Inspec (INSP) Database Guide

Inspec is produced by The Institution of Engineering and Technology and provides access to the world's leading scientific and technical literature in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computers and computing, information technology, production and mechanical engineering. The Inspec database offers access to international journal articles, conference proceedings, reports, dissertations and books. Producer-assigned classification codes, descriptors and identifiers enhance subject access. Retrieval may also be restricted to any of the print counterparts. The Institution of Engineering and Technology is registered as a Charity in England & Wales (no 211014) and Scotland (no SC038698).

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name Years of Coverage
INSP 1987 - Present
INSZ 1969 - Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 15 segments.

This database is updated online weekly.



The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) Classification Code Words (CW) Numeric Data (ND)
  Abstract Number (AX) Classification Codes (CC) Open Access (OA)
  Accession Number (AN) CODEN (CD) ORCID ID (OR)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Conference Information (CF) Organization Identifier (OI)
  All Sources (AS) Contract Number (CN) Original Classification Codes (OC)
  Astronomical Object (AO) Copyright (CR) Original Source (OS)
  Author (AU) Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) Original Subject Heading (OH)
  Author Email (EL) Country of Publication (CP) Pagination (PG)
  Author Last Name (AZ) Date of Publication (DP) Parallel Journal Name (PJ)
  Author NameID (AI) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Patent Information (PI)
  Author Unabbreviated (FA) Document Number (DN) Place of Publication (PP)
  Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) Editor (ED) Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE)
  Availability (AA) Editor Affiliation (EN) Publication Type (PT)
  Chemicals (CH) Editor Email (EE) Publisher (PU)
  Cited Reference Author Email (EM)

Editor Unabbreviated (FE)

Report Number (RN)
  Cited Reference Author Last Name (CU)

Funding Data (FU)

  Cited Reference Author (CT) Image Caption Text (TE) Source (SO)
  Cited Reference Conference Title (CM) Inspec Accession Number (IA) Subject Heading Words (HW)
  Cited Reference Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CG) Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) Subject Headings (SH)
  Cited Reference Date (CB) Inspec Update Code (IU) Text Word (TW)
  Cited Reference DOI (RD) International Patent Classification (IC) Title (TI)
  Cited Reference Edition (CQ) International Patent Classification Word (IW) Translated Source (TS)
  Cited Reference Issue (CI) ISBN (IB) Treatment (TR)
  Cited Reference Link (CJ) ISSN (IS) Universal Decimal Classification (UD)
  Cited Reference Page (CO) Issue/Part (IP) Update Code (UP)
  Cited Reference Publisher (CE) Journal Name (JN) URL (UR)
  Cited Reference Series Title (CK) Journal Word (JX) U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code (UC)
  Cited Reference Source (CS) Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) U.S. Government Clearing House Number (UN)
  Cited Reference Title (CV) Language (LG) Volume (VO)
  Cited Reference Volume (CL) Local Holdings (LH) Year (YR)
  Cited References (RF) Local Messages (LM)  
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following Ĺmulti-purposeĺ (.mp.) fields for this database: ti,ab,hw,id.
  Abstract (AB) Subject Heading Words (HW) Title (TI)
  Key Phrase Identifiers (ID)    
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Organization Identifier (OI)
  Accession Number (AN) Editor (ED) Original Classification Codes (OC)
  All Sources (AS) Editor Affiliation (EN) Original Source (OS)
  Astronomical Object (AO) Editor Email (EE) Original Subject Heading (OH)
  Author (AU) Editor Unabbreviated (FE) Patent Information (PI)
  Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) Image Caption Text (TE) Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE)
  Author Email (EL) Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) Publication Type (PT)
  Author Unabrreviated (FA) Inspec Update Code (IU) Report Number (RN)
  Chemicals (CH) International Patent Classification (IC) Source (SO)
  Cited References (RF) ISBN (IB) Subject Headings (SH)
  Classification Codes (CC) ISSN (IS) Title (TI)
  Conference Information (CF) Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) Translated Source (TS)
  Copyright (CR) Language (LG) Treatment (TR)
  Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) Local Messages (LM) Universal Decimal Classification (UD)
  Date of Publication (DP) Numeric Data (ND) Update Code (UP)
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Date of Publication (DP) Original Source (OS)
  Abstract Number (AX) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Original Subject Heading (OH)
  Accession Number (AN) Document Number (DN) Patent Information (PI)
  All Sources (AS) Editor (ED) Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE)
  Astronomical Object (AO) Editor Affiliation (EN) Publication Type (PT)
  Author (AU) Editor Email (EE) Report Number (RN)
  Author Email (EL) Editor Unabbreviated (FE) SICI (SI)
  Author Unabbreviated (FA) Image Caption Text (TE) Source (SO)
  Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) Subject Headings (SH)
  Availability (AA) Inspec Update Code (IU) Title (TI)
  Chemicals (CH) International Patent Classification (IC) Translated Source (TS)
  Cited References (RF) ISBN (IB) Treatment (TR)
  Classification Codes (CC) ISSN (IS) Universal Decimal Classification (UD)
  CODEN (CD) Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) Update Code (UP)
  Conference Information (CF) Language (LG) URL (UR)
  Contract Number (CN) Local Messages (LM) U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code (UC)
  Copyright (CR) Numeric Data (ND) U.S. Government Clearing House Number (UN)
  Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) Organization Identifier (OI)  
  Country of Publication (CP) Original Classification Codes (OC)  
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Issue/Part (IP) Place of Publication (PP) Year (YR)
  Journal Name (JN) Publisher (PU)  
  Pagination (PG) Volume (VO)  
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AA Availability [Display Only]

The Availability (AA) field, when present, indicates where copies of the original document can be obtained. It also conveys information about the medium in which the document is available (such as microfiche).

Price information is included only when it is available in the document itself or in an accompanying leaflet, invoice, or other record supplied by the publisher or supplier. When both a hardcover and a paperback price appear, both are included.

AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
two-dimensional black holes.ab.

The Abstract (AB) field summarizes the content of the document and may also provide a description of the background, methods, results, and/or conclusions.

The Number of References (NR) field displays at the end of each abstract.

AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Abstract (AB).

AI Author NameID [Phrase Indexed]

The Author NameID (AI) field is being loaded as an indexable and displayable field in the Inspec database. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until a suitable publishing industry wide scheme is available.

AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]

The Accession Number (AN) field contains an identifier assigned by the IEE to uniquely identify a particular record.

AO Astronomical Object [Word Indexed]

The Astronomical Object (AO) field contains designations for astronomical objects discussed in the bibliographic item to which the record refers.

  This field may contain:       Example
  an acronym   LMC
  positional information   013022+30233
  an acronym for a catalogue followed by a catalogue entry number   NGC 204
  the approximate location in the sky (usually in terms of right ascension and declination)    
  galactic coordinates   G 345.01+1.79

Inspec follows the guidelines produced by the International Astronomical Union. A thesaurus-type document entitled "Nomenclature of Astronomical Catalogue Designations" is available from Inspec.

AS All Sources [Display Only]

The All Sources (AS) contains all sources for abstracts that are available in multiple sources.

AU Author [Phrase Indexed]

The Author (AU) field contains the names of the authors or editors of an item. In the case of a patent, the field contains the names of the inventors. The format for authors is Smith AE, or Smith A.

Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and the first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

AX Abstract Number [Phrase Indexed]
"a1898 01 a4100 00056".ax.

The Abstract Number (AX) field contains the number(s) within the various sections of the Inspec database.

These sections are:

  A       Physics
  B   Electrical & Electronic Engineering
  C   Computing & Control Engineering
  D   Information Technology

In the case of sections A, B and C, their numbers are those assigned to the item as published in one of the Inspec Abstracts Journals. The section of the Database in which items occur may be identified by the first letters of the Classification Codes. An item may appear in more than one section, and in such circumstances this group may contain more than one Abstract Number.

The Abstract Number (AX) field is being loaded as an indexable and displayable field in the Inspec database. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until the IP populates it in the input data.

AZ Author Last Name [Phrase Indexed]

The Author Last Name (AZ) index allows you to search for the authors' last names. Authors' names display in Author (AU) and Author Unabbreviated (FA) fields.

CA Corporate Author/Issuing Organization [Word Indexed]

The Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CA) field contains the name of the issuing organization for a dissertation or a report.

Enter the single most descriptive word in a corporate author's name, for example, enter only "Harvard", not "Harvard University". Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

CB Cited Reference Date [Phrase Indexed]

The Cited Reference Date (CB) field contains the year of publication for the reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CC Classification Codes [Phrase Indexed]

The Classification Codes (CC) field contains the appropriate code or codes from the Inspec Classification. Inspec Classification is a powerful search tool, which enables you to limit your search to predetermined sections of the Inspec Database.

The Inspec classification is divided into four sections. Codes begin with A, B, C, D or E where:

  Section A -   Physics
  Section B -   Electrical Engineering and Electronics
  Section C -   Computers and Control
  Section D -   Information Technology for Business
  Section E -   Production, Manufacturing & Mechanical Engineering

The code format is typically: A7865K where

  A       section of the database
  7   highest or most general level of classification
  8   second level of classification
  65   third level of classification
  K   fourth or most specific level of classification (not all codes have the fourth level of classification)
CD CODEN [Phrase Indexed]

The CODEN (CD) field contains the full six-character CODEN, including check digit, for the Source (SO) and the Translated Source (TS). The CODEN corresponds with the journal in the Source (SO) field. The CODEN for the Translated Source can be viewed in the Translated Source Field.

CE Cited Reference Publisher [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Publisher (CE) field contains the publisher of the referenced publication. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CF Conference Information [Word Indexed]

The Conference Information (CF) field contains the title, location, and dates of the conference and may contain the name of the sponsoring organization.

CG Cited Reference Corporate Author/Issuing Organization [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Corporate Author/Issuing Organization (CG) field contains the name of the organization, group, collaboration, or corporate author name for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CH Chemicals [Phrase Indexed]

The Chemicals (CH) field, which first appears in 1987, contains data on the significant substances and material systems discussed in a paper. Organic substances are not covered by this index.

Search on either an entire chemical compound, or any chemical group that is a subset of that compound. For example, search on "H2S04" or simply search on "S04" for all compounds containing "S04".

Roles can be applied to compounds to indicate the number of elements in the compound. For example, to retrieve a binary system containing H2, enter the compound followed by the appropriate code for the type of role in which you are interested. For example, "" will search for H2 as part of a binary system. Or, search for H2 and use the Limit/Chemical Role menu to select a role.

Roles which can be used are:

  el       Element       int       Interface System
  bin   Binary System   sur   Surface or Substrate
  ss   System with 3 or more components   ads   Adsorbate or any sorbate
  dop   Dopant        
CI Cited Reference Issue [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Issue (CI) field contains the issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal or other publication for the reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CJ Cited Reference Link [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Link (CJ) field contains the Internet Uniform Resource Locator of the cited work. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CK Cited Reference Series Title [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Series Title (CK) field contains the series title for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CL Cited Reference Volume [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Volume (CL) field contains the volume number for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CM Cited Reference Conference Title [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Conference Title (CM) field contains the title of the conference for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CN Contract Number [Phrase Indexed]
esa str

The Contract Number (CN) field contains the contract number(s) under which work described in a technical report has been performed.

