Inspec (INSP) Database Guide
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Inspec is produced by The Institution of Engineering and Technology and provides access to the world's leading scientific and technical literature in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computers and computing, information technology, production and mechanical engineering. The Inspec database offers access to international journal articles, conference proceedings, reports, dissertations and books. Producer-assigned classification codes, descriptors and identifiers enhance subject access. Retrieval may also be restricted to any of the print counterparts. The Institution of Engineering and Technology is registered as a Charity in England & Wales (no 211014) and Scotland (no SC038698).

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name Years of Coverage
INSP 1987 - Present
INSZ 1969 - Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 18 segments.

This database is updated online weekly.

   

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) Classification Code Words (CW) Numeric Data (ND)
  Abstract Number (AX) Classification Codes (CC) Organization Identifier (OI)
  Accession Number (AN) CODEN (CD) Original Classification Codes (OC)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Conference Information (CF) Original Source (OS)
  All Sources (AS) Contract Number (CN) Original Subject Heading (OH)
  Astronomical Object (AO) Copyright (CR) Pagination (PG)
  Author (AU) Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) Parallel Journal Name (PJ)
  Author Email (EL) Country of Publication (CP) Patent Information (PI)
  Author Last Name (AZ) Date of Publication (DP) Place of Publication (PP)
  Author NameID (AI) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE)
  Author Unabbreviated (FA) Document Number (DN) Publication Type (PT)
  Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) Editor (ED) Publisher (PU)
  Availability (AA) Editor Affiliation (EN) Report Number (RN)
  Chemicals (CH) Editor Email (EE) SICI  (SI)
  Cited Reference Author Email (EM)

Editor Unabbreviated (FE)

Source (SO)
  Cited Reference Author Last Name (CU) Image Caption Text (TE) Subject Heading Words (HW)
  Cited Reference Author (CT) Inspec Accession Number (IA) Subject Headings (SH)
  Cited Reference Conference Title (CM) Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) Text Word (TW)
  Cited Reference Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CG) Inspec Update Code (IU) Title (TI)
  Cited Reference Date (CB) International Patent Classification (IC) Translated Source (TS)
  Cited Reference DOI (RD) International Patent Classification Word (IW) Treatment (TR)
  Cited Reference Edition (CQ) ISBN (IB) Universal Decimal Classification (UD)
  Cited Reference Issue (CI) ISSN (IS) Update Code (UP)
  Cited Reference Link (CJ) Issue/Part (IP) URL (UR)
  Cited Reference Page (CO) Journal Name (JN) U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code (UC)
  Cited Reference Publisher (CE) Journal Word (JX) U.S. Government Clearing House Number (UN)
  Cited Reference Series Title (CK) Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) Volume (VO)
  Cited Reference Source (CS) Language (LG) Year (YR)
  Cited Reference Title (CV) Local Holdings (LH)  
  Cited Reference Volume (CL) Local Messages (LM)  
  Cited References (RF)    
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ti,ab,hw,id.
  Abstract (AB) Subject Heading Words (HW) Title (TI)
  Key Phrase Identifiers (ID)    
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Organization Identifier (OI)
  Accession Number (AN) Editor (ED) Original Classification Codes (OC)
  All Sources (AS) Editor Affiliation (EN) Original Source (OS)
  Astronomical Object (AO) Editor Email (EE) Original Subject Heading (OH)
  Author (AU) Editor Unabbreviated (FE) Patent Information (PI)
  Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) Image Caption Text (TE) Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE)
  Author Email (EL) Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) Publication Type (PT)
  Author Unabrreviated (FA) Inspec Update Code (IU) Report Number (RN)
  Chemicals (CH) International Patent Classification (IC) Source (SO)
  Cited References (RF) ISBN (IB) Subject Headings (SH)
  Classification Codes (CC) ISSN (IS) Title (TI)
  Conference Information (CF) Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) Translated Source (TS)
  Copyright (CR) Language (LG) Treatment (TR)
  Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) Local Messages (LM) Universal Decimal Classification (UD)
  Date of Publication (DP) Numeric Data (ND) Update Code (UP)
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Date of Publication (DP) Original Source (OS)
  Abstract Number (AX) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Original Subject Heading (OH)
  Accession Number (AN) Document Number (DN) Patent Information (PI)
  All Sources (AS) Editor (ED) Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE)
  Astronomical Object (AO) Editor Affiliation (EN) Publication Type (PT)
  Author (AU) Editor Email (EE) Report Number (RN)
  Author Email (EL) Editor Unabbreviated (FE) SICI (SI)
  Author Unabbreviated (FA) Image Caption Text (TE) Source (SO)
  Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) Subject Headings (SH)
  Availability (AA) Inspec Update Code (IU) Title (TI)
  Chemicals (CH) International Patent Classification (IC) Translated Source (TS)
  Cited References (RF) ISBN (IB) Treatment (TR)
  Classification Codes (CC) ISSN (IS) Universal Decimal Classification (UD)
  CODEN (CD) Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) Update Code (UP)
  Conference Information (CF) Language (LG) URL (UR)
  Contract Number (CN) Local Messages (LM) U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code (UC)
  Copyright (CR) Numeric Data (ND) U.S. Government Clearing House Number (UN)
  Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) Organization Identifier (OI)  
  Country of Publication (CP) Original Classification Codes (OC)  
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Issue/Part (IP) Place of Publication (PP) Year (YR)
  Journal Name (JN) Publisher (PU)  
  Pagination (PG) Volume (VO)  
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AA Availability [Display Only]
 

