly spelled names are indexed along with the correct spelling of the name.

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AX Author Last Name [Phrase Indexed]
zziwambazza.ax
  The Author Last Name (AX) index allows you to search for the authors’ last names. Author names display in Authors (AU) and Authors Full Name (FA) fields.
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CD Cited Reference DOI [Phrase Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference DOI (CD) field contains the DOI information of the source citation.

This field displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CE Cited Reference Volume [Word Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference Volume (CE) field contains the particular volume of the Cited Reference Source (CS).

It displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CG Cited Reference Page [Word Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference Page (CG) field contains the page information of the source citation.

It displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CI Conflict of Interest [Word Indexed]
activity.ci.
 

The Conflict of Interest (CI) field contains disclosure statements as provided by the publisher. This field was introduced in 2017.

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CM Comments [Word Indexed]
e296.cm.
The Comments (CM) field contains the comment or correction type and the corresponding codes as displayed in below table. Please note the Title Comment (TC) field contains the detail of the referenced article.

Comment or Correction Type Code Description
Comment in (CIN) cites the reference containing a commentary about the article (appears on citation for original article); began use with journal issues published in 1989.
Comment on (CON) cites the reference upon which the article comments; began use with journal issues published in 1989.
Erratum in (EIN) cites a published erratum to the article (appears on citation for original article); began use in 1987.
Erratum for (EFR) cites the original article for which there is a published erratum. As of 2016, partial retractions are considered errata.
Corrected and Republished in (CRI) cites the final, correct version of a corrected and republished article (appears on citation for original article). Began use in 1987 as Republished in (RPI); renamed in 2006.
Corrected and Republished from (CRF) cites the original article subsequently corrected and republished. Began use in 1987 as Republished from (RPF); renamed in 2006.
Dataset described in (DDIN) cites a description of a dataset.
Dataset use reported in (DRIN) cites articles reporting results or use of a dataset.
ExpressionOfConcernIn (ECI) cites the expression of concern (appears on citation for original article); began use in 2017.
ExpressionOfConcernFor (ECF) cites the original article for which there is an expression of concern; began use in 2017.
Republished in (RPI) cites the subsequent (and possibly abridged) version of a republished article (appears on citation for original article); began use in 2006.
Republished from (RPF) cites the first, originally published article; began use in 2006.
Retraction in (RIN) cites the retraction of the article (appears on citation for original article); began use in August 1984 but applied back through 1966.
Retraction of (ROF) cites the article(s) being retracted; began use in August 1984 but applied back through 1966.
Update in (UIN) cites an updated version of the article (appears on citation for original article); began limited use in 2001.
Update of (UOF) cites the article being updated; limited use; began limited use in 2001.
Summary for patients in (SPIN) cites a patient summary article; began use in November 2001 (these records contain Publication Type, Patient Education Handout).
Original report in (ORI) cites a scientific article associated with the patient summary.
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CP Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
new zealand.cp.
  The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the full name of the country in which an article was published. The country name is entered into the index as a phrase.
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CQ Cited Reference Date [Phrase Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference Date (CQ) field contains at least the publication year for the respective reference. This field may contain month, day and/or time of publication or release.

This field displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CR

Copyright Index [Word Indexed]
reserved.cr.

The Copyright Index (CR) index contains published information and it will be display at the end of Abstract (AB) or Other Abstract (OA) field if available. The Copyright Index (CR) is a word indexed.
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CS Cited Reference Source [Word Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference Source (CS) field contains the full or abbreviated journal name of the source citation.

The Cited Reference Source displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CZ Cited Reference PMCID [Phrase Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference PMCID (CZ) field contains the PMC identification number of the source citation reference.

It displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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DA MeSH Date [Phrase Indexed]
20181206.da.
 

The MeSH Date (DA) field contains the date MeSH terms were added to the citation. The MeSH date is the same as the Entrez date until MeSH are added. This field has a format display of YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM and the index format is YYYYMMDD.

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DC Create Date [Phrase Indexed]
20181207.dc.
 

The Create Date (DC) field contains the date when it was added to PubMed. It was implemented with all PubMed records when the 2009 system became available on December 15, 2008. All records added to PubMed prior to implementation received a Create Date equal to Entrez Date (EZ). This field has a format display of YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM and the index format is YYYYMMDD.

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DE MeSH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
zygomycosis.de.
 

The MeSH Subject Headings (DE) field contains the Medical Subject Headings used by indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to describe the content of an article.

MeSH headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched as they appear in the NLM MeSH books.

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DI Publisher Item Identifier [Word Indexed]
s8755.di.
 

The Publisher Item Identifier (DI) field uniquely identifies individual published documents that are provided by the publisher for new citation submitted.  The full PII appears as such e.g. S0036-36342008000600005

Search all PII's by replacing punctuation with spaces such as "S0036 36342008000600005".di. for the displayed PII of S0036-36342008000600005.

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DO DOI [Phrase Indexed]
s0196 6553 10 00597 3.do.
 

The DOI (DO) field contains the Digital Object Identifier - a unique and persistent digital identification code for any object of intellectual property. The DOI  itself consists of two parts: a prefix which is assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency, e.g., "10.1097", and a suffix which is assigned by the publisher and can be any code that the publisher chooses, e.g., "00045415-200111000-00002".

The full DOI appears as such: "10.1097/00045415-200111000-00002". Search all DOI's replacing punctuation with spaces such as "10 1016 j adnc 2003 08 001".do. for the displayed DOI of 10.1016/j.adnc.2003.08.001. (all DOI information provided to Ovid is loaded as it becomes available from NLM).

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DP Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2016 summer.dp.
 

The Date of Publication (DP) field consists of the date of publication for a citation, in the format Year Month(s) Day (1950 Dec 3). The Month and Day are not always present. This field is also displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

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DT Document Type [Word Indexed] [Index only]
book reviews.dt.
  The Document Type (DT) field supplements the Publication Type (PT) field by providing an additional, more specific description of a document's form and substance. This field will often contain the titles of columns or regular features that are specific to a given journal publication.
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DW MeSH Heading Word [Word Indexed]
100.dw.
 

The Subject Heading Word (DW) index allows you to retrieve every MeSH subject heading and Publication Type that include a particular word. Do this by searching a single word in the Subject Heading Word (DW) field.

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EC Equal Contributor [Phrase Indexed]
kilpatrick cory d.ec.
 

The Equal Contributor (EC) field contains the journal publisher names who submit citation data to Pubmed.

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ED Entry Date [Phrase Indexed]
20091117.ed.
 

The Entry Date (ED) field contains the NLM internal Date Completed (DCOM) which is the date processing of the record ends; i.e., MeSH Headings have been added, quality assurance validations are completed, and the completed record subsequently is distributed to PubMed. This is contrasted with the PubMed/MEDLINE Date Created, which is the date processing begins.

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EP Electronic Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
20091023.ep.
 

The Electronic Date of Publication (EP) is the date the record was sent to NLM for inclusion in MEDLINE (R). This index appears in the format YYYYMMDD.

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ES ISSN Electronic [Phrase Indexed]
2374 4537.es.
 

The ISSN Electronic (ES) field contains the Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. It appears as an 8 digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793. To retrieve all of the articles for a journal, search by the Journal Name (JN).

Both Electronic and Print ISSNs can be searched in the ISSN Print (IS) field.

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EZ Entrez Date [Phrase Indexed]
20181206.ez.
 

The Entrez Date (EZ) is the date the citation was added to PubMed. However, prior to October 9, 2008, the Entrez Date was set equal to the Publication Date (DP) on records with publication dates before September 1997. Beginning on October 9, 2008, the Entrez Date is set equal to the Publication Date (DP) when the record enters PubMed more than twelve months after the date of publication. This field has a format display of YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM and the index format is YYYYMMDD.