CO Cited Reference Page [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Page (CO) field contains the page number of a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CP Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]

The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the full name of the country where the work was published. Country names are indexed as phrases. Enter the first few letters of the country and select it from the index. For example, enter "Pacific" to select "Pacific Islands."

CQ Cited Reference Edition [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Edition (CQ) field contains the edition number for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CR Copyright [Display Only]

The Copyright (CR) field contains a statement on the copyright of the bibliographic record. It does not indicate copyright ownership of the published item to which the bibliographic record refers.

CS Cited Reference Source [Phrase Indexed]

The Cited Reference Source (CS) field contains the title of the publication. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CT Cited Reference Author [Phrase Indexed]
taylor j.ct.

The Cited Reference Author (CT) field contains the author for the source document. Authors may be Anonymous, Individual Authors, or Institutional Authors. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CU Cited Reference Author Last Name [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Author Last Name (CU) field contains the last name of the author for the source document. Authors may be Anonymous, Individual Authors, or Institutional Authors. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CV Cited Reference Title [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Title (CV) field contains the title of the source document. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

CW Classification Code Words [Word Indexed]

Use the Classification Code Words (CW) field to retrieve every instance of a word within the Classification Codes. For example, searching will return these Classification Codes: "Cosmic ray interplanetary propagation and effects," "Interplanetary dust," "Shock waves in interplanetary space," "Interplanetary magnetic fields," etc.

DE Pre-1995 Subject Headings [Display Only]

The Pre-1995 Subject Headings (DE) field displays subject headings no longer used in the current INSPEC Thesaurus, but that were used at some time in the past.

These terms will not appear in the Thesaurus, but can be searched in the Subject Headings (SH) field or the Heading Word (HW) field.

DN Document Number [Phrase Indexed]
s8755 4615 05 00064 2.dn.

The Document Number (DN) field contains the publisher's unique document-specific identity number. Document numbers are being used increasingly by publishers to identify documents in electronic journals.

DO Digital Object Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
10 h79
10 5214 1

The Digital Object Identifier (DO) field contains the registered DOI for electronic documents.

DP Date of Publication [Word Indexed]

The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the date the article or monograph was published as provided by the publisher.

ED Editor [Phrase Indexed]
zwiggelaar r.ed.

The Editor (ED) field contains the names of the editors of an item. The format for editors is "Smith AW", or "Smith A."

Enter the last name, or it if is a common name, enter the last name and the first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

EE Editor Email [Word Indexed]

The Editor Email (EE) field contains the email of the editor/s.

EL Author Email [Word Indexed]

The Author Email (EL) field contains the email of the author/s.

EM Cited Reference Author Email [Word Indexed]

The Cited Reference Author Email (EM) field contains the email(s) of the author(s) for a reference. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

EN Editor Affiliation [Display Only]

The Editor Affiliation (EN) field gives the affiliation of the first-named editor at the time the work was done. This field can be searched in the Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) field.

FA Author Unabbreviated [Phrase Indexed]
zywicki sebastian.fa.

The Author Unabbreviated (FA) field contains the full name of the author/s of the article when available.

FE Editor Unabbreviated [Phrase Indexed]
zobel richard.fe.

The Editor Unabbreviated (FE) field contains the full name of the editor/s of the article when available.

FU Funding Data [Word Indexed]

The Funding Data (FU) field contains the name of the organization(s) that awarded the funding, and an award/grant ID assigned by the funder organization for this award.

HW Subject Heading Words [Word Indexed]

Sometimes you may wish to retrieve every subject heading (current or discontinued) that contains a particular word; this is done by searching a single word in the Subject Heading Words (HW) field. Results will display in the Subject Headings (SH) field or Original Subject Heading (OH) field.

You can also view current subject headings that contain a particular word by using the Permuted Index under the Tools option.

IA Inspec Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]

The Inspec Accession Number (IA) index contains the Accession Number related to the cited reference in each record.

IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]

The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) for a book or monographic publication. The ISBN (IB) field appears as a 10-digit or 13-digit number and separated by hyphens or spaces. Search the ISBN number without hyphens or spaces.

IC International Patent Classification [Phrase Indexed]
x ray tubes.ic.

The International Patent Classification (IC) field contains the appropriate International Patent Classification code/s or IPC code/s and their hierarchical context from the World Intellectual Property Organization. The IPC code and the phrase that it contains are each stored in the IC index. Searching for "Non-linear optics.ic." or "G02F135.ic." will retrieve the same documents.

Use the International Patent Classification Word (IW) index to search individual words.

ID Key Phrase Identifiers [Word Indexed]
knowledge based

The Key Phrase Identifiers (ID) field contains free-language words or phrases which are assigned by Inspec indexers. These give a more exhaustive description of the content of the document than that which is provided by the original title or by controlled index terms.

Individual words from the Key Phrases are entered into the index; enter individual words to view the index.

IE Inspec Accession Number Links [Display Only]

The Inspec Accession Number Links (IE) field contains the linkable Accession Number related to the cited reference in each record.

IN Author/Editor Affiliation [Word Indexed]

The Author/Editor Affiliation (IN) field contains the primary author's or editor's affiliation.

Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution ("Harvard", not "Harvard University"). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]

The Issue/Part (IP) field contains the issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal or other publication. The IP field displays as part of the Source (SO).

IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]

The ISSN (IS) field contains the ISSN of the original journal. The ISSN of the translation can be viewed in the Translated Source (TS) field.

IU Inspec Update Code [Phrase Indexed]

The Inspec Update Code (IU) consists of year and issue elements. It appears in YYYYIII format. It specifies the Inspec update in which the record was released.

This field also displays a record's amended date. The amended date appears in YYYYMMDD format.

IW International Patent Classification Word [Word Indexed]

Use the International Patent Classification Word (IW) index to retrieve every instance of a word within the International Patent Classification. For example, searching on "forestry.iw" will return these IPCs: "Agriculture; Forestry; Animal husbandry; Hunting; Trapping; Fishing", "Soil working in agriculture or forestry; Parts, details, or accessories of agricultural machines or implements, in general" etc.

JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
theoretical computer science.jn.
ieee journal of quantum electronics.jn.

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published. The Journal Name displays in the Source (SO) field.

Journal names are indexed as phrases, so enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index. For example, "human comp" for "Human Computer Interaction."

JX Journal Word [Word Indexed]

The Journal Word (JX) index contains individual words from every journal name in Inspec. This field is used to retrieve every occurrence of a journal that contains a particular word, such as "lasers."

LG Language [Word Indexed]

The Language (LG) field contains the language or languages of the item abstracted.

LH Local Holdings [Display Only]

The Local Holdings (LH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") if a journal is held locally.

LM Local Messages [Display Only]

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by the System Administrator to indicate information about journals held in your local library system.

ND Numeric Data [Word Indexed]

The Numerical Data (ND) field, which first appears in 1987, contains structured numeric data. The data is more likely to be operating or experimental parameters rather than measured values or experimental results. Only data which is in the title or abstract or is encountered by the indexer in writing the abstract is considered for inclusion.

To limit to articles discussing a particular type (such as Velocity) without actually searching on the actual numeric value, use the Limit or Numeric Data option.

OA Open Access [Word Indexed]

The Open Access (OA) label appears in records where the full-text content has been given open access status by the publisher.

OC Original Classification Codes [Phrase Indexed]
optical communications.oc.

The Original Classification Codes (OC) field includes the original classification which was used to order and cross-reference the records in the Science Abstracts. This field will include a numeric code when available.

OH Original Subject Heading [Phrase Indexed]

The Original Subject Heading (OH) contains the indexing terms for the record as it appeared in the original Science Abstracts. Each entry will include a Main term followed by Sub-terms and a Modifier.

OI Organization Identifier [Phrase Indexed]

The Organization Identifier (OI) field is a number assigned to an organization in an article. This field is phrase indexed. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until the IP populates it in the input data.

OR Orcid Id [Word Indexed]

The ORCID ID (OR) is a 16-digit identifier used by individuals. The ID is a unique, persistent identifier registered with ORCID and linked to an ORCID record for the individual. Current records do not contain the ORCID ID, but future records will have it when provided.

OS Original Source [Display Only]

For records where the English language cover-to-cover translation journal is indexed, the Original Source (OS) field contains the full title of the original journal, along with the Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), ISSN (IS) and CODEN (CD) of the original when available.

PG Pagination [Word Indexed]

The Pagination (PG) field contains either the number of pages in a book, conference proceeding, or dissertation, or the inclusive page numbers of the original journal paper, conference paper, report section, or book chapter.

PI Patent Information [Word Indexed]

The Patent Information (PI) index is used in documents dating prior to 1977 only. The Patent Information field contains information unique to patents such as the application number; country of application, date filed, and patent assignee.

PJ Parallel Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]

The Parallel Journal Name (PJ) contains the full name of the journal in which the translation was published. The Parallel Journal Name displays in the Original Source (OS) and Translated Source (TS) field. Journal names phrase indexed. Enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index: "russian eng" for "Russian Engineering Journal."

PP Place of Publication [Word Indexed]

The Place of Publication (PP) field contains the name of the town or city where the item was published. This normally applies to books and conference proceedings. This field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field when no Country of Publication (CP) is provided.

PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]

The Publication Type (PT) field defines the type of document to which the bibliographic record refers.

All records in the database are assigned one of the following publication types:

  Book       Journal Paper
  Book Chapter   Patent (prior to 1977 only)
  Conference Paper   Report
  Conference Proceedings   Report Section
  Dissertation   Standard
PU Publisher [Word Indexed]

The Publisher (PU) index contains the words in the name of the publisher of a book, conference proceedings, dissertation, and from 1996, journals. This field displays as a part of the Source (SO) field.

RD Cited Reference DOI [Phrase Indexed]
10 1002 0470044136.rd.

The Cited Reference DOI (RD) field contains the Digital Object Identifier of the electronic document cited in a record. These DOIs may contain full text access. This field displays as part of the Cited References (RF) field.

RF Cited References [Display Only]

The Cited References (RF) field contains a complete or partial reference list of the source document.

RN Report Number [Phrase Indexed]

The Report Number (RN) field contains the primary identification number of a report. This is normally the number given to the report by the issuing organization (not the US Government Clearing House Number). Inspec treats IEEE Standards as reports. If no report number is available, the field contains the word "unnumbered."

The Report Number field is word indexed so any part of the report number can be searched separately, if desired.

SH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]

The Subject Headings (SH) index contains controlled index terms assigned to the document from the Inspec Thesaurus. Records exist only for current and deleted full terms and not for lead-in terms.

Subject Headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched as they appear in the published Inspec Thesaurus or as they appear in the Thesaurus display, which can be access by using the Tools/Thesaurus Option.

SI SICI [Phrase Indexed]
8756 758x 200705 30 5l 443 fcig 1
1991 8763 200702 2 2l 93 ubhp

The SICI (SI) field contains the Serial Item Contribution Identifier as defined in ANSI Standard Z39.56 (1991). This code is generated automatically for journal articles, from other data elements, where enough of these have been collected by Inspec to produce a valid SICI code. The code contains some or all of the following elements: ISSN, Chronology, Enumeration, Location Number, Title Code, Standard Version Number, and Check Character.

SO Source [Display Only]

The Source (SO) field displays all of the basic information needed to locate a citation, including full Journal Name (JN), Publisher (PU), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), Place of Publication (PP) and Year (YR). The town or city of publication is also included, but mainly applies to books and conference proceedings.