The Availability (AA) field, when present, indicates where copies of the original document can be obtained. It also conveys information about the medium in which the document is available (such as microfiche).

Price information is included only when it is available in the document itself or in an accompanying leaflet, invoice, or other record supplied by the publisher or supplier. When both a hardcover and a paperback price appear, both are included.

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AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
two-dimensional black holes.ab.
 

The Abstract (AB) field summarizes the content of the document and may also provide a description of the background, methods, results, and/or conclusions.

The Number of References (NR) field displays at the end of each abstract.

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AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
hydrodynamic.af.
 

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Abstract (AB).

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AI Author NameID [Phrase Indexed]
 

The Author NameID (AI) field is being loaded as an indexable and displayable field in the Inspec database. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until a suitable publishing industry wide scheme is available.

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AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
11246203.an.
 

The Accession Number (AN) field contains an identifier assigned by the IEE to uniquely identify a particular record.

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AO Astronomical Object [Word Indexed]
cen x-3.ao.
 

The Astronomical Object (AO) field contains designations for astronomical objects discussed in the bibliographic item to which the record refers.

  This field may contain:       Example
  an acronym   LMC
  positional information   013022+30233
  an acronym for a catalogue followed by a catalogue entry number   NGC 204
  the approximate location in the sky (usually in terms of right ascension and declination)    
  galactic coordinates   G 345.01+1.79

Inspec follows the guidelines produced by the International Astronomical Union. A thesaurus-type document entitled "Nomenclature of Astronomical Catalogue Designations" is available from Inspec.

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AS All Sources [Display Only]
 

The All Sources (AS) contains all sources for abstracts that are available in multiple sources.

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AU Author [Phrase Indexed]
katz rn.au.
 

The Author (AU) field contains the names of the authors or editors of an item. In the case of a patent, the field contains the names of the inventors. The format for authors is Smith AE, or Smith A.

Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and the first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

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AX Abstract Number [Phrase Indexed]
"a1898 01 a4100 00056".ax.
 

The Abstract Number (AX) field contains the number(s) within the various sections of the Inspec database.

These sections are:

  A       Physics
  B   Electrical & Electronic Engineering
  C   Computing & Control Engineering
  D   Information Technology

In the case of sections A, B and C, their numbers are those assigned to the item as published in one of the Inspec Abstracts Journals. The section of the Database in which items occur may be identified by the first letters of the Classification Codes. An item may appear in more than one section, and in such circumstances this group may contain more than one Abstract Number.

The Abstract Number (AX) field is being loaded as an indexable and displayable field in the Inspec database. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until the IP populates it in the input data.

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AZ Author Last Name [Phrase Indexed]
qadri hamarsheh.az.
 

The Author Last Name (AZ) index allows you to search for the authors' last names. Authors' names display in Author (AU) and Author Unabbreviated (FA) fields.

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CA Corporate Author/Issuing Organization [Word Indexed]
austria.ca.
 

The Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) field contains the name of the issuing organization for a dissertation or a report.