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FA Authors Full Name [Word Indexed]
caballero.fa.
 

The Authors Full Name (FA) field contains the full name of the authors of the article when available.

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FS Floating Sub-Heading [Phrase Indexed]
legislation jurisprudence.fs
 

Subheadings are qualifiers added to MeSH subject headings to refine their meaning.  Terms such as "etiology" or "therapy", when combined with a MeSH heading, give a precise idea of what an article covers.

The Floating Subheadings (FS) field contains both the 2-letter codes, such as "po" and the full headings, such as "poisoning". These are displayed following the corresponding MeSH Subject Headings.

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FX Floating Sub-Heading Word [Word Indexed]
 

Sometimes you may wish to retrieve every Floating Sub-heading that includes a particular word; this is done by searching the single word in the Floating Sub-heading Word (FX) field.

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GC Grant Country [Phrase Indexed]
united kingdom.gc.
 

The Grant Country (GC) field contains the country of the organization that awarded the grant.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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GI Grant Information [Phrase Indexed]
000943.gi.
 

The Grant Information (GI) field displays information about awarded grants, may contain Grant Number (NO), Grant Acronym (GR), Grant Organization (GO) and Grant Country (GC).

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GO Grant Organization [Word Indexed]
animals.go.
 

The Grant Organization (GO) field contains the full name of the organization that has awarded the grant.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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GR Grant Acronym [Phrase Indexed]
dd.gr.
 

The Grant Acronym (GR) field contains the acronym of the organization that has awarded the grant.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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GS Gene Symbol [Phrase Indexed]
vbeta.gs.
 

The Gene Symbol (GS) field contains Gene Symbols as they are entered into Ovid MEDLINE (R) in the original document. They often, but not always, conform to standardized human gene nomenclature. Ignore super or sub-scripts in entry of a gene symbol: psub 1450 would be entered p1450. Enter hyphens as in the original symbol.

The Gene Symbol field was added to Ovid MEDLINE (R) in 1991. Beginning in 1996, data will no longer be added to this field.

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HW Subject Heading Word [Word Indexed]
EMPLOYMENT.hw.
 

The Subject Heading Word (HW) index allows you to retrieve every Ovid Descriptor that includes a particular word. Do this by searching a single word in the Subject Heading Word (HW) field.

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IA Investigator Affiliation [Word Indexed]
universitario.ia.
 

The Investigator Affiliation (IA) field contains author's full name and its affiliation to the investigator of the article.

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ID Article Identifier [Word Indexed]
iche$.id.
 

The Article Identifier (ID) field may contain an identifier that links with records in the publisher's system. The Article Identifier values may include the controlled publisher dentifier (PII) or the digital object identifier (DOI). It is most often used for LinkOut, and is not considered part of the citation source information.

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IG Indexing Method [Word Indexed]
curated.ig.
 

The Indexing Method (IG) field was introduced by the NLM in September 2018. It will only be present in records if a value is specified. If Indexing Method is not present in status MEDLINE records, the indexing method is fully human indexed.

Values for Indexing Method (IG) are:
Curated - MeSH indexing is provided algorithmically and a human reviewed (and possibly modified) the algorithm results
Automated - MeSH indexing is provided algorithmically

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IL ISSN Linking [Phrase Indexed]
8756 6206.il.
 

The ISSN Linking (IL) index contains an identifier intended to provide a mechanism to group the various medium versions of a continuing resource. The purpose of the ISSN-L is to provide a mechanism for grouping, or collocating, the various medium versions of a resource, for instance, the print and online versions of a journal per ISO 3297 standards. "The first ISSN assigned, in the ISSN Register, to any medium version of a continuing resource shall be designated by default to function also as the ISSN-L and shall apply to all other media versions of that resource identified in the ISSN Register.

The ISSN Linking field will be used only for new records added during the 2008 production year (although NLM still does not know the timing when all will be in place to start to appear on records).

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IN Institution [Word Indexed]
m13.in.
 

The Institution (IN) field contains all author full names and its affiliations, which is usually the source for a reprint of the article. This information can be searched in most documents since 1988, but records from earlier years which were added to the database after 1988 may also contain institution information. Beginning with documents indexed in 1996, all author's email address will also be included, if present in the journal.

The information is taken from the source document and is not standardized. Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution (harvard, not university). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

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IO ISO Journal Abbreviation [Word Indexed]
accid emerg nurs.io.
 

The ISO Journal Abbreviation (IO) field contains journal abbreviations. Those created prior to 2007 did not necessarily conform to the ISO standard. ISO Journal Abbreviations created after this date are identical to the Journal Abbreviation (JA) field. In November 2009 ISO abbreviations were retrospectively assigned for every record from a journal that was currently indexed for MEDLINE at that time.

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IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
783.ip.
suppl.ip.
  The Issue/Part (IP) field contains the Issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal. This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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IR Investigator [Phrase Indexed]
kadowaki t.ir.
 

The Investigator (IR) field contains personal names of individuals (e.g., collaborators and investigators) who are not authors of a paper but rather are listed in the paper as members of a collective/corporate group that is an author of the paper.

The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials:  Smith JC or Smith J.

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IS ISSN Print [Phrase Indexed]
8756 8047.is.
8750 0779.is.
 

The ISSN Print (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. It appears as an 8 digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793. To retrieve all of the articles for a journal, search by the Journal Name (JN). Both Electronic and Print ISSNs can be searched in the IS index.

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IX Investigator NameID [Phrase Indexed]

The Investigator NameID (IX) field is defined to contain a unique identifier associated with the name. The values in the Identifier attribute Source will designate the organizational authority that established the unique identifier.

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JA Journal Abbreviation [Display Only]
zhonghua hu li za zhi.ja.
 

The Journal Abbreviation (JA) field contains the abbreviation of the journal in which the article was published.

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JC NLM Journal Code [Phrase Indexed]
892302.jc.
 

The NLM Journal Code (JC) is an alpha-numeric code established by NLM which uniquely identifies every journal indexed in the NLM databases. Only the 7 digit code is searchable, in some cases the 3 digit alpha-numeric code will display as well.

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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
geriatric nursing.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published. Journal names are indexed as phrases, so enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index:  new engl (for New England Journal of Medicine). This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

If the first word of a Journal Name is "The", it has been stripped off.

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JW Journal Word [Word Indexed]
ziekenverzorging.jw.
 

The Journal Word (JW) index contains individual words from every journal name in Ovid MEDLINE (R). This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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KF Keyword Heading Word [Word Indexed]
macroeconomic.kf.
 

The Keyword Heading Word (KF) index allows you to retrieve every Keyword Heading assigned by authors that include a particular word. Do this by searching a single word in the Keyword Heading Word (KF) field.

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KW Keyword Heading [Phrase Indexed]
data collection.kw.
 

The Keyword Heading (KW) field contains the Keyword Headings assigned by authors. Keyword Headings are the author keywords. To retrieve every Keyword Heading that includes a particular word, search for the word in the Keyword Heading Word (KF) field.

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LG Language [Phrase Indexed]
greek.lg.
 

The Language (LG) field contains the language(s) of publication of an article. The language name will appear in the index as the full form and a 3-letter code (such as fre for French) and as the full name French. The codes are usually, but not always, the first three letters of the language name.

The language index is quickly scrollable to determine all languages which appear in Ovid MEDLINE (R).

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LH Locally Held [Display only]
 

The Locally Held (LH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") if a journal is held locally.