TE Image Caption Text [Word Indexed]

The Image Caption Text (TE) field includes the optional caption for an image.

TI Title [Word Indexed]
quantum coherence.ti.
information society.ti.

The Title (TI) field contains the title of the bibliographic record, i.e. title of journal paper, book, book chapter, conference proceedings, conference paper, patent, dissertation, report or report section.

TR Treatment [Phrase Indexed]

The Treatment (TR) field can be used to enhance searching when a search on subject descriptive data elements is not enough. Treatments can be searched directly using the phrase or Limit option.

Nine types of treatment codes can be assigned to a document. The treatments types are:

  Application       Practical
  Bibliography   Product Review
  Economic   Theoretical or Mathematical
  General or Review   Experimental
  New Development    

The Treatment Field was first used in 1971.

TS Translated Source [Word Indexed]

For records where the original source journal is indexed, the Translated Source (TS) field contains the full title of the English language cover-to-cover translation journal, along with the Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), ISSN (IS) and CODEN (CD) of the translation when available.

TW Text Word [Word Indexed]

A Text Word (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in the database which contain text words and which are appropriate for a free-text subject search.

The Textword fields in Inspec include Title (TI), Abstract (AB) and Key Phrase Identifiers (ID).

UC U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code [Display Only]

The US Copyright Clearance Center Code (UC) contains the US Copyright Clearance Center Code. The Copyright Clearance Center (21 Congress St, Salem, Massachusetts 01970) conveys authorizations to photocopy to users of copyrighted material from thousands of copyright owners, mainly publishers; royalty fees are collected from photocopy users and distributed to appropriate publishers.

UD Universal Decimal Classification [Phrase Indexed]

The Universal Decimal Classification (UD) field contains the UDC code(s) assigned to the record. This classification was used to order and cross-reference the records in the Science Abstracts journals from 1942-1967.

UN U.S. Government Clearing House Number [Phrase Indexed]

The US Government Clearing House Number (UN) field contains the identification number assigned to a report by the US Government Clearing House for Federal Scientific and Technical Information. This number is usually of the form 'PB' or 'AD' followed by a variable length serial number. However, this field will be unavailable to customers until the IP populates it in the input data.

UP Update Code [Phrase Indexed]

The Update Code (UP) field contains a six-digit number indicating the year and the week of the update. For example, 200109 represents the update for the ninth week of 2001.

UR URL [Phrase Indexed]

The URL (UR) field contains the Internet Uniform Resource Locator of electronic documents and document collections URLs that are believed to be stable.

Each part of the URL and file name is indexed, so enter the most descriptive word or words in a URL or file name.

VO Volume [Word Indexed]

The Volume (VO) index contains the volume number of a serial publication. This field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

YR Year [Phrase Indexed]

The Year (YR) index contains the year in which an article or monograph was published. The year is indexed as four digits.

This field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax listed below to combine search terms or strategically develop a search. Full documentation is provided in the Advanced Searching Techniques section of the Online Help.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y dielectric or "plasma slabs" "dielectric barrier discharge"


The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y waveguides and variable "dynamic range variable optical attenuator"


The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y waveguides not variable "sub-layers in polymeric waveguides"


The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y varying waveguides "Propagation in slowly-varying wave-guides"


The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y polymeric adj3 waveguides "polymeric optical waveguides"


The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n) of words from each other in any order. To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99. For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship within five words of each other in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship of the physician to the patient.
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab. /freq=5 "Implantable blood pressure monitoring"


The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ rat$ "quality issues impacting tin mill operations"


Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or * (asterisk). For example, in the truncated search disease*, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1 "systolic function in dogs"


Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n "the leading cause of death in women"


Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r "Color texture recognition in video sequences"


The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "go/no-go"

"go/no-go testing based on the use of confidence limits"

"n" "3".vo

"vol.3, no.1, 2005, pp. 78-96"


Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.


Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/ ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract. Over 50% of the INSPEC records after 1975 contain abstracts. All abstracts included in INSPEC are in English and were written by the author(s) of the original article.
Chemical Roles Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to binary system
limit 1 to element
  Chemical Roles can be applied to compounds to indicate the number of elements in the compound. For example, to retrieve a binary system containing H2, search on and then limit the search to binary.
Classification Codes Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to section a - physics
  A limit to Classification Codes will restrict retrieval to any of the sections in the limit list. Any item may appear in more than one section.
English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english
  A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles written in the English language.
Journal Paper Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to journal paper
  Journal Papers make up approximately 80% of the total items in the Inspec database. A limit to Journal Papers will restrict retrieval to items abstracted from journal articles.
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text

A limit to Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.

Languages Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to spanish
  A limit to Language will restrict your retrieval to any of the languages in the limit list. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetic list of languages from which to select.

Latest Update

Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to latest update
  New documents are added to the Inspec database at regular intervals. A limit to latest update will restrict retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.
Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
  A limit to local holdings will restrict retrieval to documents from journals held in your local library or library system.

If your System Administrator has created any special messages about a journal's availability, this message will display with the document in the Local Holdings (LH) field.
Numeric Data Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to altitude
limit 1 to galactic distance
limit 1 to wavelength
  Select this option to select from a descriptive list of the different types of numeric data limits available. The data is more likely to be operating or experimental parameters rather than measured values or experimental results. Only data which is in the title or abstract or is encountered by the indexer in writing the abstract is considered for inclusion.
Open Access Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to open access
  A limit to Open Access will restrict retrieval to label appears in records where the full-text content has been given open access status by the publisher.
Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ovid full text available

A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available. When viewing a citation with full text available use the LINK button to display the full text.

Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to book
limit 1 to conference paper
limit 1 to report
  A limit to Publication Types can restrict retrieval to one of nine publication types. By selecting this option, you will be presented with a list of publication types and descriptions to choose from.
Publication Year Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=1996
  You can restrict retrieval to any of the years covered by the Inspec  database. If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits (1989) or a range (1994-1995).
Treatments Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to application
  A limit to Treatment restricts retrieval to one of nine treatment types, useful when a search on subject descriptive data elements is not enough.
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The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Segment   Command Syntax   Sentence Syntax
  1969 to Present   ..c/insz   use insz
  1987 to Present   ..c/insp   use insp
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Sample Document
Sample 1
Accession Number
	Bocharova TV. Adam JL. Karapetyan GO. Smektala F. Mironov AM. Tagil'tseva NO.
Author Unabbreviated
	Bocharova T. V.; Adam J. L.; Karapetyan G. O.; Smektala F.; Mironov A. M.; Tagil'tseva N. O.
Author/Editor Affiliation
	Bocharova TV. Karapetyan GO. Mironov AM. Tagil'tseva NO. : Lab. of Appl. Phys. & Opt. of Solids, Saint-
	Petersburg State Polytech. Univ., Politekhnicheskaya 29, Saint Petersburg 195251, Russia
Author Email
	Adam JL: [email protected]
	Analysis of rare-earth ion spatial distribution in fluorophosphate glasses in terms of segregation
	Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol.68, no.5-6, May-June 2007, 978-82. Publisher: Elsevier 
	Science Ltd., UK.
Date of Publication
	May-June 2007
Country of Publication
	The study deals with complex investigation of segregation phenomenon of Eu3+ (1.0 mol% EuF3) and Tb3+ 
	ions (1.2 mol% TbF3) in Ba(PO3)2-MgCaSrBaAl2F14 glasses, by using photoluminescence methods, followed 
	by Rayleigh and Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering (RMBS) measurements. It is shown that the local 
	environment of rare-earth ions depends on the ratio of rare-earth concentration and phosphate 
	component content. The results are interpreted in terms of doping-ion segregation model. (9 
Subject Headings
	aluminium compounds; barium compounds; Brillouin spectra; calcium compounds; europium; magnesium 
	compounds; phosphate glasses; photoluminescence; Rayleigh scattering; segregation; strontium 
	compounds; terbium.
Key Phrase Identifiers
	Ba(PO3)2-MgCaSrBaAl2F14-EuF3-TbF3; Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering; Rayleigh scattering;
	photoluminescence; Tb3+ ions; Eu3+ ions; segregation; fluorophosphate glasses; rare-earth ion spatial
Classification Codes
	Solubility, segregation, and mixing [A6475]; Photoluminescence in other inorganic materials [A7855H]; 
	Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering (condensed matter) [A7835].
	Ba(PO3)2MgCaSrBaAl2F14EuF3TbF3/ss; O3)2/ss; F14/ss; Al2/ss; Ba(/ss; F3/ss; Al/ss; Ba/ss; Ca/ss; 
	Eu/ss; Mg/ss; Sr/ss; Tb/ss; F/ss; O/ss; P/ss.
Digital Object Identifier
Publication Type
	Journal Paper
Inspec Update Code
Update Code
	Copyright 2007, The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
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The following is the complete list of Classification Codes for the Inspec database.


A0000 General

A0100 Communication, education, history, and philosophy

A0110 Announcements, news, and organizational activities

A0110C Announcements, news, and awards

A0110F Conferences, lectures, and institutes

A0110H Physics organizational activities

A0130 Physics literature and publications

A0130B Publications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.)

A0130C Conference proceedings

A0130E Monographs, and collections

A0130K Handbooks and dictionaries

A0130L Collections of physical data, tables

A0130N Textbooks

A0130Q Reports, dissertations, theses

A0130R Reviews and tutorial papers; resource letters

A0130T Bibliographies

A0140 Education

A0140D Educational course design and evaluation

A0140E Science in elementary and secondary schools

A0140G Curricula, teaching methods, strategies, and evaluation

A0140J Teacher training

A0150 Educational aids

A0150F Audio and visual aids for education

A0150H Instructional computer use for education

A0150K Testing theory and techniques for education

A0150M Demonstration experiments and apparatus

A0150P Laboratory experiments and apparatus for education

A0150Q Laboratory course design, organization, and evaluation

A0150T Buildings and facilities for education

A0155 General Physics

A0160 Biographical, historical, and personal notes

A0165 History of science

A0170 Philosophy of science

A0175 Science and society

A0190 Other topics of general interest in physics

A0200 Mathematical methods in physics

A0210 Algebra, set theory, and graph theory

A0220 Group theory

A0230 Function theory, analysis

A0240 Geometry, differential geometry, and topology

A0250 Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics

A0260 Numerical approximation and analysis

A0270 Computational techniques

A0290 Other topics in mathematical methods in physics

A0300 Classical and quantum physics; mechanics and fields

A0320 Classical mechanics of discrete systems: general mathematical aspects

A0330 Special relativity

A0340 Classical mechanics of continuous media: general mathematical aspects

A0340D Mathematical theory of elasticity

A0340G Fluid dynamics: general mathematical aspects

A0340K Waves and wave propagation: general mathematical aspects

A0350 Classical field theory

A0350D Maxwell theory: general mathematical aspects

A0350K Other special classical field theories

A0365 Quantum theory; quantum mechanics

A0365B Foundations, theory of quantum measurement, miscellaneous quantum theories

A0365C Formalism in quantum theory

A0365D Functional analytical methods in quantum theory

A0365F Algebraic methods in quantum theory

A0365G Solutions of wave equations: bound state in quantum theory

A0365N Nonrelativistic scattering in quantum theory

A0365S Semiclassical theories and applications in quantum theory

A0367 Quantum information

A0367D Quantum cryptography

A0367H Quantum communication

A0367L Quantum computation

A0370 Theory of quantized fields

A0375 Matter waves

A0375B Atom and neutron optics

A0375F Bose-Einstein condensation

A0375P Atom lasers

A0380 General theory of scattering

A0400 Relativity and gravitation

A0420 General relativity

A0420C Fundamental problems and general formalism in general relativity

A0420F Canonical formalism, Lagrangians, and variational principles in general relativity