Enter the single most descriptive word in a corporate author's name, for example, enter only "Harvard", not "Harvard University". Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

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CB Cited Reference Date [Phrase Indexed]
2011.cb.
 

The Cited Reference Date (CB) field contains the year of publication for the reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CC Classification Codes [Phrase Indexed]
b0240g.cc.
crystal growth.cc.
 

The Classification Codes (CC) field contains the appropriate code or codes from the Inspec Classification. Inspec Classification is a powerful search tool, which enables you to limit your search to predetermined sections of the Inspec Database.

The Inspec classification is divided into four sections. Codes begin with A, B, C, D or E where:

  Section A -   Physics
  Section B -   Electrical Engineering and Electronics
  Section C -   Computers and Control
  Section D -   Information Technology for Business
  Section E -   Production, Manufacturing & Mechanical Engineering

The code format is typically: A7865K where

  A       section of the database
  7   highest or most general level of classification
  8   second level of classification
  65   third level of classification
  K   fourth or most specific level of classification (not all codes have the fourth level of classification)
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CD CODEN [Phrase Indexed]
prvdaq.cd.
 

The CODEN (CD) field contains the full six-character CODEN, including check digit, for the Source (SO) and the Translated Source (TS). The CODEN corresponds with the journal in the Source (SO) field. The CODEN for the Translated Source can be viewed in the Translated Source Field.

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CE Cited Reference Publisher [Word Indexed]
elsevier.ce.
 

The Cited Reference Publisher (CE) field contains the publisher of the referenced publication. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CF Conference Information [Word Indexed]
fuzzy logic.cf.
albuquerque.cf.
 

The Conference Information (CF) field contains the title, location, and dates of the conference and may contain the name of the sponsoring organization.

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CG Cited Reference Corporate Author/Issuing Organization [Word Indexed]
group.cg.
 

The Cited Reference Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CG) field contains the name of the organization, group, collaboration, or corporate author name for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CH Chemicals [Phrase Indexed]
caco3.ch.
pb03-ss.ch.
 

The Chemicals (CH) field, which first appears in 1987, contains data on the significant substances and material systems discussed in a paper. Organic substances are not covered by this index.

Search on either an entire chemical compound, or any chemical group that is a subset of that compound. For example, search on "H2S04" or simply search on "S04" for all compounds containing "S04".

Roles can be applied to compounds to indicate the number of elements in the compound. For example, to retrieve a binary system containing H2, enter the compound followed by the appropriate code for the type of role in which you are interested. For example, "h2-bin.ch." will search for H2 as part of a binary system. Or, search for H2 and use the Limit/Chemical Role menu to select a role.

Roles which can be used are:

  el       Element       int       Interface System
  bin   Binary System   sur   Surface or Substrate
  ss   System with 3 or more components   ads   Adsorbate or any sorbate
  dop   Dopant        
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CI Cited Reference Issue [Word Indexed]
june.ci.
 

The Cited Reference Issue (CI) field contains the issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal or other publication for the reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CJ Cited Reference Link [Word Indexed]
journal.cj.
 

The Cited Reference Link (CJ) field contains the Internet Uniform Resource Locator of the cited work. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CK Cited Reference Series Title [Word Indexed]
aip.ck.
 

The Cited Reference Series Title (CK) field contains the series title for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CL Cited Reference Volume [Word Indexed]
113.cl.
 

The Cited Reference Volume (CL) field contains the volume number for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CM Cited Reference Conference Title [Word Indexed]
proceedings.cm.
 

The Cited Reference Conference Title (CM) field contains the title of the conference for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CN Contract Number [Phrase Indexed]
esa str 253.cn
 

The Contract Number (CN) field contains the contract number(s) under which work described in a technical report has been performed.

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CO Cited Reference Page [Word Indexed]
g00e02.co.
 

The Cited Reference Page (CO) field contains the page number of a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CP Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
russia.cp.
 

The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the full name of the country where the work was published. Country names are indexed as phrases. Enter the first few letters of the country and select it from the index. For example, enter "Pacific" to select "Pacific Islands."

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CQ Cited Reference Edition [Word Indexed]
2nd.cq.
 

The Cited Reference Edition (CQ) field contains the edition number for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CR Copyright [Display Only]
 

The Copyright (CR) field contains a statement on the copyright of the bibliographic record. It does not indicate copyright ownership of the published item to which the bibliographic record refers.