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LM Local Messages [Display only]
 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by the System Administrator to indicate information about journals held in your local library system.

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NJ NLM Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
ons connect.nj.
 

The NLM Journal Name (NJ) field contains the full name of the journal in which an article was published.

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NM Name of Substance Word [Word Indexed]
ketamine.nm.
 

The Name of Substance (NM) index contains single words from the CAS Registry/EC Number/Name (RN) field and is used to search portions of chemical names. This field displays as part of the CAS Registry/EC Number/Name (RN) field.

The Name of Substance (NM) field was added to Ovid MEDLINE (R) in 1980.

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NO Grant Number [Phrase Indexed]
c06 rr022088.no.
  The Grant Number (NO) field contains the original identification number of the grant that is awarded to the work as described in the content. The identification number is assigned by the grant agency.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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NR Number of References

 

The Number of References (NR) field contains the number of bibliographic references listed in the review article.

Effective October 1, 2010 NLM discontinued the practice of including the number of bibliographic references listed in articles cited in MEDLINE. NLM had included the number of references for the following Publication Types: Review; Consensus Development Conference; Consensus Development Conference, NIH; Interactive Tutorial; Meta-Analysis. This change in policy is prospective only; we will not remove number of references data from existing citations.

This field displays in the Abstract (AB) and Title (TI) when available.

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NT General Note [Display Only]
young.nt.
 

The General Note (NT) field contains general supplementary information about an item. The notes may include information on the availability of a bibliography, ordering information for dissertations or hearings, or general summaries of materials such as manuals or scripts. A series title may appear for a book or for audiovisual materials.

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NW NLM Journal Word [Word Indexed]
laboratory.nw.
medicinal.nw.
  The NLM Journal Word (NW) field contains individual words from every journal name in the NLM Journal Names (NJ) field.
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OA Other Abstract [Word Indexed]
major.oa.
 

The Other Abstract (OA) field can include the Collaborating Partner, a brief abstract, Copyright and Language of the Other Abstract. The OA field is indexed in the Abstract (AB) field, and contains all searchable words from the Other Abstract.

Collaborating Partners include:

AAMC

American Association of Medical Colleges; not currently used

AIDS

Special HIV/AIDS publications with abstracts written by someone other than the author

KIE

Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University; not currently used

PIP

Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health; not currently used

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration; not currently used

Publisher

journal editorial staff, typically for citations to older articles that did not contain abstracts when originally published
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OH Outline Headings [Word Indexed]
 

The Outline Headings (OH) field searches the author-defined section names of full text documents. You can use this field to locate documents containing discussions of significant length regarding a desired topic. The section names are listed under the "Outline" header on the full text display window.

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OI Other ID [Phrase Indexed]
cams2051.oi.
 

The Other ID (OI) is a unique alpha-numeric code. In particular, it will contain the PubMed Central Identifier (PMCID), where the alphabetical prefix 'PMC' precedes the identifier. If the publisher has embargoed access to the full text, the date of availability in PubMed Central will be noted. When the embargo is lifted, a revised record with the date of availability removed will be released.

Other ID's are entered into the index as phrases. In particular, PMC ID's should be searched as how the alpha-numeric code appears in PubMed Central (PMC).

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OS Organism Supplementary Concept [Phrase Indexed]
 

The Organism Supplementary Concept (OS) field contains the Protocol Class 4 SCR terms that includes viruses and other organisms. The Organism Supplementary Concept (OS) terms are phrase indexed.

They appear for the first time in the 2018 MeSH and were made available as a means to index emerging viruses and other pathogenic organisms as they occur in the literature without delay.

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OT Original Title [Word Indexed]
zzpsz.ot.
  The Original Title (OT) includes any non-English titles in the original language. If the original title was in a non-Roman alphabet, then the OT is transliterated.
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OX Organism Supplementary Concept Word [Word Indexed]
  The Organism Supplementary Concept Word (OX) index allows the users to retrieve single terms from the Organism Supplementary Concept (OS) field.
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PA

Primary Author [Phrase Indexed]
jabez a.pa

 

The Primary Author (PA) field contains the first author listed for the article.  This allows users to search for articles by any primary author. Author names display in Authors (AU) and Authors Full Name (FA) fields. Searching for smith rh.pa. will return results where Smith RH was listed as the main author of the article.

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PG Page [Phrase Indexed]
809.pg
 

The Page (PG) field consists of the inclusive pagination of a journal article. Often a journal title combined with the beginning page number is enough to locate a citation. You can search for pages with alphanumeric characters, such as "a1.pg." This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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PH Publication History Status [Word Indexed]
2017.ph.
 

The Publication History Status (PH) field contains information from the publisher regarding important events in the publishing process. It contains a date, and one of the following values for each date in the publication history:

[received] - date manuscript received for review
[accepted] - accepted for publication
[revised] - article revised by publisher or author
[aheadofprint] - published electronically, to be followed by the print

The Publication History Status (PH) field is word-indexed.

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PI Publishing Model [Display Only]
  The Publishing Model (PI) field provides the model of publishing of the original document described in the record. The field indicates if the article cited is available in Print or Electronic format. It also indicates if the citation was converted from a Print or Internet source. This field is display only; you cannot search this field.
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PM PMC Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
pmc10$.pm.
 

The PMC Identifier (PM) is a unique alpha-numeric code. In particular, it will contain the PubMed Central Identifier (PMCID), where the alphabetical prefix 'PMC' precedes the identifier. If the publisher has embargoed access to the full text, the date of availability in PubMed Central will be noted. When the embargo is lifted, a revised record with the date of availability removed will be released.

Other ID's are entered into the index as phrases. In particular, PMC ID's should be searched as how the alpha-numeric code appears in PubMed Central (PMC).

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PN Personal Name as Subject [Phrase Indexed]
aikenhead m.pn.
 

The Personal Name As Subject (PN) field displays the name of a well-known person if they are discussed in an article, such as an interview or obituary.

The format for Personal Name is the same as for Author -- last name and initials: Bach JS. Enter a last name and one initial if known.

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PP Publication Status [Word Indexed]
ppublish.pp.
 

The Publication Status (PP) field contains the current status of the publication, as submitted by the publisher. Possible values are:

ppublish - published in print (default value)
epublish - electronically published only, never published in print
aheadofprint - electronically published, but followed by print
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PQ Pubmed Central Release [Phrase Indexed]
2017 03 01.pq.
 

The Pubmed Central Release (PQ) field contains the embargo date associated with the availability of the published article in PMC.

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PS Protocol Supplementary Concept [Phrase Indexed]
cmf regimen.ps.
 

The Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS) field contains the Protocol Class 2 SCR terms. These terms were previously exported in CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) in MEDLINE/PubMed. The PS terms are phrase indexed.

With the 2011 reload, Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS) will be loaded separately only for new records added during 2011 production year.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
journal article.pt.
published erratum.pt.
 

In addition to indexing documents with Medical Subject Headings, the indexers at the National Library of Medicine assign terms to describe the article type. Publication Types include such classifications as reviews, clinical trials, directories and letters. These terms appear in the Publication Type (PT) field.

To view the index, enter enough letters to distinguish a publication type (jour for "journal article"); the entire index is quickly scrollable to determine all possible publication types.

With the 2005 reload, Publication Types are also loaded into the MeSH. Because some Publication Types are also MeSH terms, the syntax to enter the Tree is "Randomized controlled trial [publication type]". To post the results from the Tree without entering the Tree, the syntax is: "Randomized controlled trial [publication type]"/ or Randomized controlled trial.pt.

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PX Protocol Supplementary Concept Word [Word Indexed]
anavacym.px

The Protocol Supplementary Concept Word (PX) index allows the users to retrieve single terms from the Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS) field.