A0420J Solutions to equations in general relativity

A0420M Conservation laws and equations of motion in general relativity

A0430 Gravitational waves and radiation: theory

A0440 Continuous media; electromagnetic and other mixed gravitational systems

A0450 Unified field theories

A0455 Alternative theories of gravitation

A0460 Quantum theory of gravitation

A0465 Supergravity

A0470 Physics of black holes

A0480 Experimental tests of general relativity and observations of gravitational radiation

A0485 Intermediate range forces

A0490 Other topics in relativity and gravitation

A0500 Statistical physics and thermodynamics

A0520 Statistical mechanics

A0520D Kinetic theory in statistical mechanics

A0520G Classical ensemble theory

A0530 Quantum statistical mechanics

A0530C Quantum ensemble theory

A0530F Fermion systems and electron gas (quantum statistical mechanics)

A0530J Boson systems (quantum statistical mechanics)

A0530L Anyons and parastatistics (quantum statistical mechanics)

A0540 Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, and Brownian motion

A0545 Theory and models of chaotic systems

A0547 Nonlinear dynamical systems and bifurcations

A0550 Lattice theory and statistics; Ising problems

A0555 Fractals

A0560 Transport processes: theory

A0565 Self-organized systems

A0570 Thermodynamics

A0570C Thermodynamic functions and equations of state

A0570F Phase transitions: general thermodynamic aspects

A0570J Critical point phenomena in thermodynamics

A0570L Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, irreversible processes

A0580 Econophysics

A0590 Other topics in statistical physics and thermodynamics

A0600 Measurement science, general laboratory techniques, and instrumentation systems

A0620 Metrology

A0620D Measurement and error theory

A0620F Measurement units

A0620H Measurement standards and calibration

A0620J Determination of fundamental constants

A0630 Measurement of basic variables

A0630C Spatial variables measurement

A0630E Mass and density measurement

A0630F Time and frequency measurement

A0630G Velocity, acceleration and rotation measurement

A0630L Measurement of basic electric and magnetic variables

A0630M Measurement of mechanical variables

A0630N Pressure measurement

A0650 Data handling and computation

A0650D Data gathering, processing, and recording, data displays including digital techniques

A0650M Computing devices and techniques

A0660 Laboratory techniques

A0660E Sample preparation

A0660J High-speed techniques (microsecond or shorter)

A0660S Positioning and alignment; manipulating, remote handling

A0660V Workshop techniques (welding, machining, lubrication, bearings, etc.)

A0660W Safety in the laboratory

A0670 General instrumentation

A0670D Sensing and detecting devices

A0670E Testing equipment

A0670H Display, recording, and indicating instruments

A0670M Transducers

A0670T Servo and control devices

A0690 Other topics in measurement science, general laboratory techniques and instrumentation systems

A0700 Specific instrumentation and techniques of general use in physics

A0710 Mechanical instruments, equipment, and techniques

A0710C Micromechanical and nanomechanical devices and systems

A0710F Vibration isolation

A0710Y Other mechanical instruments and techniques

A0720 Thermal instruments and techniques

A0720D Thermometry

A0720F Calorimetry

A0720H Furnaces

A0720K High-temperature techniques and instrumentation; pyrometry

A0720M Cryogenics

A0725 Hygrometry

A0730 Vacuum production and techniques

A0730B Evacuating power, degasification, residual gas

A0730C Vacuum pumps and pumping techniques

A0730D Vacuum meters and measuring techniques

A0730G Vacuum apparatus and testing methods

A0730K Auxiliary vacuum apparatus, hardware and materials

A0735 High pressure production and techniques

A0750 Electrical instruments and techniques

A0755 Magnetic instruments and techniques

A0758 Magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary instruments and techniques

A0760 Optical instruments and techniques

A0760D Photometry and radiometry

A0760F Optical polarimetry and ellipsometry

A0760H Optical refractometry and reflectometry

A0760L Optical interferometry

A0760P Optical microscopy

A0762 Detection of radiation (bolometers, photoelectric cells, i.r. and submillimetre waves detection)

A0765 Optical spectroscopy and spectrometers

A0765E UV and visible spectroscopy and spectrometers

A0765G IR spectroscopy and spectrometers

A0768 Photography, photographic instruments and techniques

A0775 Mass spectrometers and mass spectrometry techniques

A0777 Particle beam production and handling; targets

A0779 Scanning probe microscopy and related techniques

A0780 Electron and ion microscopes and techniques

A0781 Electron and ion spectrometers and related techniques

A0785 X-ray, gamma-ray instruments and techniques

A0788 Particle interferometry and neutron instrumentation

A0790 Other topics in specialised instrumentation

A1000 The physics of elementary particles and fields

A1100 General theory of fields and particles

A1110 Quantum field theory

A1110C Axiomatic field theories

A1110E Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approach in quantum field theories

A1110G Renormalization in quantum field theories

A1110J Asymptotic problems and properties in quantum field theories

A1110L Nonlinear or nonlocal field theories and models

A1110M Schwinger source theory

A1110N Gauge field theories

A1110P Noncommutative field theory

A1110Q Relativistic wave equations and field theories

A1110S Bound and unstable states; Bethe-Salpeter equations

A1110W Finite temperature field theory

A1117 Theories of strings and other extended objects

A1120 S-matrix theory

A1120D Scattering matrix and perturbation theory

A1120F Dispersion relations and analytic properties of the S-matrix

A1130 Symmetry and conservation laws

A1130C Lorentz and PoincareĆ└╗ invariance

A1130E Charge conjugation, parity, time reversal and other discrete symmetries

A1130J SU(2) and SU(3) symmetries in particle physics

A1130K SU(4) symmetry in particle physics

A1130L Other internal and higher symmetries in particle physics

A1130N Nonlinear and dynamical symmetries (spectrum-generating symmetries)

A1130P Supersymmetry in particle physics

A1130Q Spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics

A1130R Chiral symmetries in particle physics

A1140 Currents and their properties

A1140D General theory of currents

A1140F Lagrangian approach to current algebras

A1140H Partially conserved axial-vector currents

A1150 Dispersion relations and sum rules

A1150E N/D method

A1150G Bootstraps

A1150J Crossing symmetries

A1150L Sum rules

A1150N Multivariable dispersion relations

A1160 Complex angular momentum; Regge formalism

A1180 Relativistic scattering theory

A1180C Kinematical properties (helicity and invariant amplitudes, kinematic singularities, etc.)

A1180E Partial-wave analysis

A1180F Approximations (eikonal approximation, variational principles, etc.)

A1180G Multichannel scattering

A1180J Many-body scattering and Faddeev equation

A1180L Multiple scattering

A1190 Other topics in general field and particle theory

A1200 Specific theories and interaction models; particle systematics

A1210 Unified field theories and models

A1210B Electroweak theories

A1210C Standard model of unification

A1210D Unified models beyond the standard model

A1220 Models of electromagnetic interactions

A1220D Specific calculations and limits of quantum electrodynamics

A1220F Experimental tests of quantum electrodynamics

A1225 Models for gravitational interactions

A1230 Models of weak interactions

A1230C Neutral currents

A1230E Intermediate bosons

A1235 Composite models of particles

A1235C General properties of quantum chromodynamics (dynamics, confinement, etc.)

A1235E Applications of quantum chromodynamics to particle properties and reactions

A1235H Phenomenological composite models of particle structure and reactions (partons, bags, etc.)

A1235K Other composite models

A1240 Models of strong interactions

A1240E Statistical models of strong interactions

A1240F Bootstrap models

A1240H Duality and dual models

A1240K Hadron classification schemes

A1240M Complex angular momentum plane; Regge poles and cuts (Reggeons)

A1240P Absorptive, optical, and eikonal models

A1240Q Potential models of strong interactions

A1240R Peripheral models (one or more particle exchange)

A1240S Multiperipheral and multi-Regge models

A1240V Vector-meson dominance

A1270 Hadron mass formulas

A1290 Miscellaneous theoretical ideas and models in elementary particle physics

A1300 Specific elementary particle reactions and phenomenology

A1310 Weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons

A1315 Neutrino interactions

A1317 Neutrino oscillations

A1320 Leptonic and semileptonic decays of mesons

A1320C pi leptonic/semileptonic decays

A1320E K leptonic/semileptonic decays

A1320F Leptonic and semileptonic decays of charmed mesons

A1320G Leptonic and semileptonic decays of psi/J, Upsilon, phi mesons

A1320H B meson leptonic/semileptonic decays

A1320I f meson leptonic/semileptonic decays

A1320J Other meson leptonic/semileptonic decays

A1325 Hadronic decays of mesons

A1330 Decays of baryons

A1330C Leptonic and semileptonic decays of baryons

A1330E Hadronic decays of baryons

A1335 Decays of leptons

A1338 Decays of intermediate and Higgs bosons

A1340 Electromagnetic processes and properties of elementary particles

A1340D Electromagnetic mass differences

A1340F Electromagnetic form factors; electric and magnetic moments; structure functions

A1340H Electromagnetic decays of elementary particles

A1340K Electromagnetic corrections to strong and weak interaction processes

A1360 Photon and charged-lepton interactions with hadrons

A1360F Elastic and Compton scattering

A1360H Total and inclusive cross sections

A1360K Meson production

A1360M Meson-resonance production

A1360P Baryon and baryon resonance production

A1365 Hadron production by electron-positron collisions

A1375 Hadron-induced low- and intermediate-energy reactions and scattering, energy = 10 GeV

A1375C Nucleon-nucleon interactions, including antinucleon, deuteron, etc. (energy = 10 GeV)

A1375E Hyperon-nucleon interactions (energy = 10 GeV)

A1375G Pion-baryon interactions (energy = 10 GeV)

A1375J Kaon-baryon interactions (energy = 10 GeV)

A1375L Meson-meson interactions (energy = 10 GeV)

A1380 Photon-photon interactions and scattering

A1385 Hadron-induced high- and super-high-energy interactions, energy > 10 GeV

A1385D Hadron induced elastic scattering (energy > 10 GeV)

A1385F Hadron induced inelastic scattering, two-particle final states (energy > 10 GeV)

A1385H Hadron induced inelastic scattering, many-particle final states (energy > 10 GeV)

A1385K Hadron induced inclusive reactions, including total cross sections, (energy > 10 GeV)

A1385M Hadron induced cosmic ray interactions

A1385N Hadron induced very high energy interactions (E > 1 TeV)

A1387 Jets in large-Q2 elementary particle interactions

A1388 Polarization in elementary particle interactions and scattering

A1390 Other topics in specific reactions and phenomenology of elementary particles

