International Pharmaceutical Abstracts
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The International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Database provides worldwide coverage of pharmaceutical science and health related literature from 1970 to the present, and is updated monthly. Comprehensive information is included for drug therapy, toxicity, and pharmacy practice as well as legislation, regulation, technology, utilization, biopharmaceutics, information processing, education, economics, and ethics as related to pharmaceutical science and practice.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
IPAB   1970-present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 1 segment.

This database is updated online monthly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) ISSN (IS) Registry Number (RN)
  Accession Number (AN) Journal Abbreviation (JA) Registry Word (RW)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Journal Name (JN) Source (SO)
  Authors (AU) Language (LG) Subject Heading Word (HW)
  CODEN (CD) Pagination (PG) Subject Heading (SH)
  Concept Heading (CC) Pharmacologic/Therapeutic Classification (PC) Summary Language (SL)
  Entry Month (EM) Publication Type (PT) Title (TI)
  Floating Subheading (FS) Publication Year (YR) Trade Name/Generic Name (TN)
  Institution (IN) Related Concept Heading (RS) Volume (VO)
  Issue/Part (IP)    
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ti,hw,rw,ab,tn.
  Abstract (AB) Subject Heading Word (HW) Trade Name/Generic Name (TN)
  Registry Word (RW) Title (TI)  
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Institution (IN) Subject Heading (SH)
  Accession Number (AN) Registry Number (RN) Title (TI)
  Authors (AU) Source (SO) Trade Name/Generic Name (TN)
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Journal Abbreviation (JA) Source (SO)
  Accession Number (AN) Language (LG) Subject Heading Word (HW)
  Authors (AU) Local Holdings (LH) Subject Heading (SH)
  CODEN (CD) Local Messages (LM) Summary Language (SL)
  Concept Heading (CC) Pharmacologic / Therapeutic Classification (PC) Title (TI)
  Entry Month (EM) Publication Type (PT) Trade Name/Generic Name (TN)
  Institution (IN) Registry Number (RN)  
  ISSN (IS) Related Concept Heading (RS)  
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract
patient information.ab.
 

Abstracts (AB) are included for most documents to provide an overview of the purpose, scope, methodology, and conclusions reached by the author(s).
The abstract index contains all searchable words from the abstract. Stopwords, such as "the" and "of" are not searchable.

Enter the desired word or phrase.

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AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
Genes.af.
 

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Headings (SH).

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AN Accession Number
27-01233.an.
  The Accession Number (AN) field contains a unique number assigned to each document for identification. The first two digits represent the IPA print volume in which the reference occurs. This is followed by a hyphen and the last five digits, representing the abstract number.
Enter the desired two-digit volume number, a hyphen, and the five-digit abstract number. The hyphen is required when searching or browsing the index.
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AU Authors
worth j$.au.
  The Author (AU) field contains the names of the authors in the order in which they appeared in the document. The format is last name, followed by initials for the first and (usually) middle names.
Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name, a space, and the first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name, enter one version and you will be able to scroll through the list of names to find other versions.
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CC Concept Heading
pharmacol$.cc.
"11".cc.
 

The Concept Heading (CC) field contains one of 25 broad classifications used to describe a document's primary focus. Examples include "Adverse Drug Reactions," "Drug Stability," "Pharmaceutics," etc.
Since the CC field is phrase-indexed, search using the full descriptive text, or use a "$" to truncate after the first few words. You may also search by code number.

To view and select from the complete list of Concept Headings, choose the "Search/Indexes/ Concept Headings" menu and enter the letter "a".

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CD CODEN
phpydq.cd.
  The CODEN (CD) field contains the CODEN acronym for the journal in which a document was published.
Enter the desired CODEN.
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EM Entry Month
9503.em.
  The Entry Month (EM) field contains a 4-digit number representing the year and month in which a document was added to the IPA database.
Search or browse and select from the index using the format YYMM, in which YY is the desired 2-digit year and MM is the desired 2-digit month, for example, "9503" means "March, 1995."