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CS Cited Reference Source [Phrase Indexed]
science.cs.
 

The Cited Reference Source (CS) field contains the title of the publication. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CT Cited Reference Author [Phrase Indexed]
taylor j.ct.
 

The Cited Reference Author (CT) field contains the author for the source document. Authors may be Anonymous, Individual Authors, or Institutional Authors. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CU Cited Reference Author Last Name [Word Indexed]
uschold.cu.
 

The Cited Reference Author Last Name (CU) field contains the last name of the author for the source document. Authors may be Anonymous, Individual Authors, or Institutional Authors. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CV Cited Reference Title [Word Indexed]
variable.cv.
 

The Cited Reference Title (CV) field contains the title of the source document. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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CW Classification Code Words [Word Indexed]
supernovae.cw.
 

Use the Classification Code Words (CW) field to retrieve every instance of a word within the Classification Codes. For example, searching interplanetary.cw. will return these Classification Codes: "Cosmic ray interplanetary propagation and effects," "Interplanetary dust," "Shock waves in interplanetary space," "Interplanetary magnetic fields," etc.

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DE Pre-1995 Subject Headings [Display Only]
 

The Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE) field displays subject headings no longer used in the current INSPEC Thesaurus, but that were used at some time in the past.

These terms will not appear in the Thesaurus, but can be searched in the Subject Headings (SH) field or the Heading Word (HW) field.

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DN Document Number [Phrase Indexed]
s8755 4615 05 00064 2.dn.
 

The Document Number (DN) field contains the publisher's unique document-specific identity number. Document numbers are being used increasingly by publishers to identify documents in electronic journals.

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DO Digital Object Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
10 h79 174329007x153288.do.
10 5214 1 28081.do.
 

The Digital Object Identifier (DO) field contains the registered DOI for electronic documents.

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DP Date of Publication [Word Indexed]
2011.dp.
 

The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the date the article or monograph was published as provided by the publisher.

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ED Editor [Phrase Indexed]
zwiggelaar r.ed.
 

The Editor (ED) field contains the names of the editors of an item. The format for editors is "Smith AW", or "Smith A."

Enter the last name, or it if is a common name, enter the last name and the first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

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EE Editor Email [Word Indexed]
freiburgde.ee.
 

The Editor Email (EE) field contains the email of the editor/s.

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EL Author Email [Word Indexed]
iacobini.el.
 

The Author Email (EL) field contains the email of the author/s.

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EM Cited Reference Author Email [Word Indexed]
edwumdedu.em.
 

The Cited Reference Author Email (EM) field contains the email(s) of the author(s) for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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EN Editor Affiliation [Display Only]
 

The Editor Affiliation (EN) field gives the affiliation of the first-named editor at the time the work was done. This field can be searched in the Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) field.

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FA Author Unabbreviated [Phrase Indexed]
zywicki sebastian.fa.
 

The Author Unabbreviated (FA) field contains the full name of the author/s of the article when available.

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FE Editor Unabbreviated [Phrase Indexed]
zobel richard.fe.
 

The Editor Unabbreviated (FE) field contains the full name of the editor/s of the article when available.

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HW Subject Heading Words [Word Indexed]
health.hw.
waves.hw.
 

Sometimes you may wish to retrieve every subject heading (current or discontinued) that contains a particular word; this is done by searching a single word in the Subject Heading Words (HW) field. Results will display in the Subject Headings (SH) field or Original Subject Heading (OH) field.

You can also view current subject headings that contain a particular word by using the Permuted Index under the Tools option.

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IA Inspec Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
10029564.ia.
 

The Inspec Accession Number (IA) index contains the Accession Number related to the cited reference in each record.

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IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
9843233948.ib.
 

The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) for a book or monographic publication. The ISBN (IB) field appears as a 10-digit or 13-digit number and separated by hyphens or spaces. Search the ISBN number without hyphens or spaces.

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IC International Patent Classification [Phrase Indexed]
x ray tubes.ic.
 

The International Patent Classification (IC) field contains the appropriate International Patent Classification code/s or IPC code/s and their hierarchical context from the World Intellectual Property Organization. The IPC code and the phrase that it contains are each stored in the IC index. Searching for "Non-linear optics.ic." or "G02F135.ic." will retrieve the same documents.