A1400 Properties of specific particles and resonances

A1420 Baryons and baryon resonances

A1420C Neutrons

A1420E Protons

A1420G Baryon resonances with S=0

A1420J Hyperons and hyperon resonances

A1420P Dibaryons

A1440 Mesons and meson resonances

A1440D pi mesons

A1440F K mesons

A1440K rho, omega, and eta mesons

A1440L D mesons

A1440M a and B mesons

A1440N psi/J, upsilon, phi mesons

A1440P Other mesons

A1460 Leptons

A1460C Electrons and positrons

A1460E Muons

A1460G Neutrinos

A1460J Heavy leptons

A1480 Other and hypothetical particles

A1480A Photons

A1480D Quarks and gluons

A1480F Intermediate and Higgs bosons

A1480H Magnetic monopoles

A1480J Supersymmetric particles

A1480K Other elementary particles

A1480L Dark matter candidates

A2000 Nuclear physics

A2100 Nuclear structure

A2110 General and average properties of nuclei; properties of nuclear energy levels

A2110D Nuclear binding energy and masses

A2110F Nuclear shape, charge, radius, form factors and structure functions

A2110H Nuclear spin, parity, and isobaric spin

A2110J Nuclear spectroscopic factors

A2110K Nuclear electromagnetic moments

A2110M Nuclear level density and structure

A2110P Single particle structure in nuclear levels

A2110R Collective structure in nuclear levels

A2110S Nuclear Coulomb effects

A2130 Nuclear forces

A2140 Few-nucleon systems

A2160 Nuclear-structure models and methods

A2160C Nuclear shell model

A2160E Nuclear collective models

A2160F Nuclear models based on group theory

A2160G Nuclear cluster models

A2160J Hartree-Fock and random-phase approximations in nuclei

A2165 Nuclear matter

A2180 Hypernuclei

A2190 Other topics in nuclear structure

A2300 Radioactivity and electromagnetic transitions

A2320 Electromagnetic transitions

A2320C Lifetimes and transition probabilities of nuclei

A2320E Angular distribution and correlation measurements of nuclei

A2320G Nuclear multipole mixing ratios

A2320J Nuclear multipole matrix elements

A2320L Nuclear gamma transitions and level energies

A2320N Nuclear internal conversion and extranuclear effects

A2320Q Nuclear resonance fluorescence

A2340 beta decay; electron and muon capture

A2340B Weak interaction and lepton aspects of beta decay

A2340H Nuclear matrix elements and nuclear structure inferred from beta decay

A2360 alpha decay

A2380 Nuclear decays by heavy ion emission

A2390 Other topics in nuclear decay and radioactivity

A2400 Nuclear reactions and scattering: general

A2410 Nuclear reaction and scattering models and methods

A2410D Coupled-channel and many-body-theory methods in nuclei

A2410F Plane- and distorted-wave Born approximations in nuclei

A2410H Optical and diffraction models in nuclei

A2430 Resonance nuclear reactions and scattering

A2430C Giant resonances

A2430F Isobaric analogue states

A2450 Direct nuclear reactions

A2460 Nuclear statistical theory and fluctuations

A2470 Polarization in nuclear reactions and scattering

A2475 General properties of fission

A2485 Quark models in nuclei and nuclear processes

A2490 Other topics in nuclear reactions and scattering, general

A2500 Nuclear reactions and scattering: specific reactions

A2510 Nuclear reactions and scattering involving few-nucleon systems

A2520 Photonuclear reactions and photon scattering

A2530 Lepton-induced reactions and scattering

A2530C Electron and positron reactions and scattering

A2530E Muon reactions and scattering

A2530G Neutrino reactions and scattering

A2540 Nucleon-induced reactions and scattering

A2540C Elastic proton scattering

A2540D Elastic neutron scattering

A2540E Inelastic proton scattering and (p, n) reactions

A2540F Inelastic neutron scattering and (n, p) reactions

A2540G Single nucleon transfer reactions

A2540J Few nucleon transfer reactions

A2540L Radiative capture

A2540P Reactions and scattering above meson production thresholds (energies > 400 MeV)

A2540S Spallation reactions

A2550 2H- and 3H-induced reactions and scattering

A2550D 2H- and 3H-induced elastic, inelastic and charge exchange reactions

A2550G 2H- and 3H-induced single-nucleon transfer reactions

A2550J 2H- and 3H-induced few nucleon transfer reactions

A2560 3He- and 4He-induced reactions and scattering

A2560C 3He- and 4He-induced elastic, inelastic and charge exchange reactions

A2560E 3He- and 4He-induced single-nucleon transfer reactions

A2560F 3He- and 4He-induced few nucleon transfer reactions

A2570 Heavy ion induced reactions and scattering

A2570B Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion induced reactions

A2570D Few nucleon transfers in heavy ion induced reactions

A2570E Resonances in heavy ion induced reactions

A2570G Compound nucleus properties and decays in heavy ion induced reactions

A2570H Heavy ion induced elastic, inelastic, and charge exchange reactions

A2570J Heavy ion induced fusion and fusion-fission reactions

A2570K Coulomb excitation in heavy ion induced reactions

A2570N Fragmentation and relativistic heavy ion induced collisions

A2580 Meson- and hyperon-induced reactions and scattering

A2585 Fission reactions

A2585C Spontaneous fission

A2585E Neutron induced fission

A2585G Charged particle induced fission

A2585J Photofission

A2587 Nuclear fragmentation

A2588 Fusion reactions

A2590 Other topics in nuclear reactions and scattering: specific reactions

A2700 Properties of specific nuclei listed by mass ranges

A2710 Properties of nuclei with A = 5

A2720 Properties of nuclei with 6 < A < 19

A2730 Properties of nuclei with 20 < A < 38

A2740 Properties of nuclei with 39 < A < 58

A2750 Properties of nuclei with 59 < A < 89

A2760 Properties of nuclei with 90 < A < 149

A2770 Properties of nuclei with 150 < A < 189

A2780 Properties of nuclei with 190 < A < 219

A2790 Properties of nuclei with 220 < A

A2800 Nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies

A2820 Neutron physics

A2820C Neutron reflection and scattering

A2820F Neutron absorption

A2820H Neutron diffusion

A2820L Neutron moderation

A2841 Fission reactor theory and design

A2841C Computing for fission reactor theory and design

A2841D Fission reactor design

A2841E Fission reactor theory and physics

A2842 Fission reactor materials

A2842D Fission reactor fuel elements

A2842H Fission reactor fuel preparation and reprocessing

A2842K Radioactive wastes from fission reactors

A2842N Fission reactor coolants

A2842P Fission reactor moderators

A2842Q Fission reactor structural and shielding materials

A2842R Fission reactor coolant circuit materials

A2843 Fission reactor operation

A2843B Cooling and heat recovery in fission reactors

A2843D Core control and guidance in fission reactors

A2843F Fission reactor maintenance and outages

A2843G Fission reactor control rooms

A2843H Instrumentation and experiments with fission reactors

A2844 Fission reactor protection systems, safety and accidents

A2846 Nuclear materials: safety aspects

A2846C Nuclear safeguards

A2846E Nuclear criticality safety

A2846G Packaging and transportation of nuclear materials

A2847 Fission reactor decommissioning

A2850 Fission reactor types and applications

A2850D Research, test and training reactors

A2850F Fast reactors

A2850G Light water reactors

A2850I Gas cooled reactors

A2850J Heavy water reactors

A2850K Propulsion reactors

A2850P Nuclear power supplies

A2852 Fusion reactors

A2852C Fusion reaction ignition

A2852F Fusion reactor materials

A2852J Fusion reactor theory and design

A2852L Fusion reactor instrumentation

A2852N Fusion reactor safety

A2858 Integrated reactor systems

A2858C Synergetic fission reactor systems

A2858E Fission + fusion systems

A2858G Spallation breeders

A2870 Nuclear explosions

A2875 Radioactive waste, transportation, disposal, storage, treatment

A2875C Radioactive waste (materials aspects)

A2875E Radioactive waste transport

A2875M Radioactive waste disposal and storage

A2875S Radioactive waste treatment and transmutation

A2880 Radiation technology in nuclear engineering, including shielding

A2880C Dosimetry in nuclear engineering

A2880F Radiation monitoring and radiation protection in nuclear engineering

A2890 Other topics in nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies

A2900 Experimental methods and instrumentation for elementary-particle and nuclear physics

A2910 Preacceleration (injection)

A2915 Electrostatic and linear particle accelerators

A2915B Electrostatic accelerators

A2915D Linear accelerators

A2920 Cyclic accelerators and storage facilities

A2920D Storage rings

A2920F Betatrons

A2920H Cyclotrons

A2920J Synchrocyclotrons

A2920L Synchrotrons

A2921 Beams in particle accelerators

A2925 Particle sources and targets, preparation and technology

A2925B Electron sources

A2925C Ion sources: positive, negative and polarized

A2925D Neutron sources

A2925E Radioactive sources

A2925F Beam handling, focusing, pulsing, stripping and diagnostics

A2925G Nuclear bombardment targets

A2925K Polarized targets

A2925M Other lepton sources

A2930 Radiation spectrometers and spectroscopic techniques

A2930D Heavy charged-particle spectroscopy

A2930E alpha-ray spectroscopy

A2930F Beta-ray and electron spectroscopy

A2930H Neutron spectroscopy

A2930K X- and gamma-ray spectroscopy

A2940 Radiation detectors

A2940B Ionisation chambers

A2940C Proportional counters; multiwire proportional chambers

A2940D Cloud chambers

A2940F Bubble chambers

A2940H Spark chambers and other track chambers

A2940K Cherenkov detectors

A2940M Scintillation detectors; scintillators and photomultipliers

A2940P Semiconductor detectors

A2940Q Transition radiation detectors

A2940R Nuclear emulsions

A2940S Geiger tubes

A2940T Position sensitive detectors

A2940W Solid-state nuclear track detectors

A2940X Superconducting particle detectors

A2960 Counting circuits and nuclear electronics

A2960C Basic function units; supply units, amplifiers (nuclear electronics)

A2960E Pulse counting assemblies; counting scalers, analyzers (nuclear electronics)

A2960G Pulse circuits (nuclear electronics)

A2960J Radiation monitors (nuclear electronics)

A2970 Radiation measurement, detection and counting

A2970D Angular correlation techniques in radiation measurement

A2970F Coincidence techniques in radiation measurement

A2970G Energy loss and energy range relations in radiation measurement

A2970J Integral methods of radiation detection

A2975 Polarization analysis (elementary-particle and nuclear physics)

A2980 Nuclear information processing

A2980C Computer systems for nuclear information processing

A2980F Programming for nuclear information processing

A2990 Other topics in high-energy and nuclear experimental methods and instrumentation

A3000 Atomic and molecular physics

A3100 Theory of atoms and molecules

A3110 General theory of structure, transitions and chemical binding in atoms and molecules

A3115 General mathematical and computational developments for atoms and molecules

A3120 Specific calculations and results for atoms and molecules

A3120A Ab initio calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120B SCF and HF calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120C Coupled cluster calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120D Complete ab initio calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120E Ab initio LCAO and GO SCF calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120G Other accurate or nearly ab initio calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120H Xalpha methods (atoms and molecules)

A3120J Local density approximation (atoms and molecules)

A3120L Other statistical model calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120N Semi-empirical NDO calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120P Other semi-empirical calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120R Valence bond calculations (ab initio or not) (atoms and molecules)

A3120T Electron correlation and CI calculations (atoms and molecules)

A3120W Empirical methods (atoms and molecules)

A3130 Electronic structure of atoms and molecules, corrections and effects of interactions

A3130G Hyperfine interactions and isotope effects (atoms and molecules)