With the first update in 2000 the format changed to be a 4-digit year and 2-digit month, YYYYMM.

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FS Floating Subheading
combination caffeine.fs.
  The Floating Subheading (FS) field contains the secondary-level drug and non-drug index terms. Secondary terms are used to modify and expand upon primary-level terms, and often include information about drug combinations and comparisons.
The FS field is phrase-indexed. Search with a "$" following the desired word(s). Browse and select from the index by entering the desired word or pharse.

When documents are viewed, the secondary-level terms appear in parentheses following each primary-level term in the Subject Heading (SH) field.

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HW Subject Heading Word
intensive care.hw.
 

The Subject Heading Word (HW) field contains IPA Subject Headings in a word-indexed format. This allows retrieval of every Subject Heading that includes a particular word or phrase.
Search by entering the desired word or phrase. Browse and select from the index by entering only a single word.

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IN Institution
case western reserve.in.
  The Institution (IN) field contains information about the professional affiliation and address of the author, as indicated in the source document. This address can usually be used to request a reprint of the document. If the reprint address is substantially different, it will also be included.
Search using the most significant word or phrase in the institution name, e.g., "harvard," not "university." Be certain to account for postal and other commonly-used abbreviations.
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IP Issue/Part
"2".ip.
may.ip.
  The Issue/Part (IP) field includes the issue and/or part of the journal in which the document was published. Enter the desired issue number, 3-letter month abbreviation, or the abbreviation "suppl" for "supplement."

The IP field displays in the Source (SO) field.

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IS ISSN
0007-1447.is.
  The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the journal in which a document was published. It appears as a number separated by hyphens.
Enter the desired ISSN. Hyphens are required.
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JA Journal Abbreviation
j biopharm sci.ja.
  The Journal Abbreviation (JA) field includes the IPA database's abbreviation for the fully-spelled-out journal name found in the JN field.
IPA usually uses abbreviations which match those found in the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database.

Search by entering the precise IPA abbreviation. Browse and select from the index by entering only a single letter or word.

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JN Journal Name
pharmacotherapy.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field usually includes the complete title of the journal in which a document was published. A few journals may be indexed by their abbreviated title.
Enter the first few words of the journal title. The Journal Name index will appear, from which you may select one or more Journal Name(s) to search.

The JN field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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LG Language
eng.lg.
  The Language (LG) field indicates the language in which the source document was published. It contains a 3-letter code, usually taken from the first 3-letters of the language name (e.g., "fre" for "French.")
Search or browse the index by entering the first 3-letters of the desired language name. The index can be scrolled quickly to view all languages which appear in the IPA database. For a spelled-out list of languages, use the pull-down menu option "Limits/Languages."
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PC Pharmacologic/Therapeutic Classification
antihistamines.pc.
  The Pharmacologic/Therapeutic Classification (PC) field contains the following information:

-AHFS drug class name. It has been separately phrase-indexed and can be retrieved easily by browsing the index display with the first few letters of the class name.

-AHFS drug class code number. It appears with and is searched with a space in place of the colons and periods found in the printed version. It has been separately phrase-indexed and will be retrieved easily by browsing the index display with the first few digits of the code.

-Generic drug name. It has been separately phrase-indexed and will be retrieved easily by browsing the index display with the first few letters of the drug name.

When searching the PC field directly, truncation (using the "$") is recommended.

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PG Pagination
"130".pg.
 

The Pagination (PG) field includes the starting page number for journal documents, or the total page count for non-serial documents.
Enter only the starting page number or page count. Page ranges are not searchable.