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RD Revision Date [Phrase Indexed]
20031107.rd.
  The Revision Date (RD) field contains the issue (year, month and day) in which the document was revised in Ovid MEDLINE. The RD field appears in the format YYYYMMDD. Previously, the RD field was indexed with the Entry Date (ED) field. Now, it is a separate index.
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RF Cited References
 

The Cited References (RF) field contains a complete or partial reference list to the source citation.

Use RF to simultaneously search in all searchable parts of the Cited References field, including Cited Reference Date (CQ), Cited Reference Authors, Cited Reference Source (CS), Cited Reference Title, Cited Reference DOI (CD), Cited Reference Volume (CE), Cited Reference Page (CG), Cited Reference Issue (RP), Cited Reference PMCID (CZ), Cited Reference Publisher Identifier (RY) and Cited Reference UI (RZ).

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RL Reference Title Index [Word Indexed]
 

The Reference Title Index (RL) allows the users to search for the reference(s) title which may contain one or multiple source citations.

It displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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RN Registry Number/Name of Substance [Phrase Indexed]
f0p408n6v4 lenalidomide.rn
 

The RN field can contain the following:
- The unique 10-digit Unique Ingredient Identifiers (UNIIs) assigned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Substance Registration System (SRS)
- The 5- to 9-digit Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) for Registry Numbers
- The number EC derived from Enzyme Nomenclature to designate a particular enzyme

Examples:

To find UNII number 8R78F6L9VO (Sumatriptan) search for: 8R78F6L9VO Sumatriptan.rn. or: 8R78F6L9VO*.rn.
To find CAS number 54-16-0 (Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid)), search for: 54-16-0 Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid.rn.
To find EC number (EC 1-14-14-1 (Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases)), search for: ec-1-14-14-1 aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases.rn.

A zero (0) is a valid value when an actual number cannot be located or is not yet available.

Note: NLM has not added Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry numbers to MeSH since 1998, therefore only registry numbers that were previously available are displayed in the MEDLINE record. At this time, UNIIs are used only in Registry Number of Supplementary Concept Records.

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RO Record Owner [Phrase Indexed]
nasa.ro.
 

The Record Owner (RO) field contains the owner of the record.

HMD

  History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine

HSR

  Health Services Research

KIE

  Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University

NASA

  National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NLM

  National Library of Medicine

PIP

  Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs
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RP Cited Reference Issue [Word Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference Issue (RP) field contains the issue information of the journal in which the citation appears.

It displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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RS Rare Disease Supplementary Concept [Phrase Indexed]
glaucoma primary open angle.rs.
 

The Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS) field contains the Protocol Class 3 SCR terms. The RS terms are phrase indexed.

Beginning with 2011 MEDLINE/PubMed data, Rare Disease Class 3 SCRs are also going to be exported.

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RX Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word [Word Indexed]
leukoencephalopathy.rx

The Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word (RX) index allows the users to retrieve single terms from the Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS) field.

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RY Cited Reference Publisher Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference Publisher Identifier (RY) field contains the Publisher Item Identifier (DI) of the source citation.

It displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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RZ Cited Reference UI [Phrase Indexed]
 

The Cited Reference UI (RZ) field contains the PMID of the source citation.

It displays in the Cited References (RF) field as part of the link URL to NLM.

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SA Secondary Source AN [Word Indexed]
isrctn08132825.sa.
 

The Secondary Source AN (SA) index contains the unique identifiers of outside resources discussed in MEDLINE articles. The display will include the Secondary Source ID (SI) and the unique identifier seperated by a forward slash (RefSeq/NM_020533). If you wish to search all works from a particular databank use the Secondary Source ID (SI) index: refseq.si.

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SB Journal Subset [Phrase Indexed]
aim.sb.
 

The Journal Subset (SB) field identifies the subset for MEDLINE records from certain journal lists or records on specialized topics. Some of these values are found on extremely small numbers of records. Citations may contain more than one occurrence of this field. The value is true at the time the record was created. If the status of a journal changes, the value on the record does not change.

Subset field codes and values are as follows. If you want to see a complete definition of each code please visit. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/licensee/elements_descriptions.html#citationsubset

AIM Core Clinical Journals (AIM)
B Biotechnology Journals
C Communication Disorders Journals
D Dental Journals
E Bioethics Journals
F Foreign Journals
H Health Administration Journals
IM Index Medicus
J Population Information Citations
K Consumer Health Journals
N Nursing Journal
OM OLDMEDLINE Citations
Q History of Medicine Journals
QIS History of Medicine Journals non Index Medicus
QO History of Medicine Journals
R Reproduction Journals
S National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Journals
T Health Technology Assessment Journals
X AIDS/HIV Journals

Do not confuse these journal/citation subsets with the Topics subsets available on PubMed's Limits screen, which are search strategies.

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SE Season [Word Indexed]
spring.se.
 

The Season (SE) field contains the month or season that the citation article was published.
The field usually consists of a three-character alphabetic abbreviation of the month or season.

Example: Win

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SH Ovid Descriptor [Phrase Indexed]
ulcer.sh.
aborigines.sh.
 

The Ovid Descriptor (SH) field contains the Ovid Descriptor that is assigned to the record to describe the content and is based on the Nursing Subject Thesaurus. These are largely based on NLM's MeSH and other sources such as Library of Congress.

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SI Secondary Source ID [Word Indexed]
clinicaltrials.si.
 

The Secondary Source ID (SI) identifies secondary source databanks with unique identifiers of outside resources discussed in MEDLINE articles. The field is composed of the source acronym:  GENBANK

The Secondary Source ID (SI) formerly known as the Molecular Sequence (MS) field was added to Ovid MEDLINE (R) in 1988.

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SL Secondary Source Link [Word Indexed]
www.sl.
 

The Secondary Source Link (SL) index contains the URL to the outside resources discussed in MEDLINE articles when the Secondary Source ID is either ClinicalTrials.gov or ISRCTN. The index contains the URL, for searching ease use the Secondary Source AN (SA) index: nct00000150.sa.

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SM Space Flight Mission [Phrase Indexed]
sts shuttle project.sm.
  The Space Flight Mission (SM) field provides descriptive values for each Space Flight Mission.
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SO Source [Word and Phrase Indexed] [Display only]
1017.so.
 

The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a record, including the full Journal Name (JN), Issue/Part (IP), Page (PG), Volume (VO) and Date of Publication (DP).

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ST Status [Text Indexed]
"pubmed not medline".st.
 

The Status (ST) field contains the status of the citation.

In-Data-Review records have passed the first step in quality control and will either be reissued as In-process records or go directly to PubMed-not-MEDLINE as the final record status.

In-Process records are electronically submitted and have gone through the second citation-level review.

Medline records have passed all steps in quality control and have been indexed.

PubMed-not-MEDLINE records have gone through the second citation-level review, but are from non-Medline journals or precede the date a journal was selected for MEDLINE indexing but are now being submitted for inclusion.

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TC Title Comment [Word Indexed]
may.tc.

The Title Comment (TC) field pertains to and contains citations to associated journal publications, e.g., comments, errata, retractions, or cited references. These data enable links between the record at hand and its associated citations.

This field begins with the indication of comment or correction type (see Comments (CM) fields for a full list of types) and then displays the Journal Abbreviation (JA), Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP) and Page (PG).

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TI Title [Word Indexed]
bone.ti.
nursing care.ti.
 

The Title (TI) field contains the English language version of a title. For documents which were not written in English, the original or transliterated title appears in a separate field, Original Title (OT).

The title sometimes includes notes, in brackets, about the article, such as an indication that it is a letter, editorial, or comment.