A3130J Radiative and relativistic effects (atoms and molecules)

A3130L Environmental and solvent effects (atoms and molecules)

A3130N Molecular solids

A3150 Excited states of atoms and molecules

A3180 Potential energy surfaces (atoms and molecules)

A3190 Other topics in the theory of atoms and molecules

A3200 Atomic spectra and interactions with photons

A3220 Atomic spectra grouped by wavelength ranges

A3220D Radiofrequency and microwave atomic spectra

A3220F Infrared and Raman atomic spectra

A3220J Visible and ultraviolet atomic spectra

A3220R X-ray atomic spectra

A3240 Magnetic resonance spectra of atoms

A3250 Atomic fluorescence, phosphorescence; radiationless transitions

A3250F Atomic fluorescence, phosphorescence

A3250H Atomic radiationless transitions

A3260 Magneto-optical and electro-optical effects in atoms; birefringence, dichroism and optical activity

A3260S Stark effect in atoms

A3260V Zeeman effect in atoms

A3270 Atomic spectral line shapes and intensities

A3270C Atomic oscillator strengths, transition moments

A3270F Atomic lifetimes, absolute and relative intensities, transition probabilities

A3270J Atomic line shapes, widths, and shifts

A3280 Photon interactions with atoms

A3280B Atomic level crossing, optical pumping, population inversion, stimulated emission

A3280D Atomic autoionization

A3280F Atomic photoionization, photodetachment, photoelectron spectra

A3280H Auger effect and inner-shell ionization (atoms)

A3280K Multiphoton processes in atoms

A3280P Optical cooling of atoms; trapping

A3290 Other topics in atomic spectra and interactions with photons

A3300 Molecular spectra and interactions with photons

A3310 Calculation of molecular spectra

A3310C Calculational methods (molecular spectra)

A3310E Rotational analysis (molecular spectra)

A3310G Vibrational analysis (molecular spectra)

A3310J Vibrational-rotational analysis (molecular spectra)

A3310L Vibronic, rovibronic, and rotation-electron-spin interactions (molecular spectra)

A3320 Molecular spectra grouped by wavelength ranges

A3320B Radiofrequency and microwave molecular spectra

A3320E Infrared molecular spectra

A3320F Raman and Rayleigh molecular spectra

A3320K Visible molecular spectra

A3320L Ultraviolet molecular spectra

A3320N Vacuum ultraviolet molecular spectra

A3320R X-ray molecular spectra

A3325 Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation in molecules; nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)

A3325B Relaxation phenomena (molecular NMR)

A3325D Chemical shifts (molecular NMR)

A3325F Nuclear spin interactions, quadrupole effects and nuclear coupling (molecules)

A3325H Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) (molecules)

A3325K Quadrupole resonance (molecular NQR)

A3330 Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation of molecules

A3330B Relaxation phenomena in molecular EPR

A3330H Chemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP) in molecules

A3335 Double resonances and other multiple resonances of molecules

A3335D DNMR, ENDOR, ELDOR, Overhauser, INDOR, DNP of molecules

A3335H MODR and PMDR of molecules (microwave optical double resonance and phosphorescence microwave double resonance)

A3340 MoĆ└╗ssbauer spectra of molecules

A3345 Magneto-optical and electro-optical effects in molecules; birefringence, dichroism and optical activity

A3345B Zeeman and Stark effects in molecules

A3345C Magnetic circular dichroism in molecules

A3345D Optical activity, optical rotation, circular dichroism in molecules

A3350 Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence; radiationless transitions (intersystem crossing, internal conversion)

A3350D Molecular fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra

A3350H Molecular radiationless transitions

A3365 Photoelectron spectra of molecules

A3365C UV and VUV photoelectron spectra of molecules

A3365F X-ray photoelectron spectra of molecules

A3370 Intensities and shapes of molecular spectral lines and bands

A3370C Molecular oscillator and band strengths, transition moments, Franck-Condon factors

A3370F Molecular lifetimes, absolute and relative line and band intensities

A3370J Molecular line and band widths, shapes, and shifts

A3380 Photon interactions with molecules

A3380B Molecular level crossing, optical pumping, population inversion, stimulated emission

A3380E Autoionization, photoionization, and photodetachment of molecules

A3380G Diffuse molecular spectra; predissociation, photodissociation

A3380K Multiphoton processes in molecules

A3380P Optical cooling of molecules; trapping

A3390 Other topics in molecular spectra and interactions with photons

A3400 Atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions

A3410 General theories and models (atomic and molecular collision processes)

A3420 Interatomic and intermolecular potentials and forces

A3425 Intramolecular energy transfer; intramolecular dynamics; dynamics of van der Waals molecules

A3430 Potential energy surfaces for collisions (atoms and molecules)

A3440 Elastic scattering of atoms and molecules

A3450 Inelastic scattering of atoms and molecules

A3450B Energy loss and stopping power (atoms and molecules)

A3450D Interactions of atoms, molecules and ions with surfaces

A3450E Rotational and vibrational energy transfer (atoms and molecules)

A3450H Electronic excitation and ionization (atoms and molecules)

A3450L Chemical reactions, energy disposal, and angular distribution, as studied by atomic and molecular beams

A3450R Laser-modified inelastic scattering of atoms and molecules

A3470 Charge transfer (atoms and molecules)

A3480 Electron scattering, electron spectra (atoms and molecules)

A3480B Elastic scattering of electrons by atoms and molecules

A3480D Atomic excitation and ionization by electron impact

A3480G Molecular excitation, ionization, and dissociation by electron impact

A3480L Electron-ion recombination and electron attachment (atoms and molecules)

A3480Q Laser-modified electron scattering (atoms and molecules)

A3485 Positron scattering, positron spectra (atoms and molecules)

A3485B Elastic scattering of positrons by atoms and molecules

A3485D Atomic excitation and ionization by positron impact

A3485G Molecular excitation, ionization and dissociation by positron impact

A3485L Positron-ion recombination and positron attachment (atoms and molecules)

A3485Q Laser-modified positron scattering (atoms and molecules)

A3490 Other topics in atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions

A3500 Properties of atoms and molecules; instruments and techniques

A3510 Atomic properties

A3510B Atomic masses, mass spectra, abundances, and isotopes

A3510D Atomic electric and magnetic moments, polarizability

A3510F Atomic fine- and hyperfine-structure constants

A3510H Atomic ionization potentials, electron affinities

A3510W Atomic weak interactions

A3520 Molecular properties

A3520B General molecular conformation and symmetry; stereochemistry

A3520D Interatomic distances and angles in molecules

A3520G Molecular bond strengths, dissociation energies, hydrogen bonding

A3520J Molecular barrier heights (internal rotation, inversion); rotational isomerism, conformational dynamics

A3520M Molecular electric and magnetic moments (and derivatives), polarizability, and magnetic susceptibility

A3520P Molecular rotation, vibration, and vibration-rotation constants

A3520S Molecular hyperfine and fine-structure constants

A3520V Molecular ionization potentials, electron affinities, molecular core binding energy

A3520W Molecular weak interactions

A3520X Molecular mass spectra

A3520Y Correlation times in molecular dynamics

A3580 Atomic and molecular measurements and techniques

A3580B Time-resolved measurements and techniques (atoms and molecules)

A3600 Studies of special atoms and molecules

A3610 Exotic atoms and molecules (containing mesons, muons, and other abnormal particles)

A3610D Positronium, muonium, muonic atoms and molecules

A3610G Mesonic atoms and molecules, hyperonic atoms and molecules

A3620 Macromolecules and polymer molecules

A3620C Macromolecular conformation (statistics and dynamics)

A3620E Macromolecular constitution (chains and sequences)

A3620F Molecular weights of macromolecules

A3620H Macromolecular configuration (bonds, dimensions)

A3620K Electronic structure and spectra of macromolecules

A3640 Atomic and molecular clusters

A3640B Geometrical structure of clusters

A3640C Spectra and electronic structure of clusters

A3640J Interactions of clusters (collisions and reactions)

A3690 Other special atoms and molecules

A4000 Fundamental areas of phenomenology

A4100 Electricity and magnetism; fields and charged particles

A4110 Classical electromagnetism

A4110D Electrostatics, magnetostatics

A4110F Steady-state electromagnetic fields; electromagnetic induction

A4110H Electromagnetic waves: theory

A4170 Particles in electromagnetic fields: classical aspects

A4180 Particle beams and particle optics

A4180D Electron beams and electron optics

A4180G Ion beams and ion optics

A4190 Other topics in electricity and magnetism

A4200 Optics

A4210 Optical propagation and transmission in homogeneous media

A4210D Wave-front and ray tracing in homogeneous media

A4210F Edge and boundary effects, optical refraction

A4210H Optical diffraction and scattering from extended bodies

A4210J Optical interference in homogeneous media

A4210K Optical absorption in homogeneous media

A4210M Optical coherence in homogeneous media

A4210N Optical polarization in homogeneous media

A4210Q Optical propagation and transmission in homogeneous and anisotropic media; birefringence

A4215 Geometrical optics

A4215D Optical wave fronts and ray tracing

A4215E Optical system design

A4220 Optical propagation and transmission in inhomogeneous media

A4220C Wave fronts, ray tracing and beam spread in inhomogeneous media

A4220E Optical coherence; scintillation in inhomogeneous media

A4220G Optical scattering, diffraction, dispersion and polarization in inhomogeneous media

A4225 Physical optics

A4225B Optical propagation, transmission and absorption

A4225F Optical diffraction and scattering

A4225G Edge and boundary effects; optical reflection and refraction

A4225H Optical interference and speckle

A4225J Optical polarization

A4225K Optical coherence

A4225L Birefringence (physical optics)

A4230 Optical information, image formation and analysis

A4230D Theory of optical information and image processing

A4230F Aberrations in optical images

A4230H Resolution of optical images

A4230K Fourier transform optics

A4230L Modulation and optical transfer functions

A4230N Optical storage and retrieval

A4230Q Optical communication

A4230S Pattern recognition

A4230V Image processing and restoration

A4240 Holography

A4240D Theory of holography

A4240E Holographic optical elements; holographic gratings

A4240F Image characteristics in holography

A4240H Holographic recording

A4240J Computer-generated holography

A4240K Holographic interferometry; other holographic techniques

A4240M Applications of holography

A4250 Quantum optics

A4250V Mechanical effects of light

A4252 Masers

A4255 Lasing processes

A4255B General theory of lasing action

A4255D CO2 lasers

A4255F Inert gas lasers

A4255G Excimer lasers

A4255H Lasing action in other gas lasers

A4255K Chemical lasers

A4255M Lasing action in liquids and organic dyes

A4255N Fibre lasers and amplifiers

A4255P Lasing action in semiconductors

A4255Q Laser-active defect centres in solids

A4255R Lasing action in other solids

A4255T Free electron lasers

A4255V High energy lasing processes (e.g. gamma and X-ray lasers)

A4260 Laser optical systems: design and operation

A4260B Design of specific laser systems

A4260D Laser resonators and cavities

A4260F Laser beam modulation, pulsing and switching; mode locking and tuning

A4260H Laser beam characteristics and interactions

A4260K Laser beam applications

A4262 Laser applications

A4262A Laser materials processing

A4262E Metrological applications of lasers

A4265 Nonlinear optics

A4265B General theory of nonlinear optics

A4265C Stimulated Raman scattering and spectra; CARS; stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Rayleigh scattering and spectra