Use the International Patent Classification Word (IW) index to search individual words.

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ID Key Phrase Identifiers [Word Indexed]
knowledge based systems.id.
 

The Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) field contains free-language words or phrases which are assigned by Inspec indexers. These give a more exhaustive description of the content of the document than that which is provided by the original title or by controlled index terms.

Individual words from the Key Phrases are entered into the index; enter individual words to view the index.

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IE Inspec Accession Number Links [Display Only]
 

The Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) field contains the linkable Accession Number related to the cited reference in each record.

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IN Author/Editor Affiliation [Word Indexed]
cambridge univ.in.
 

The Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) field contains the primary author's or editor's affiliation.

Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution ("Harvard", not "Harvard University"). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

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IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
71.ip.
 

The Issue/Part (IP) field contains the issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal or other publication. The IP field displays as part of the Source (SO).

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IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
1051 8215.is.
 

The ISSN (IS) field contains the ISSN of the original journal. The ISSN of the translation can be viewed in the Translated Source (TS) field.

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IU Inspec Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
2009034.iu.
 

The Inspec Update Code (IU) consists of year and issue elements. It appears in YYYYIII format. It specifies the Inspec update in which the record was released.

This field also displays a record's amended date. The amended date appears in YYYYMMDD format.

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IW International Patent Classification Word [Word Indexed]
acids.iw.
 

Use the International Patent Classification Word (IW) index to retrieve every instance of a word within the International Patent Classification. For example, searching on "forestry.iw" will return these IPCs: "Agriculture; Forestry; Animal husbandry; Hunting; Trapping; Fishing", "Soil working in agriculture or forestry; Parts, details, or accessories of agricultural machines or implements, in general" etc.

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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
theoretical computer science.jn.
ieee journal of quantum electronics.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published. The Journal Name displays in the Source (SO) field.

Journal names are indexed as phrases, so enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index. For example, "human comp" for "Human Computer Interaction."

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JX Journal Word [Word Indexed]
radio.jx.
neural.jx.
 

The Journal Word (JX) index contains individual words from every journal name in Inspec. This field is used to retrieve every occurrence of a journal that contains a particular word, such as "lasers."

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LG Language [Word Indexed]
english.lg.
japanese.lg.
 

The Language (LG) field contains the language or languages of the item abstracted.

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LH Local Holdings [Display Only]
 

The Local Holdings (LH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") if a journal is held locally.

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LM Local Messages [Display Only]
 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by the System Administrator to indicate information about journals held in your local library system.

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ND Numeric Data [Word Indexed]
density.nd.
time.nd.
 

The Numerical Data (ND) field, which first appears in 1987, contains structured numeric data. The data is more likely to be operating or experimental parameters rather than measured values or experimental results. Only data which is in the title or abstract or is encountered by the indexer in writing the abstract is considered for inclusion.

To limit to articles discussing a particular type (such as Velocity) without actually searching on the actual numeric value, use the Limit or Numeric Data option.

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OC Original Classification Codes [Phrase Indexed]
optical communications.oc.
 

The Original Classification Codes (OC) field includes the original classification which was used to order and cross-reference the records in the Science Abstracts. This field will include a numeric code when available.

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OH Original Subject Heading [Phrase Indexed]
absorption.oh.
 

The Original Subject Heading (OH) contains the indexing terms for the record as it appeared in the original Science Abstracts. Each entry will include a Main term followed by Sub-terms and a Modifier.

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OI Organization Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
10051.oi.
 

The Organization Identifier (OI) field is a number assigned to an organization in an article. This field is phrase indexed. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until the IP populates it in the input data.

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OS Original Source [Display Only]
 

For records where the English language cover-to-cover translation journal is indexed, the Original Source (OS) field contains the full title of the original journal, along with the Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), ISSN (IS) and CODEN (CD) of the original when available.

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PG Pagination [Word Indexed]
101.pg.
 

The Pagination (PG) field contains either the number of pages in a book, conference proceeding, or dissertation, or the inclusive page numbers of the original journal paper, conference paper, report section, or book chapter.

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PI Patent Information [Word Indexed]
submitted.pi.
 

The Patent Information (PI) index is used in documents dating prior to 1977 only. The Patent Information field contains information unique to patents such as the application number; country of application, date filed, and patent assignee.