The PG field displays in the Source (SO) field.
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PT Publication Type
editorial.pt.
  The Publication Type (PT) field describes the general form and substance of the document, e.g., "editorial" or "review."
Enter the desired Publication Type. You will then be presented with a complete list of Publication Types, from which you may choose one or more.
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RN Registry Number
58-93-5.rn.
  The Registry Number (RN) field contains the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number for compounds mentioned in the document.
Registry Numbers appear with hyphens, e.g., (50-07-0). You may search or browse the index with or without the hyphens.

When documents are displayed, the corresponding chemical name follows the Registry Number and appears with special characters removed.

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RS Related Concept Heading
institutional pharmacy practice.rs.
"2".rs.
  The Related Concept Heading (RS) field contains one of 25 broad classifications used to describe a document's secondary focus. Examples include "Adverse Drug Reactions," "Drug Stability," "Pharmaceutics," etc.
Since the RS field is phrase-indexed, search using the full descriptive text, or use a "$" to truncate after the first few words. You may also search by code number.

To view and select from the complete list of Related Concept Headings, choose the "Search/Indexes/Related Concept Heading" menu and enter the letter "a".

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RW Registry Word
hydrochlorothiazide.rw.
  The Registry Word (RW) field contains the word-indexed chemical names of the compounds indicated in the Registry Number (RN) field. The RW field can be used to search portions of chemical names.
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SH Subject Heading
aspirin combination caffeine.sh.
  The Subject Heading (SH) field contains index terms taken from IPA's controlled vocabulary, and are used to describe the content of a document in a standardized manner.
This field contains primary and secondary drug terms and non-drug terms. The appropriate primary and secondary terms have been precoordinated and are phrase-indexed.

To search for a primary term, enter the term followed by "$" for truncation. To search for a primary term combined with its precoordinated secondary term, simply remove the parentheses, e.g., "Aspirin (combination caffeine)" would be retrieved by entering "aspirin combination caffeine.sh."

Browse and select from the index by entering the first few letters of any primary term.

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SL Summary Language
rus.sl.
  The Summary Language (SL) field indicates the language(s) of the summaries or abstracts which are included with the document, and are noted when the summary is in a language different from the language of the source document.
The SL field contains a 3-letter code, usually taken from the first 3-letters of the Summary Language name (e.g., "fre" for "French.")

Search or browse the index by entering the first 3-letters of the desired Summary Language name. Scroll the index to determine all Summary Languages which appear in the IPA database. This field appears in only a small number of documents.

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SO Source
jama.so.
  The Source field includes all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Name or Monograph Publisher, Volume, Issue, Pagination, and Year of Publication.
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TI Title
antithyroid drugs.ti.
  The Title (TI) field contains the document's title. If a document refers to a conference, this field also includes the name and/or title of the conference, its location and date.
Stopwords such as "of" or "the" will display in documents but do not appear in the Title index. However, the word "a," which is a stopword in other fields, can be searched in the title.
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TN Trade Name/Generic Name
tylenol.tn.
  The Trade Name/Generic Name (TN) field contains the proprietary name of a drug, its corresponding generic name, and, if applicable, its combination components.
This field is both word and phrase indexed.
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VO Volume
"12".vo.
  The Volume (VO) field includes the volume number of the journal in which the document was published.
Enter the desired volume number, e.g., "14."

The VO field displays in the Source (SO) field.

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YR Publication Year
95.yr.
1995.yr.
  The Publication Year (YR) field contains the year in which a document was published. The year may be searched using two or four digits, e.g., "95" or "1995." Only individual years may be searched here; do not enter a range of years. To restrict sets to a range of years, use the Limit to Publication Year feature.

Year of Publication (YR) field also displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example  
OR x or y vitamin c or ascorbic acid  

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y minerals and supplements  

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y vitamin c not ascorbic acid  

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y therapy dog  

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y therapy adj3 animal  

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab. /freq=4  

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$

rat$

 

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n

dog$1

 

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y

wom#n

 

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r  

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y"

"Heat / Cold Application"

 
"n"

"3".vo

 

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/ ab=y
 

A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract or summary in the IPA database.