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TW Text Word (AB, TI)
diazepam.tw.
squibb.tw.
 

The Text Word (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in a database which contain text words and which are appropriate for a subject search.

The Text Word field in OVRN includes Title (TI) and Abstract (AB).

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UI Unique Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
5000547.ui.
9000913.ui.
 

The Unique Identifier (UI) field contains the PMID (PubMed identifier or PubMed unique identifier) that is the unique number assigned to each PubMed record.

PMIDs do not change over time or during processing and are never reused.

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UP Update Date [Phrase Indexed]
20170504.up.
 

The Update Date (UP) field contains the date the record was added to Ovid Nursing (R) since reload completion.  The Update Date for existing records changes with each global reload to reflect the date Ovid starts processing the reload data. The UP field appears in the format YYYYMMDD.

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VD Version Date [Phrase Indexed]
2009 08 27.vd.
 

Version Date (VD) field is a new model of publishing referred to as "versioning" whereby multiple versions of the same online article are released, sometimes in quick succession and sometimes almost as soon as the original article has been published. Although the Version Date value may be different from the Date of Publication, it might be the same as Date of Publication if the new version was released later the same day. Version Date is phrase indexed.

NLM does not expect many journals will publish versions, thus the incidence of versioned citations will be small. PLos Currents Influenza, a PubMed Central journal, is one example (and is the only journal involved at this time).

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VI Version ID [Word Indexed]
"1".vi.
  Version ID (VI) field is a new model of publishing referred to as "versioning" whereby multiple versions of the same online article are released. Though NLM does not expect many journals will publish versions, thus the incidence of versioned citations will be small. PLos Currents Influenza, a PubMed Central journal, is one example (and is the only journal involved at this time). Version ID is phrase indexed.
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VO Volume [Word Indexed]
suppl.vo.
insider.vo.
  The Volume (VO) field consists of the volume and issue of a serial publication. This field is usually displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.
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XH Catalog Holdings [Display only]
 

The Catalog Holdings (XH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") if a journal is held locally.

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YR Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2017.yr.
  The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which an article or monograph was published. Only the four digit year is contained in the index.
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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y heart attack or myocardial infarction "Chronic traumatic aneurysm of the left main coronary artery causing myocardial infarction."

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y blood pressure and stroke "Treatment of high blood pressure in acute stroke"

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y health reform not health maintenance organizations "the rhetoric and reality of health reform in New Zealand"

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y blood adj pressure "Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring"

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y physician adj5 relationship "Changes in physician-patient relationship"

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab./freq=5 "Is the accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices underestimated at increasing blood pressure levels?"

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ disease$ "identify genes responsible for diseases and traits"

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1 "renal function in healthy dogs"

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n "serum homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women"

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r "Hair changes. Age has effect on color, thickness."

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "right / left "

"Gender effect on the right-left discrimination task in a sample of heroin-dependent patients."

"n" "3".vo

"Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine. 3(12):689-92, 2006 Dec."

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/1 ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract. Over 50% of Ovid MEDLINE records after 1975 contain abstracts. All abstracts included in Ovid MEDLINE are in English and were written by the author(s) of the original article.
Age Groups Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to infant
limit 1 to adult
limit 1 to middle aged
 

A limit by Age Group will restrict retrieval by any of the age groups indexed by NLM. Since only human age groups are indexed, this limit will also restrict retrieval to human subjects. If you choose this option you will be presented with a list of age groups from which to select.

All EBMR Article 
Reviews
Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to all ebmr article reviews
  A limit to All EBMR Article Reviews will restrict your retrieval to those articles for which a review exists in either the ACP Journal Club or DARE databases. In other words, the studies and articles have been reviewed by either the ACP Journal Club or BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine publications or by the NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Reviewers at the University of York, England. Use this limit if you are interested in restricting your retrieval only to reviews of individual studies or articles.
Animals Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to animals
  A limit to Animals will restrict retrieval to documents which are primarily about animal subjects. It will retain articles about both human and animal subjects. Consider also the Limit to Animal Type, which will allow you to select from a list of common experimental research animals.
Animal Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to cats
limit 1 to rabbits
 

A limit by Animal Type will restrict retrieval to any of the basic animal types indexed by NLM. If you choose this option you will be presented with a short alphabetical list of some common research animal types from which to select. Consider also the Limit to Animal, which will restrict retrieval to documents which are about any animal subject.

Article Reviews (DARE) Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "article reviews (dare)"
  A limit to Article Reviews will restrict your retrieval to those articles for which a review exists in the DARE database. Use this limit if you are interested in restricting your retrieval only to reviews of individual studies or articles.
Article Reviews (ACP Journal Club) Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "article reviews (acp journal club)"
  A limit to Article Reviews will restrict your retrieval to those articles for which a review exists in the ACP Journal Club database. In other words, the studies and articles have been reviewed by either the ACP Journal Club or BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine publications. Use this limit if you are interested in restricting your retrieval only to reviews of individual studies or articles.
English Language Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to english
Command Syntax: ..l/1 en=y
  A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles which are written in the English language. Foreign language articles with English abstracts will be eliminated by a limit to English.
EBM Reviews Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ebm reviews
  Using the EBM Reviews limits via the pulldown will allow you to 'or' together any of the following limits: Cochrane Topic Reviews, ACP Article Reviews or DARE Article Reviews.
Evidence Based 
Medicine Reviews
Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to evidence based medicine reviews
  A limit to Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews will restrict your retrieval to those articles or studies that have been included by the Cochrane Collaboration when creating a Topic Review or articles that have been reviewed in the ACP Journal Club or BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine publications or in the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE). This limit will also retrieve the Topic Review itself. By their inclusion in these publications, these studies have met strict Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Use this limit to narrow a large search to only those articles or studies which are considered "Evidence-Based" by experts and for which an article or topic review exists.
Female Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to female
  A limit to Female will restrict retrieval to documents which are about females, either human or animal.
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text
  A limit to Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.
Humans Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to humans
Command Syntax: ..l/1 hu=y
 

A limit to Humans will restrict retrieval to articles which are about human subjects. If you limit by Age Group you do not need to use this limit.

Journal Subsets Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to "core clinical journals (aim)"
Command Syntax: ..l/1 sb=aim
 

NLM databases contain several subsets of broad journal categories such as "AIM Journals" or "Dentistry Journals". You can restrict your retrieval to any of these subsets by a limit to journal subset. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of Journal Subsets from which to select.

Population Information Citations Health Technology Assessment Journals
Languages Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to french
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=fre
  A limit to Language will restrict retrieval to any of the languages indexed by NLM. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of languages from which to select.
Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
 

A limit to local holdings will restrict retrieval to documents from journals held in your local library or library system.

If your System Administrator has created any special messages about a journal's availability, this message will display with the document in the Local Holdings (LH) field.

Male Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to male
  A limit to Male will restrict retrieval to documents which are about males, either human or animal.
No Language Specified Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to no language specified
A limit to No Language Specified will restrict retrieval to articles without specific language. All foreign articles including English abstracts will be eliminated by this limit.
Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Ovid Full Text Available
  A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available. When viewing a citation with full text available use the LINK button to display the full text.
Point of Care Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Care Plans
 

The Point of Care limits are designed to restrict retrieval to subjects associated to Point of Care. Point of Care limits include:

Care Plans
Diagnosis Tools and Tests
Evidence-based Healthcare
Guidelines
Patient Education
Signs and Symptoms
Treatment and Therapy
Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to clinical study
limit 1 to clinical trial
limit 1 to clinical trial, all
limit 1 to dataset
limit 1 to journal article
limit 1 to observational study
limit 1 to pragmatic clinical trial
limit 1 to review
limit 1 to preprint
 

A limit by Publication Type restricts retrieval by any of the over forty publication types indexed by NLM, including classifications such as "bibliography," "classical article," "clinical trial," etc.