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PJ Parallel Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
teploenergetika.pj
 

The Parallel Journal Name (PJ) contains the full name of the journal in which the translation was published. The Parallel Journal Name displays in the Original Source (OS) and Translated Source (TS) field. Journal names phrase indexed. Enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index: "russian eng" for "Russian Engineering Journal."

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PP Place of Publication [Word Indexed]
london.pp.
 

The Place of Publication (PP) field contains the name of the town or city where the item was published. This normally applies to books and conference proceedings. This field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field when no Country of Publication (CP) is provided.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
dissertation.pt.
 

The Publication Type (PT) field defines the type of document to which the bibliographic record refers.

All records in the database are assigned one of the following publication types:

  Book       Journal Paper
  Book Chapter   Patent (prior to 1977 only)
  Conference Paper   Report
  Conference Proceedings   Report Section
  Dissertation   Standard
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PU Publisher [Word Indexed]
cambridge.pu.
 

The Publisher (PU) index contains the words in the name of the publisher of a book, conference proceedings, dissertation, and from 1996, journals. This field displays as a part of the Source (SO) field.

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RD Cited Reference DOI [Phrase Indexed]
10 1002 0470044136.rd.
 

The Cited Reference DOI (RD) field contains the Digital Object Identifier of the electronic document cited in a record. These DOIs may contain full text access. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

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RF Cited References [Display Only]
 

The Cited References (RF) field contains a complete or partial reference list of the source document.

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RN Report Number [Phrase Indexed]
y3216.rn.
 

The Report Number (RN) field contains the primary identification number of a report. This is normally the number given to the report by the issuing organization (not the US Government Clearing House Number). Inspec treats IEEE Standards as reports. If no report number is available, the field contains the word "unnumbered."

The Report Number field is word indexed so any part of the report number can be searched separately, if desired.

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SH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
magnetic resonance.sh.
 

The Subject Headings (SH) index contains controlled index terms assigned to the document from the Inspec Thesaurus. Records exist only for current and deleted full terms and not for lead-in terms.

Subject Headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched as they appear in the published Inspec Thesaurus or as they appear in the Thesaurus display, which can be access by using the Tools/Thesaurus Option.

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SI SICI [Phrase Indexed]
8756 758x 200705 30 5l 443 fcig 1 k.si.
1991 8763 200702 2 2l 93 ubhp 1.si.
 

The SICI (SI) field contains the Serial Item Contribution Identifier as defined in ANSI Standard Z39.56 (1991). This code is generated automatically for journal articles, from other data elements, where enough of these have been collected by Inspec to produce a valid SICI code. The code contains some or all of the following elements: ISSN, Chronology, Enumeration, Location Number, Title Code, Standard Version Number, and Check Character.

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SO Source [Display Only]
 

The Source (SO) field displays all of the basic information needed to locate a citation, including full Journal Name (JN), Publisher (PU), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), Place of Publication (PP) and Year (YR). The town or city of publication is also included, but mainly applies to books and conference proceedings.

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TE Image Caption Text [Word Indexed]
transformers.te.
 

The Image Caption Text (TE) field includes the optional caption for an image.

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TI Title [Word Indexed]
quantum coherence.ti.
information society.ti.
 

The Title (TI) field contains the title of the bibliographic record, i.e. title of journal paper, book, book chapter, conference proceedings, conference paper, patent, dissertation, report or report section.

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TR Treatment [Phrase Indexed]
bibliography.tr.
new development.tr.
 

The Treatment (TR) field can be used to enhance searching when a search on subject descriptive data elements is not enough. Treatments can be searched directly using the phrase or Limit option.

Nine types of treatment codes can be assigned to a document. The treatments types are:

  Application       Practical
  Bibliography   Product Review
  Economic   Theoretical or Mathematical
  General or Review   Experimental
  New Development    

The Treatment Field was first used in 1971.

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TS Translated Source [Word Indexed]
0887.ts.
 

For records where the original source journal is indexed, the Translated Source (TS) field contains the full title of the English language cover-to-cover translation journal, along with the Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), ISSN (IS) and CODEN (CD) of the translation when available.

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TW Text Word [Word Indexed]
quantum coherence.tw.
 