Human Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to human
 

A limit to Human will restrict retrieval to documents which are primarily about human subjects.

Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to french
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=fre
 

A limit to Languages will allow you to restrict retrieval to any of the source document languages indexed in the IPA database.

Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
  A limit to Local Holdings will restrict retrieval to documents from journals held in your library or institution. This designation is made by your Ovid System Administrator.
Publication Year Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=95
Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=1995
 

A limit to Publication Year will restrict retrieval to a given year or year range covered in the IPA database.

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Tools

Currently no tools are available for this database.

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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/ipab
  Sentence Syntax: use ipab
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number
  34-04105
Author
  Rowe, R.
Institution
  Zeneca Pharm., Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 2NA,
  England.
Title
  Applying neural computing to product formulation.
Source
  Manufacturing Chemist.  67(Oct): p 21, 23.  1996.
Abstract
  Applications of neural networks that mimic the processing
  capabilities of the human brain to commercial product formulation,
  including benefits, characteristics, available software, and future
  integration, are presented. (6 refs.) (Abstract by Elizabeth G.
  Rudnic.)
Subject Headings
  Computers (formulations).
  Formulations (computers).
  Industry, pharmaceutical (computers).
  Research (formulations).
Concept Heading
  Information Processing and Literature [25].
Related Concept Heading
  Pharmaceutical Technology [1].
Language
  English
Publication Type
  Journal article.
ISSN
  0025-2557
CODEN
  MCANAH
Entry Month
  9703
Sample 2
Accession Number
  34-04019
Author
  Ferner, RE.
Institution
  West Midlands Ctr. for Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting, City Hosp.,
  Birmingham B18 7QH, England.
Title
  Newly licensed drugs.
Source
  British Medical Journal.  313(Nov 9): p 1157-1158.  1996.
Journal Abbreviation
  Br Med J
Abstract
  The risks of allowing general prescribing of newly licensed drugs
  are discussed, including incomplete data regarding adverse events
  and relative efficacy, rational prescribing and cost considerations,
  and a recommendation for licensing drugs on a probational basis in
  order to better assess the clinical safety and usefulness of new
  drugs; examples of new drugs that have been marketed without
  adequate evaluation of efficacy, toxicity, and costs are briefly
  discussed. (11 refs.) (Abstract by Peggy L. Ruppel.)
Subject Headings
  Drugs (new).
  Postmarketing surveillance (new drugs).
  Marketing (new drugs).
  Clinical studies (new drugs).
  Costs (new drugs).
  Toxicity (new drugs).
  Drugs, investigational (approvals).
  Rational therapy (new drugs).
  Prescribing (new drugs).
Concept Heading
  Sociology, Economics and Ethics [22].
Language
  English
Publication Type
  Editorial.  Journal article.
ISSN
  0007-1447
CODEN
  BMJOAE
Entry Month
  9703
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Producer Information
Producer
Clarivate Analytics
4th Floor
1500 Spring Garden Street
Philadelphia
PA19013

Tel: +1 215 386 0100
Web: Clarivate.com

Copyright

This database is copyrighted by the American Society of Health System Pharmacists, Inc. No part of this database may be duplicated in hard-copy or machine-readable form without written authorization from the American Society of Health System Pharmacists. The American Society of Health System Pharmacists represents that the database provided hereunder was formulated with a reasonable standard of care, and in conformance to professional standards in the field. Except with respect to the foregoing and as otherwise specifically provided in this agreement, the American Society of Health System Pharmacists makes no representations or warranties, expressed or implied, including but not limited to, any implied warrant of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to such database and specifically disclaims all such warranties and representations. Users are advised that decisions regarding drug therapy are the responsibility of the clinician; and that this database International Pharmaceutical Abstracts is provided for information purposes only. The entire monograph for a drug should be reviewed for a through understanding of the drug's actions, uses, and side effects.

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