A4265F Optical phase conjugation

A4265G Optical transient phenomena, self-induced transparency, optical saturation and related effects

A4265J Beam trapping, self focusing, thermal blooming, and related effects

A4265K Optical harmonic generation, frequency conversion, parametric oscillation and amplification

A4265M Multiwave mixing

A4265P Optical bistability, multistability and switching

A4265S Optical solitons

A4265T Optical chaos and related effects

A4270 Optical materials

A4270C Optical glass

A4270D Liquid crystals (optical materials)

A4270E Quartz (optical materials)

A4270F Other optical materials

A4270G Light-sensitive materials

A4270J Optical polymers and other organic optical materials

A4270Q Photonic bandgap materials

A4270T Optical metamaterials

A4270Y Other optical materials

A4272 Optical sources and standards

A4278 Optical lens and mirror systems

A4278C Optical lens and mirror design

A4278D Optical system design

A4278F Performance and testing of optical systems

A4278H Optical coatings

A4278M Eyepieces, projection systems, prism systems

A4280 Optical elements, devices and systems

A4280A Optical lenses and mirrors

A4280B Spatial filters, zone plates, and polarizers

A4280C Spectral and other filters

A4280D Optical monochromators

A4280E Optical shutters, windows, diaphragms, deflectors, choppers, and scanners

A4280F Gratings, echelles

A4280G Optical prisms and projection systems

A4280H Optical beam splitters

A4280J Optical collimators and autocollimators

A4280K Optical beam modulators

A4280L Optical waveguides and couplers

A4280M Optical switches

A4280N Schlieren devices

A4280P Optical rangefinders

A4280Q Image detectors, convertors, and intensifiers

A4280R Gradient-index (GRIN) devices

A4280S Optical communication devices, equipment and systems

A4280T Optical storage and retrieval

A4280V Optical computers, logic elements, and interconnects

A4280W Ultrafast optical techniques

A4280X Optical coatings

A4280Y Solar collectors, concentrators and control films: optical aspects

A4281 Fibre optics and fibre waveguides

A4281B Optical fibre fabrication, cladding, splicing, joining

A4281C Optical fibre testing and measurement of fibre parameters

A4281D Optical propagation, dispersion and attenuation in fibres

A4281F Other fibre optical properties

A4281H Gradient-index (GRIN) fibre devices and techniques

A4281M Fibre couplers and connectors

A4281P Fibre optic sensors; fibre gyros

A4281W Other fibre optical devices and techniques

A4282 Integrated optics

A4283 Micro-optical devices and technology

A4284 Nanophotonic devices and technology

A4285 Optical testing and workshop techniques

A4285D Optical fabrication, surface grinding

A4285F Optical testing techniques

A4290 Other topics in optics

A4300 Acoustics

A4320 General linear acoustics

A4325 Nonlinear acoustics and macrosonics

A4328 Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound

A4330 Underwater sound

A4335 Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound

A4337 Acoustic emission

A4337D Thermoacoustics

A4337G Photoacoustics

A4340 Structural acoustics and vibration

A4345 Statistical studies of acoustical response

A4350 Acoustic noise, its effects and control

A4355 Architectural acoustics

A4360 Acoustic signal processing

A4363 Acoustic holography

A4370 Speech communication

A4370C Human speech communication

A4370F Machine-based speech communication

A4375 Music and musical instruments

A4385 Acoustical measurements and instrumentation

A4385D Measurement of acoustic variables

A4385G Measurement by acoustic techniques

A4388 Transduction; devices for the generation and reproduction of sound

A4390 Other topics in acoustics

A4400 Heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes

A4410 Heat conduction (models, phenomenological description)

A4425 Heat convection

A4430 Heat transfer in inhomogeneous media and through interfaces

A4440 Heat radiation

A4450 Thermal properties of matter (phenomenology)

A4460 Thermodynamic processes (phenomenology)

A4490 Other topics in heat flow, thermal and thermodynamic processes

A4600 Mechanics, elasticity, rheology

A4610 Mechanics of discrete systems

A4620 Continuum mechanics

A4630 Mechanics of solids

A4630C Elasticity

A4630J Viscoelasticity, plasticity, viscoplasticity, creep, and stress relaxation

A4630L Buckling and instability

A4630M Vibrations, aeroelasticity, hydroelasticity, mechanical waves, and shocks

A4630N Fracture mechanics, fatigue, and cracks

A4630P Friction, wear, adherence, hardness, mechanical contacts

A4630R Mechanical measurement methods and techniques for solids

A4660 Rheology of fluids and pastes

A4660B Viscoelasticity of fluids and pastes

A4660D Nonlinearities in rheology of fluids and pastes

A4660F Rheopexy, thixotropy

A4660H Electrorheological and magnetorheological fluids

A4690 Other topics in mechanics, elasticity, and rheology

A4700 Fluid dynamics

A4710 General fluid dynamics theory, simulation and other computational methods

A4715 Laminar flows

A4715C Laminar boundary layers

A4715F Stability of laminar flows

A4720 Hydrodynamic stability and instability

A4725 Turbulent flows, convection, and heat transfer

A4725C Isotropic turbulence

A4725F Boundary layer and shear turbulence

A4725J Turbulent diffusion

A4725M Noise (turbulence generated)

A4725Q Convection and heat transfer

A4725R Wakes

A4730 Rotational flow, vortices, buoyancy and other flows involving body forces

A4735 Waves in fluid dynamics

A4740 Compressible flows; shock and detonation phenomena

A4740D General subsonic flows

A4740H Transonic flows

A4740K Supersonic and hypersonic flows

A4740N Shock-wave interactions

A4745 Rarefied gas dynamics

A4745D Free molecular flows

A4745G Slip flows

A4745N Accommodation in fluid dynamics

A4750 Non-Newtonian dynamics

A4752 Chaos and fractals in flow

A4754 Pattern selection in flow

A4755 Nonhomogeneous flows

A4755B Cavitation

A4755C Jets in fluid dynamics

A4755E Nozzles

A4755H Stratified flows

A4755K Multiphase flows

A4755M Flow through porous media

A4760 Flows in ducts, channels, and conduits

A4762 Flow control

A4765 Magnetohydrodynamics and electrohydrodynamics

A4770 Reactive, radiative, or nonequilibrium flows

A4770F Chemically reactive flows

A4770M Radiation gas dynamics

A4775 Relativistic fluid dynamics

A4780 Measurement instrumentation and techniques for fluid dynamics

A4780A Flow visualization and imaging

A4785 Applied fluid mechanics

A4787 Microfluidics and nanofluidics

A4790 Other topics in fluid dynamics

A5000 Fluids, plasmas and electric discharges

A5100 Kinetic and transport theory of fluids; physical properties of gases

A5110 Kinetic and transport theory of gases

A5120 Viscosity and diffusion in gases: experimental

A5130 Thermal properties of gases

A5140 Acoustical properties of gases; ultrasonic relaxation

A5150 Electrical phenomena in gases

A5160 Magnetic phenomena in gases

A5170 Optical phenomena in gases

A5190 Other topics in the physics of fluids

A5200 The physics of plasmas and electric discharges

A5220 Elementary processes in plasma

A5220D Particle orbits in plasma

A5220F Electron collisions in plasma

A5220H Atomic, molecular, ion and heavy particle collisions in plasma

A5225 Plasma properties

A5225D Plasma kinetic equations

A5225F Plasma transport properties

A5225G Plasma fluctuation phenomena

A5225K Thermodynamics of plasmas

A5225L Plasma temperature and density

A5225M Plasma dielectric properties

A5225P Emission, absorption, and scattering of radiation in plasma

A5225V Impurities in plasma

A5225W Nonneutral plasmas

A5225Z Dusty plasmas and plasma crystals

A5230 Plasma flow; magnetohydrodynamics

A5235 Waves, oscillations, and instabilities in plasma

A5235B Plasma magnetohydrodynamic waves, Alfven and hydromagnetic waves

A5235D Plasma sound waves, magnetosonic waves

A5235F Plasma electrostatic waves and oscillations

A5235H Plasma electromagnetic waves

A5235K Plasma drift waves

A5235M Nonlinear plasma waves and nonlinear interactions

A5235P Plasma instabilities

A5235R Plasma turbulence

A5235S Plasma solitons

A5235T Shock waves in plasma

A5240 Plasma interactions

A5240D Electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

A5240F Antennas in plasma; plasma-filled wave guides

A5240H Solid state-plasma interactions

A5240K Plasma sheaths

A5240M Particle beam interactions in plasma

A5250 Plasma production and heating

A5250D Plasma sources

A5250G Plasma heating

A5250J Plasma production and heating by laser beams

A5250L Plasma production and heating by shock waves and compression

A5255 Plasma equilibrium and confinement

A5255D General theory of plasma confinement

A5255E Pinch effect and pinch machines

A5255G Plasma in torus (stellarator, tokamak, etc.)

A5255K Magnetic traps (e.g., Astron, helitron, mirror, cusp, etc.)

A5255M Nonmagnetic plasma confinement systems (e.g. electrostatic, inertial, high frequency and laser confinement, etc.)

A5255P Confinement in fusion experiments

A5260 Relativistic plasma

A5265 Plasma simulation

A5270 Plasma diagnostic techniques and instrumentation

A5270D Electric and magnetic plasma diagnostic techniques, probes

A5270G Radiofrequency and microwave plasma diagnostic techniques

A5270K Optical (ultraviolet, visible, infrared) plasma diagnostic techniques

A5270L X-ray and gamma-ray plasma diagnostic techniques

A5270N Particle plasma diagnostic techniques

A5275 Plasma devices and applications

A5275D Accelerators and propulsion using plasma

A5275F Magnetohydrodynamic generators and thermionic convertors

A5275H Plasma torches

A5275K Plasma switches

A5275P Plasma diodes

A5275R Plasma applications in manufacturing and materials processing

A5280 Electric discharges

A5280D Low-field and Townsend discharges

A5280F Dielectric-barrier discharges

A5280H Glow and corona discharges

A5280M Arcs and sparks

A5280P High-frequency discharges

A5280Q Explosions (electrical discharges)

A5280S Magnetoactive and Penning discharges

A5280V Discharges in vacuum

A5280W Discharges and electric breakdown in liquids

A5280Y Discharge methods for spectral sources

A5290 Other topics in plasma physics and electric discharges

A6000 Condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties

A6100 Structure of liquids and solids; crystallography

A6110 X-ray determination of structures

A6110D Theories of X-ray diffraction and scattering

A6110F Experimental X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques

A6110M Crystal structure solution and refinement techniques using X-rays

A6112 Neutron determination of structures

A6112B Theories of neutron diffraction and scattering

A6112E Neutron scattering techniques

A6112G Neutron diffraction techniques

A6114 Electron determination of structures

A6114D Theories of electron diffraction and scattering

A6114F Experimental electron diffraction and scattering

A6114H Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED)

A6114R Other electron diffraction and scattering techniques

A6116 Other determination of structures

A6116D Electron microscopy determinations of structures

A6116F Field-ion microscopy determinations of structures; atom and ion scattering techniques