Publication Year Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to yr=2006
Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=2006
  You can restrict retrieval to any of the years in Ovid Nursing (R). If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits: "1989" or a range: "1994-1995".
Range Limits Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to dt=20191201-20201231
Command Syntax: ..l/1 dt=20191201-20201231
20191201:20201231.(dt).
Range limits are available for the for the DT, DA, ED, EP, EZ, RD, and UP fields. These limits are not listed in the drop-down menu, however they can be run straight from the command line in Advanced Search mode. These date fields are formatted YYYYMMDD, and below are examples how to apply them as date-range limits on Ovid:

limit 1 to ed=20181116-20181217
limit 1 to rd=20181221-20181231
limit 1 to up=20181211-20181231
limit 1 to ep=20181001-20181115
limit 1 to dt=20181001-20191001
limit 1 to da=20160101-20160422
limit 1 to ez=20150101-20150218

Review Articles Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "review articles"
  A limit to Review Articles will restrict retrieval to articles which are reviews of a subject. For NLM databases this includes all review types: Review Literature; Review of Reported Cases; Review, Academic; Review, Multicase; and Review, Tutorial.

Special Ovid Filters for Ovid Nursing

Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Adverse Effects - focussed
limit 2 to Children - focussed
 

You can use Special Ovid Filters to restrict retrieval to a pre-defined set of records, populated by a special Ovid search strategy for that topic. As the results sets for these filters are created with every database update, the results display quickly. Ovid filters are “AND” combined with the search line you are trying to limit, unless stated otherwise (e.g. humans only).

Each of the search hedges below are based on publicly available filters that have been reviewed, translated and improved by Ovid expert searchers. While these filters aren’t validated by Ovid, we provide the full transcript for each filter below and we have placed a reference for each filter where applicable. You may want to review the underlying terms and modify them as necessary. Ovid welcomes your suggestions to enhance the filters; to provide feedback and ideas for the Special Ovid Filters, please contact [email protected].

Adverse effects

exp "drug-related side effects and adverse reactions"/or adverse.ti,ab, kf. or side effect?.ti,ab,kf. or adverse effects.fs. or exp drug overdose/ or overdos*.ti,ab,kf. or exp drug misuse/ or misus*.ti,ab,kf. or exp substance-related disorders/ or abus*.ti,ab,kf. or exp pregnancy/ or pregnan*.ti,ab,kf. or exp pregnancy complications/ or exp lactation/ or exp lactation disorders/ or exp breast feeding/ or (exp milk, human/ and exp secretion/) or exp fertility/ or exp infertility/ or exp reproduction/ or exp fetus/ or exp embryonic structures/ or terat*.ti,ab,kf. or drug efficacy.ti,ab,kf. or therapeutic efficacy.ti,ab,kf. or drug withdrawal.ti,ab, kf. or exp medication errors/ or exp death/ or death*.ti,ab,kf. or fatal*.ti,ab,kf. or exp drug interactions/ or exp carcinogens/ or carcinogen*.ti,ab,kf. or mutagen*.ti,ab,kf. or exp "off-label use"/ or exp occupational exposure/ or toxicity.fs. or toxic*.ti,ab,kf. or pharmacotox*.ti,ab,kf. or neurotox*.ti,ab,kf. or cardiotox*.ti,ab,kf. or nephrotox*.ti,ab,kf. or immunotox*.ti,ab,kf. or hepatotox*.ti,ab,kf. or cytotox*.ti,ab,kf. or immunocytotox*.ti,ab,kf. or intoxicat*.ti,ab,kf. or exp "congenital, hereditary, and neonatal diseases and abnormalities"/ or drug treatment failure.ti,ab,kf. or drug toxicity.ti,ab,kf. or exp case report/ or case report?.ti,ab,kf. or exp environmental exposure/ or treatment contraindication.ti,ab,kf. or exp contraindications, drug/ or exp "wounds and injuries"/ or suicid*.ti,ab,kf. or exp poisoning/ or poisoning.fs. or exp drug tolerance/ or exp treatment failure/ or exp drug resistance/ or exp substance-related disorders/

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This is based on guidelines provided by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), monitoring of medical literature and the entry of relevant information into the EudraVigilance database by the EMA. https://www.ema.europa.eu/documents/other/monitoring-medical-literature-entry-relevant-information-eudravigilance-database-european-medicines_en.pdf

 
Adverse effects - focussed

exp *"drug-related side effects and adverse reactions"/or adverse.ti,kf. or side effect?.ti,kf. or adverse effects.fs. or exp *drug overdose/ or overdos*.ti,kf. or exp *drug misuse/ or misus*.ti,kf. or exp *substance- related disorders/ or abus*.ti,kf. or exp *pregnancy/ or pregnan*.ti,kf. or exp *pregnancy complications/ or exp *lactation/ or exp *lactation disorders/ or exp *breast feeding/ or (exp milk, human/ and exp secretion/) or exp *fertility/ or exp *infertility/ or exp *reproduction/ or exp *fetus/ or *exp embryonic structures/ or terat*.ti,kf. or drug efficacy.ti,kf. or therapeutic efficacy.ti,kf. or drug withdrawal.ti,kf. or exp *medication errors/ or exp *death/ or death*.ti,kf. or fatal*.ti,kf. or exp *drug interactions/ or *exp carcinogens/ or carcinogen*.ti,kf. or mutagen*.ti,kf. or exp *"off-label use"/ or *exp occupational exposure/ or toxicity.fs. or toxic*.ti,kf. or pharmacotox*.ti,kf. or neurotox*.ti,kf. or cardiotox*.ti,kf. or nephrotox*.ti,kf. or immunotox*.ti,kf. or hepatotox*.ti,kf. or cytotox*.ti,kf. or immunocytotox*.ti,kf. or intoxicat*.ti,kf. or *exp "congenital, hereditary, and neonatal diseases and abnormalities"/ or drug treatment failure.ti,kf. or drug toxicity.ti,kf. or exp *case report/ or case report?.ti,kf. or exp *environmental exposure/ or treatment contraindication.ti,kf. or exp *contraindications, drug/ or exp *"wounds and injuries"/ or suicid*.ti,kf. or exp *poisoning/ or poisoning.fs. or exp *drug tolerance/ or exp *treatment failure/ or exp *drug resistance/ or exp *substance-related disorders/

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This is similar to the filter above but uses focussed subject headings and only uses Title and Keywords for the free-text component of the strategy.

 
Adverse effects - medical devices

complicat*.ti,ab. OR ae.fs. OR safe*.ti,ab. OR exp postoperative complications/ OR failure*.ti,ab. OR adverse.ti,ab. OR co.fs. OR failed.ti,ab. OR exp equipment failure/ OR removal.ti,ab. OR equipment safety/ OR problem*.ti,ab. OR side effect*.ti,ab. OR Harmful.ti,ab. OR Tolerated.ti,ab. OR loosen*.ti,ab. OR Intraoperative Complications/ OR migration.ti,ab. OR breakag*.ti,ab. OR discomfort.ti,ab. OR displacement.ti,ab. OR (detrimental adj2 effect*).ti,ab. OR untoward effects.ti,ab.

Last reviewed 27 June 2019.This filter is based on: Golder S, Farrah K, Mierzwinski-Urban M, Wright K, Loke YK. The development of search filters for adverse effects of medical devices in MEDLINE and Embase. Health Info Libr J 2019 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/hir.12260.