A Text Word (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in the database which contain text words and which are appropriate for a free-text subject search.

The Textword fields in Inspec include Title (TI), Abstract (AB) and Key Phrase Identifiers (ID).

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UC U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code [Display Only]
 

The US Copyright Clearance Center Code (UC) contains the US Copyright Clearance Center Code. The Copyright Clearance Center (21 Congress St, Salem, Massachusetts 01970) conveys authorizations to photocopy to users of copyrighted material from thousands of copyright owners, mainly publishers; royalty fees are collected from photocopy users and distributed to appropriate publishers.

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UD Universal Decimal Classification [Phrase Indexed]
0613.ud.
 

The Universal Decimal Classification (UD) field contains the UDC code(s) assigned to the record. This classification was used to order and cross-reference the records in the Science Abstracts journals from 1942-1967.

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UN U.S. Government Clearing House Number [Phrase Indexed]
 

The US Government Clearing House Number (UN) field contains the identification number assigned to a report by the US Government Clearing House for Federal Scientific and Technical Information. This number is usually of the form 'PB' or 'AD' followed by a variable length serial number. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until the IP populates it in the input data.

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UP Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
200600.up.
 

The Update Code (UP) field contains a six-digit number indicating the year and the week of the update. For example, 200109 represents the update for the ninth week of 2001.

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UR URL [Phrase Indexed]
firstmonday.ur.
 

The URL (UR) field contains the Internet Uniform Resource Locator of electronic documents and document collections URLs that are believed to be stable.

Each part of the URL and file name is indexed, so enter the most descriptive word or words in a URL or file name.

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VO Volume [Word Indexed]
1012.vo.
1000.vo.
 

The Volume (VO) index contains the volume number of a serial publication. This field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

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YR Year [Phrase Indexed]
2005.yr.
 

The Year (YR) index contains the year in which an article or monograph was published. The year is indexed as four digits.

This field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax listed below to combine search terms or strategically develop a search. Full documentation is provided in the Advanced Searching Techniques section of the Online Help.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y dielectric or "plasma slabs" "dielectric barrier discharge"

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y waveguides and variable "dynamic range variable optical attenuator"

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y waveguides not variable "sub-layers in polymeric waveguides"

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y varying waveguides "Propagation in slowly-varying wave-guides"

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y polymeric adj3 waveguides "polymeric optical waveguides"

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n) of words from each other in any order. To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99. For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship within five words of each other in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship of the physician to the patient.
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab. /freq=5 "Implantable blood pressure monitoring"

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ rat$ "quality issues impacting tin mill operations"

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or * (asterisk). For example, in the truncated search disease*, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1 "systolic function in dogs"

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n "the leading cause of death in women"

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r "Color texture recognition in video sequences"

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "go/no-go"

"go/no-go testing based on the use of confidence limits"

"n" "3".vo

"vol.3, no.1, 2005, pp. 78-96"

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/ ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract. Over 50% of the INSPEC records after 1975 contain abstracts. All abstracts included in INSPEC are in English and were written by the author(s) of the original article.
Chemical Roles Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to binary system
limit 1 to element
  Chemical Roles can be applied to compounds to indicate the number of elements in the compound. For example, to retrieve a binary system containing H2, search on H2.ch. and then limit the search to binary.
Classification Codes Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to section a - physics
  A limit to Classification Codes will restrict retrieval to any of the sections in the limit list. Any item may appear in more than one section.
English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english
  A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles written in the English language.
Journal Paper Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to journal paper
  Journal Papers make up approximately 80% of the total items in the Inspec database. A limit to Journal Papers will restrict retrieval to items abstracted from journal articles.
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text
 

A limit to Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.

Languages Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to spanish
  A limit to Language will restrict your retrieval to any of the languages in the limit list. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetic list of languages from which to select.

Latest Update

Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to latest update
  New documents are added to the Inspec database at regular intervals. A limit to latest update will restrict retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.
Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
  A limit to local holdings will restrict retrieval to documents from journals held in your local library or library system.

If your System Administrator has created any special messages about a journal's availability, this message will display with the document in the Local Holdings (LH) field.
Numeric Data Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to altitude
limit 1 to galactic distance
limit 1 to wavelength
  Select this option to select from a descriptive list of the different types of numeric data limits available. The data is more likely to be operating or experimental parameters rather than measured values or experimental results. Only data which is in the title or abstract or is encountered by the indexer in writing the abstract is considered for inclusion.
Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ovid full text available
 

A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available. When viewing a citation with full text available use the LINK button to display the full text.

Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to book
limit 1 to conference paper
limit 1 to report
  A limit to Publication Types can restrict retrieval to one of nine publication types. By selecting this option, you will be presented with a list of publication types and descriptions to choose from.
Publication Year Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=1996
  You can restrict retrieval to any of the years covered by the Inspec  database. If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits (1989) or a range (1994-1995).
Treatments Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to application
  A limit to Treatment restricts retrieval to one of nine treatment types, useful when a search on subject descriptive data elements is not enough.
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Tools
The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Segment   Command Syntax   Sentence Syntax
  1969 to Present   ..c/insz   use insz
  1987 to Present   ..c/insp   use insp
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Sample Document
Sample 1
Accession Number
	9601031
Author
	Bocharova TV. Adam JL. Karapetyan GO. Smektala F. Mironov AM. Tagil'tseva NO.
Author Unabbreviated
	Bocharova T. V.; Adam J. L.; Karapetyan G. O.; Smektala F.; Mironov A. M.; Tagil'tseva N. O.
Author/Editor Affiliation
	Bocharova TV. Karapetyan GO. Mironov AM. Tagil'tseva NO. : Lab. of Appl. Phys. & Opt. of Solids, Saint-
	Petersburg State Polytech. Univ., Politekhnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg 195251, Russia
Author Email
	Adam JL: [email protected]
Title
	Analysis of rare-earth ion spatial distribution in fluorophosphate glasses in terms of segregation
	phenomenon
Source
	Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol.68, no.5-6, May-June 2007, 978-82. Publisher: Elsevier 
	Science Ltd., UK.
Date of Publication
	May-June 2007
Country of Publication
	UK
Abstract
	The study deals with complex investigation of segregation phenomenon of Eu3+ (1.0 mol% EuF3) and Tb3+ 
	ions (1.2 mol% TbF3) in Ba(PO3)2-MgCaSrBaAl2F14 glasses, by using photoluminescence methods, followed 
	by Rayleigh and Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering (RMBS) measurements. It is shown that the local 
	environment of rare-earth ions depends on the ratio of rare-earth concentration and phosphate 
	component content. The results are interpreted in terms of doping-ion segregation model. (9 
	References).
Subject Headings
	aluminium compounds; barium compounds; Brillouin spectra; calcium compounds; europium; magnesium 
	compounds; phosphate glasses; photoluminescence; Rayleigh scattering; segregation; strontium 
	compounds; terbium.
Key Phrase Identifiers
	Ba(PO3)2-MgCaSrBaAl2F14-EuF3-TbF3; Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering; Rayleigh scattering;
	photoluminescence; Tb3+ ions; Eu3+ ions; segregation; fluorophosphate glasses; rare-earth ion spatial
	distribution.
Classification Codes
	Solubility, segregation, and mixing [A6475]; Photoluminescence in other inorganic materials [A7855H]; 
	Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering (condensed matter) [A7835].
Treatment
	Experimental.
Chemicals
	Ba(PO3)2MgCaSrBaAl2F14EuF3TbF3/ss; O3)2/ss; F14/ss; Al2/ss; Ba(/ss; F3/ss; Al/ss; Ba/ss; Ca/ss; 
	Eu/ss; Mg/ss; Sr/ss; Tb/ss; F/ss; O/ss; P/ss.
CODEN
	JPCSAW
Language
	English.
Digital Object Identifier
	http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs...
ISSN
	0022-3697
Publication Type
	Journal Paper
Inspec Update Code
	2007042. 
Update Code
	200700.
Copyright
	Copyright 2007, The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
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Producer Information
Producer

The Institution of Engineering and Technology
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Copyright
Inspec, copyright The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 1969 to (current year). Compiled and produced by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Inspec data may not be duplicated in hard-copy or stored or duplicated in machine-readable form without written authorization from the Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, except that data may be temporarily stored (for up to one month) in machine readable form for re- formatting or editing and that limited reproduction of printed output up to twenty-five (25) copies is permitted for distribution within the customer organization only. Under no circumstances may copies be made under this provision be offered for resale.
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