 
Adverse effects - surgical interventions

complication*.ti,ab. OR ae.fs. OR safe*.ti,ab. OR co.fs. OR postoperative complications/

Last reviewed 27 June 2019.This filter is based on: Golder S, Wright K, Loke YK. The development of search filters for adverse effects of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and Embase. Health Info Libr J 2018 Mar 31. doi: 10.1111/hir.12213.

 
Children

Includes records about neonate and birth to about 18 years

exp adolescent/ or exp child/ or exp infant/ or (infant disease* or childhood disease*).ti,ab,kf. or (adolescen* or babies or baby or boy? or boyfriend or boyhood or child* or girl? or infant* or juvenil* or kid? or minors or minors* or neonat* or neonat* or newborn* or new-born* or paediatric* or peadiatric* or pediatric* or perinat* or preschool* or puber* or pubescen* or school* or teen* or toddler? or underage? or under-age? or youth*).ti,ab,kf.

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This Paediatrics filter is based on the Improved “Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group” Child filter published here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.09.012

 
Children - focussed

exp *adolescent/ or exp *child/ or exp *infant/ or (infant disease* or childhood disease*).ti,kf. or (adolescen* or babies or baby or boy? or boyfriend or boyhood or child* or girl? or infant* or juvenil* or kid? or minors or minors* or neonat* or neonat* or newborn* or new-born* or paediatric* or peadiatric* or pediatric* or perinat* or preschool* or puber* or pubescen* or school* or teen* or toddler? or underage? or under-age? or youth*).ti,kf.

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This filter is similar to the filter above but uses focussed subject headings and only uses Title and Keywords for the free-text component of the strategy.

 
Elderly

exp aged/ or exp geriatrics/ or exp geriatric psychiatry/ or exp geriatric nursing/ or exp *geriatric psychiatry/ or exp *dental care for aged/ or exp *health services for the aged/ or (elder* or eldest or frail* or geriatri* or old age* or oldest old* or senior* or senium or very old* or septuagenarian* or octagenarian* or octogenarian* or nonagenarian* or centarian* or centenarian* or supercentenarian* or older people or older subject* or older patient* or older age* or older adult* or older man or older men or older male* or older woman or older women or older female* or older population* or older person*).ti,ab,kf.

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This filter is based on the “Aged” filter from the Dutch Library Association: https://blocks.bmi-online.nl/catalog/7.

 
Elderly - focussed

exp *aged/ or exp *geriatrics/ or exp *geriatric psychiatry/ or exp *geriatric nursing/ or exp *geriatric psychiatry/ or exp *dental care for aged/ or exp *health services for the aged/ or (elder* or eldest or frail* or geriatri* or old age* or oldest old* or senior* or senium or very old* or septuagenarian* or octagenarian* or octogenarian* or nonagenarian* or centarian* or centenarian* or supercentenarian* or older people or older subject* or older patient* or older age* or older adult* or older man or older men or older male* or older woman or older women or older female* or older population* or older person*).ti,kf.

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This filter is similar to the filter above but uses focussed subject headings and only uses Title and Keywords for the free-text component of the strategy.

 
Humans only (removes records about animals)

NOT ((exp animal/ or exp invertebrate/ or animal experiment/ or animal model/ or exp plant/ or exp fungus/) not exp human/)

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This filter is based on Ovid best practices. Most Ovid filters are “AND” combined with the line that is being limited. This filter is “NOT” combined with the search line that is being limited.

 
Pregnancy - wide

exp pregnancy/ or exp pregnancy complications/ or exp maternal health services/ or exp fetus/ or exp fetal therapies/ or exp fetal monitoring/ or exp perinatal care/ or exp labor pain or exp analegsia, obstetrical/ or exp obstetric surgical procedures/ or exp infant, newborn/ or exp postpartum period/ or exp breast feeding/ or exp prenatal diagnosis/ or exp obstetrics/ or exp prenatal education/ or (breast-feeding education or parturition or ante natal or antenatal* or pre natal* or prenatal* or puerper* or postnatal* or postpartum or post partum or post natal* or peripartum or peri partum or prepregnancy or pre pregnancy or preconception* or pre conception* or periconception* or peri conception* or ((preterm or premature) and (labor or labour)) or eclamp* or preeclamp* or pre eclamp* or amniocentes* or chorion* vill* or breastfe* or breast fe* or lactation* or cesarean or caesarean or cesarian or caesarian or cesarien or caesarien or newborn* or new born* or tocoly* or fetal or foetal or fetus or foetus or miscarriage* or pregnancy or pregnancies or pregnant).ti,ab,kf.

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. Based on the Search strategy from the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group: Appendix 2, Embase-Ovid: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK379828/

 
Pregnancy - focussed

exp *pregnancy/ or exp *pregnancy complications/ or exp *maternal health services/ or exp *fetus/ or exp *fetal therapies/ or exp *fetal monitoring/ or exp *perinatal care/ or exp *labor pain or exp *analgesia, obstetrical/ or exp *obstetric surgical procedures/ or exp *infant, newborn/ or exp *postpartum period/ or exp *breast feeding/ or exp *prenatal diagnosis/ or exp *obstetrics/ or exp *prenatal education/ or (breast-feeding education or parturition or ante natal or antenatal* or pre natal* or prenatal* or puerper* or postnatal* or postpartum or post partum or post natal* or peripartum or peri partum or prepregnancy or pre pregnancy or preconception* or pre conception* or periconception* or peri conception* or ((preterm or premature) and (labor or labour)) or eclamp* or preeclamp* or pre eclamp* or amniocentes* or chorion* vill* or breastfe* or breast fe* or lactation* or cesarean or caesarean or cesarian or caesarian or cesarien or caesarien or newborn* or new born* or tocoly* or fetal or foetal or fetus or foetus or miscarriage* or pregnancy or pregnancies or pregnant).ti,kf.

Last reviewed 18 September 2018. This is similar to the filter above but uses focussed subject headings and only uses Title and Keywords for the free-text component of the strategy.

Status Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to In Data Review
 

Limiting to one of the five Status available will restrict your results to those records containing that status according to the quality control step assigned by NLM.

In Data Review Publisher
In Process PubMed Not MEDLINE
MEDLINE  
Structured Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Structured Abstracts
 

A limit to Structured Abstracts will restrict retrieval to citation records with distinct labelled sections (e.g., Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) for key information from articles they summarize.

Topic Reviews (Cochrane) Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "topic reviews (cochrane)"
  A limit to Topic Reviews will restrict your retrieval to those articles and studies which were "included" in the creation of a Cochrane review on a topic. These referenceys will be found in the Cochrane systematic review in the "References to Included Studies" and have met the Cochrane Collaboration's Evidence-Based Medicine criteria for inclusion. Use this limit if you are interested in restricting your retrieval only to reviews which have been used in the creation of a Cochrane Topic Review.
The Training and Development Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Continuing Education
  The Training and Development limits are designed to restrict retrieval to subjects associated with Training and Development. Training and Development limits include: Continuing Education
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Clinical Query Limits

Limiting to Clinical Queries will restrict retrieval clinically sound studies. There are nine categories provided, and the emphasis may be Sensitive (i.e., most relevant articles but probably some less relevant ones), Specific (i.e., mostly relevant articles but probably omitting a few), or Optimized (i.e., the combination of terms that optimizes the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity). A detailed explanation of the strategies behind these limits can be found at http://hiru.mcmaster.ca/hedges/.

The Clinical Queries are based on the work of R. Brian Haynes MD, PhD et al. of the Health Information Research Unit (HIRU) at McMaster University, are intended for clinicians.

Sentence syntax for the limits is as follows.

  • limit 1 to "Therapy (sensitivity)"
  • limit 1 to "Therapy (specificity)"
  • limit 1 to "Therapy (optimized)"

A complete list of queries is available from within the Ovid interface.

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Tools

The following Search Tools are available for OVRN. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Gateway Help.

  • Thesaurus
  • Note: Because OVRN includes Check Tags as limits, if you search for any of these terms as an unqualified search in the command line, the results will open a Search History page, rather than the NST Thesaurus. The Check Tag terms are listed in the Limit section under Check Tags.
  • Permuted Index
  • Scope Notes
  • Explode
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/ovrn
  Sentence Syntax: use ovrn
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Unique Identifier:
	8908895
Title:
	Education for the nursing of children and their families: standards and guidelines for prelicensure and early 
   	professional education. [Review] [29 refs][Erratum appears in J Pediatr Nurs 1997 Apr;12(2):132]
Source:
	Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 11(5):273-80, 1996 Oct.
Abbreviated Source:
	J Pediatr Nurs. 11(5):273-80, 1996 Oct.
Version ID:
	1
Record Owner:
	NLM
Status:
	MEDLINE
Authors:
	Pridham KF; Broome M; Woodring B; Baroni M
Authors Full Name:
	Pridham, K F
   	Broome, M
   	Woodring, B
   	Baroni, M
Institution:
	Pridham, K F. University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Nursing, USA.
NLM Journal Name:
	Journal of pediatric nursing
Publishing Model:
	Journal available in: Print
   	Citation processed from: Print
NLM Journal Code:
	jns, 8607529
ISO Journal Abbreviation:
	J Pediatr Nurs
Journal Subset:
	Index Medicus, Nursing Journal
Country of Publication:
	United States
MeSH Subject Headings:
	Humans
   	Licensure, Nursing
  	Models, Educational
  	Models, Nursing
  	Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
  	Pediatric Nursing [education]
  	Philosophy, Nursing
   	Practice Guidelines as Topic
Ovid Descriptors:
	Education
   	Family
   	Child
   	Process Assessment (Health Care)
  	Practice Guidelines
  	Pediatric Nursing
   	Outcomes (Health Care)
  	Nursing Philosophy
   	Nursing Licensure
   	Teaching
   	Research
   	Philosophy
   	Natural Environment
   	Learning
   	Health Knowledge
   	Health Care
Abstract:
	To strengthen the preparation of nurses for care of children and families, standards and guidelines for prelicensure and early 
   	professional education were developed by a working group with broad-based input. Assumptions, theory, practice, and research 
   	underlying the standards and guidelines concerned the nature of health care, knowledge, teaching, learning, and evaluation. The 
   	11 standards are presented and guidelines are illustrated. How they are implemented will depend on local resources and 
   	philosophies. Continued dialogue among nurse educators is needed to refine and develop the standards and guidelines. 
   	[References: 29]
ISSN Print:
	0882-5963
ISSN Linking:
	0882-5963
Publication Type:
	Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.. Review.
Article Identifier:
	S0882-5963(05)80060-0 [pii]
Publication Status:
	ppublish
Grant Information:
	No: MCJ-559327
   	Organization: *PHS HHS*
   	Country: United States
Language:
	English
Date of Publication:
	1996 Oct
Entrez Date:
	1996/10/01
MeSH Date:
	1996/10/01 00:01
Create Date:
	1996/10/01 00:00
Year of Publication:
	1996
Entry Date:
	19961205
Revision Date:
	20180425
Update Date:
	20180427
Sample 2
Unique Identifier:
	29566840
Title:
	Real-World Evidence: Useful in the Real World of US Payer Decision Making? How? When? And What Studies?
Source:
	Value in Health. 21(3):326-333, 2018 03.
Abbreviated Source:
	Value Health. 21(3):326-333, 2018 03.
Version ID:
	1
Record Owner:
	NLM
Status:
	MEDLINE
Authors:
	Malone DC; Brown M; Hurwitz JT; Peters L; Graff JS
Authors Full Name:
	Malone, Daniel C
 	Brown, Mary
 	Hurwitz, Jason T
 	Peters, Loretta
 	Graff, Jennifer S
Institution:
	Malone, Daniel C. College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. Electronic address: 
   [email protected]
 	Brown, Mary. College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
 	Hurwitz, Jason T. Center for Health Outcomes and Pharmacoeconomic Research, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
 	Peters, Loretta. College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
 	Graff, Jennifer S. National Pharmaceutical Council, Washington, DC, USA.
NLM Journal Name:
	Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Publishing Model:
	Journal available in: Print-Electronic
 	Citation processed from: Internet
NLM Journal Code:
	100883818
ISO Journal Abbreviation:
	Value Health
Journal Subset:
	Index Medicus.
Country of Publication:
	United States
MeSH Subject Headings:
	Decision Making
	Evidence-Based Practice [economics]
	Focus Groups [methods]
	Humans
	Insurance, Health, Reimbursement [economics]
	Pharmacists [economics]
	Physicians [economics]
	United States [epidemiology]
Ovid Descriptors:
	Physicians
	Pharmacists
	Health Care Organizations
	Focus Groups
	United States
	Research
	Insurance
	Health Care
	Evidence-Based Professional Practice
	Therapeutics
	Surveys
	Study Methods
	Safety
	Research Question
	Research Personnel
	Purposive Sample
	Pharmacy and Pharmacology
	Perception
	Health Insurance
	Funding Source
	Environment
	Costs and Cost Analysis
	Continuing Education
	Committees
	Cognition
Keyword Heading:
	*health care decision making
	*observational research
	*payer
	*real-world evidence
Abstract:
	OBJECTIVES: To examine how real-world evidence (RWE) is currently perceived and used in managed care environments, 
    	especially to inform pharmacy and therapeutic (P&T) committee decisions, to assess which study factors (e.g., data, design, and 
    	funding source) contribute to RWE utility in decisions, and to identify barriers to consideration of RWE studies in P&T decision 
    	making.
METHODS: We conducted focus groups/telephone-based interviews and surveys to understand perceptions of RWE and assess awareness, quality, and relevance of two high-profile examples of published RWE studies. A purposive sample comprised 4 physicians, 15 pharmacists, and 1 researcher representing 18 US health plans and health system organizations.
RESULTS: Participants reported that RWE was generally used, or useful, to inform safety monitoring, utilization management, and cost analysis, but less so to guide P&T decisions. Participants were not aware of the two sample RWE studies but considered both studies to be valuable. Relevant research questions and outcomes, transparent methods, study quality, and timely results contribute to the utility of published RWE. Perceived organizational barriers to the use of published RWE included lack of skill, training, and timely study results.
CONCLUSIONS: Payers recognize the value of RWE, but use of such studies to inform P&T decisions varies from organization to organization and is limited. Relevance to payers, timeliness, and transparent methods were key concerns with RWE. Participants recognized the need for continuing education on evaluating and using RWE to better understand the study methods, findings, and applicability to their organizations.
Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN Electronic: 1524-4733 ISSN Linking: 1098-3015 Publisher Item Identifier: S1098-3015(17)33347-8 Digital Object Identifier: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jva... Publication Type: Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Article Identifier: S1098-3015(17)33347-8 [pii] 10.1016/j.jval.2017.08.3013 [doi] Publication Status: ppublish Publisher History Status: 2016/12/06 [received] 2017/08/07 [revised] 2017/08/14 [accepted] Language: English Electronic Date of Publication: 20171018 Date of Publication: 2018 03 Entrez Date: 2018/03/24 06:00 MeSH Date: 2018/03/24 06:00 Create Date: 2018/03/24 06:00 Year of Publication: 2018 Entry Date: 20180424 Revision Date: 20180424 Update Date: 20180427
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