A6116N EPR and NMR determinations of structures; Mossbauer spectroscopy

A6116P Scanning probe microscopy determinations of structures

A6120 Classical, semiclassical, and quantum theories of liquid structure

A6120G Statistical theories of liquid structure

A6120J Computer simulation of static and dynamic liquid behaviour

A6120L Time-dependent properties of liquid structure

A6120N Structure of simple liquids

A6120Q Structure of associated liquids

A6125 Studies of specific liquid structures

A6125B Structure of liquid noble gases

A6125E Structure of molecular liquids

A6125H Structure of macromolecular and polymer solutions (solubility, swelling, etc.); polymer melts

A6125K Structure of molten salts

A6125M Structure of liquid metals and liquid alloys

A6130 Liquid crystals

A6130B Molecular theories of liquid crystals

A6130C Microstructure theory of liquid crystals (continuum, swarm theories)

A6130E Experimental determinations of smectic, nematic, cholesteric, and lyotropic structures

A6130G Orientational order of liquid crystals in electric and magnetic fields

A6130J Defects in liquid crystals

A6140 Structure of amorphous, disordered and polymeric materials

A6140D Structure of glasses

A6140G Structure of powders and porous materials

A6140K Structure of polymers, elastomers, and plastics

A6140M Structure of quasicrystals

A6146 Structure of solid clusters, nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanostructured materials

A6148 Structure of graphene and graphene-related materials

A6150 Crystalline state

A6150C Physics of crystal growth

A6150E Crystal symmetry; models and space groups, and crystalline systems and classes

A6150J Crystal morphology and orientation

A6150K Crystallographic aspects of polymorphic and order-disorder transformations

A6150L Crystal binding

A6155 Crystal structure of specific elements and alloys

A6155D Crystal structure of specific nonmetallic elements

A6155F Crystal structure of specific metallic elements

A6155H Crystal structure of specific alloys

A6160 Crystal structure of specific inorganic compounds

A6165 Crystal structure of specific organic compounds

A6167 Crystal structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials

A6170 Defects in crystals

A6170A Annealing processes

A6170B Interstitials and vacancies

A6170D Colour centres

A6170E Other point defects

A6170G Dislocations: theory

A6170J Etch pits, decoration, transmission electron-microscopy and other direct observations of dislocations

A6170L Slip, creep, internal friction and other indirect evidence of dislocations

A6170N Grain and twin boundaries

A6170P Stacking faults, stacking fault tetrahedra and other planar or extended defects

A6170Q Inclusions and voids

A6170R Crystal impurities: general

A6170T Doping and implantation of impurities

A6170W Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients

A6170Y Interaction between different crystal structure defects

A6175 Structure of composite materials

A6175B Structure of reinforced metal composites (inc. particle, fibre, platelet and whisker-reinforced metals)

A6175E Structure of ceramic-based composites (inc. cermets and refractory composites)

A6175H Structure of glass-based composites

A6175K Structure of reinforced polymers and polymer-containing composites (inc. filled polymers)

A6175N Structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials (inc. perovskite hybrids)

A6175Q Structure of nanocomposites

A6175W Structure of other composite materials

A6180 Radiation damage and other irradiation effects

A6180B Ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation effects

A6180C X-ray effects

A6180E Gamma ray effects

A6180F Electron and positron effects

A6180H Neutron effects

A6180J Ion beam effects

A6180L Atomic and molecular irradiation effects

A6180M Channelling, blocking and energy loss of particles

A6185 Modelling and computer simulation of solid structure

A6190 Other topics in structure of liquids and solids

A6200 Mechanical and acoustic properties of condensed matter

A6210 Mechanical properties of liquids

A6220 Mechanical properties of solids (related to microscopic structure)

A6220D Elasticity, elastic constants

A6220F Deformation and plasticity

A6220H Creep

A6220M Fatigue, brittleness, fracture, and cracks

A6220P Tribology

A6230 Mechanical and elastic waves

A6240 Anelasticity, internal friction and mechanical resonances

A6250 High-pressure and shock-wave effects in solids and liquids

A6260 Acoustic properties of liquids

A6265 Acoustic properties of solids

A6280 Ultrasonic relaxation in condensed matter

A6290 Other topics in mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter

A6300 Lattice dynamics and crystal statistics

A6310 General theory of lattice dynamics and crystal statistics

A6320 Phonons and vibrations in crystal lattices

A6320D Phonon states and bands, normal modes, and phonon dispersion

A6320H Phonon-phonon interactions

A6320K Phonon-electron interactions

A6320L Phonon interactions with quasi-particles

A6320M Phonon-defect interactions

A6320P Localized modes in crystal lattices

A6320R Anharmonic lattice modes

A6322 Phonons in low-dimensional structures and small particles

A6350 Vibrational states in disordered systems

A6370 Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations

A6375 Statistical mechanics of displacive phase-transitions

A6390 Other topics in lattice dynamics and crystal statistics

A6400 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions

A6410 General theory of equations of state and phase equilibria

A6430 Equations of state of specific substances

A6460 General studies of phase transitions

A6460A Renormalization group, fractal and percolation studies of phase transitions

A6460C Order-disorder and statistical mechanics of model systems

A6460F Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents

A6460H Dynamic critical phenomena

A6460K Multicritical points

A6460M Metastable phases

A6460Q Nucleation in phase transitions

A6470 Phase equilibria, phase transitions, and critical points

A6470D Solid-liquid transitions

A6470F Liquid-vapour transitions

A6470H Solid-vapour transitions

A6470J Liquid-liquid transitions

A6470K Solid-solid transitions

A6470M Transitions in liquid crystals

A6470P Glass transitions

A6470R Commensurate-incommensurate transitions

A6475 Solubility, segregation, and mixing

A6480 Other phase properties of systems

A6480E Stoichiometry and homogeneity

A6480G Microstructure

A6490 Other topics in equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions

A6500 Thermal properties of condensed matter

A6520 Heat capacities of liquids

A6540 Heat capacities of solids

A6540E Lattice and electronic heat capacity of solids

A6540H Lambda, Schottky and other anomalies in solids

A6550 Thermodynamic properties and entropy

A6570 Thermal expansion and thermomechanical effects

A6590 Other topics in thermal properties of condensed matter

A6600 Transport properties of condensed matter (nonelectronic)

A6610 Diffusion and ionic conduction in liquids

A6610C Diffusion and thermal diffusion in liquids

A6610E Ionic conduction in liquids

A6620 Viscosity of liquids; diffusive momentum transport

A6630 Diffusion and ionic conduction in solids

A6630D Theory of diffusion and ionic conduction in solids

A6630F Self-diffusion in solid metals, semimetals, and alloys

A6630H Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in solid nonmetals

A6630J Diffusion, migration, and displacement of impurities in solids

A6630L Diffusion, migration, and displacement of other defects in solids

A6630N Chemical interdiffusion in solids

A6630Q Electromigration in solids

A6660 Thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids

A6670 Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation in nonmetallic solids

A6690 Other topics in nonelectronic transport properties

A6700 Quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium

A6720 Quantum effects on the structure and dynamics of nondegenerate fluids

A6740 Boson degeneracy and superfluidity of helium-4

A6740B Phenomenology and two fluid models (liquid helium-4)

A6740D Quantum statistical theory; ground state, elementary excitations (liquid helium-4)

A6740F Dynamics of relaxation phenomena (liquid helium-4)

A6740H Hydrodynamics in specific geometries, flow in narrow channels (liquid helium-4)

A6740K Thermodynamic properties (liquid helium-4)

A6740M First sound (liquid helium-4)

A6740P Transport processes, second and other sounds, and thermal counterflow (liquid helium-4)

A6740R Films and weak link transport (liquid helium-4)

A6740V Vortices and turbulence (liquid helium-4)

A6740X Impurities and other defects (liquid helium-4)

A6750 Fermi fluids; liquid helium-3

A6750D Normal phase liquid helium-3

A6750F Superfluid phase liquid helium-3

A6760 Mixed systems; liquid helium 3-4 mixtures

A6760D Liquid He I-3He mixtures

A6760F Liquid He II-3He mixtures

A6765 Spin-polarized hydrogen and helium

A6770 Films of quantum fluids and solids

A6780 Solid helium and related quantum crystals

A6780C Lattice dynamics and sound propagation (solid helium/quantum crystals)

A6780G Thermal properties (solid helium/quantum crystals)

A6780J Magnetic properties and NMR (solid helium/quantum crystals)

A6780M Defects, impurities, and diffusion (solid helium/quantum crystals)

A6790 Other topics in quantum fluids and solids (e.g. neutron-star matter)

A6800 Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and whiskers

A6810 Fluid surfaces and interfaces with fluids

A6810C Fluid surface energy (surface tension, interface tension, angle of contact, etc.)

A6810E Fluid interface elasticity, viscosity, and viscoelasticity

A6810G Fluid interface activity, spreading

A6810J Fluid kinetics (evaporation, adsorption, condensation, catalysis, etc.)

A6815 Liquid thin films

A6817 Monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett films

A6820 Solid surface structure

A6822 Surface diffusion, segregation and interfacial compound formation

A6825 Mechanical and acoustical properties of solid surfaces and interfaces

A6830 Dynamics of solid surfaces and interface vibrations

A6840 Surface energy of solids; thermodynamic properties

A6842 Surface phase transitions and critical phenomena

A6845 Solid-fluid interface processes

A6845B Sorption equilibrium at solid-fluid interfaces

A6845D Adsorption and desorption kinetics; evaporation and condensation

A6848 Solid-solid interfaces

A6855 Thin film growth, structure, and epitaxy

A6860 Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic

A6865 Low-dimensional structures: growth, structure and nonelectronic properties

A6870 Whiskers and dendrites: growth, structure, and nonelectronic properties

A6890 Other topics in the structure and nonelectronic properties of surfaces and thin films

A7000 Condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties

A7100 Electron states in condensed matter

A7110 Theories and models of many electron systems in condensed matter

A7110A Fermi liquid theory and other phenomenological models of many electron systems (condensed matter)

A7110C Electron gas, Fermi gas (condensed matter)

A7110F Lattice fermion models (condensed matter)

A7110H Non-Fermi-liquid ground states, electron phase diagrams and phase transitions in model systems

A7110P Fermions in reduced dimensions (condensed matter)

A7115 Methods of electronic structure calculations (condensed matter)

A7115A Ab initio calculations (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115B Plane wave calculations (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115F Atomic- and molecular-orbital methods (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115H Pseudopotential methods (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115J Self consistent field (SCF) calculations (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115M Density functional theory, local density approximation (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115P General mathematical techniques in electronic structure calculations (condensed matter)

A7115Q Molecular dynamics calculations and other numerical simulations (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115R Relativistic calculations (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7115T Other methods of electronic structure calculations (condensed matter)

A7120 Electronic density of states determinations

A7120A Mathematical and computational techniques for electronic density of states

A7120C Electronic density of states of metals, semimetals, and alloys

A7120F Electronic density of states of nonmetallic inorganics

A7120H Electronic density of states of organic compounds, polymers, and complex systems

A7125 Electronic structure: density of states and band structure (condensed matter)

A7125C Techniques of band-structure calculation (general theory, applications of group theory, analytic continuation, etc.)

A7125H Fermi surface: calculations and measurements

A7125J Effective mass and g-factors (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7125L Electronic structure of liquid metals and semiconductors and their alloys

A7125M Electronic structure of amorphous and glassy solids

A7125P Electronic structure of crystalline metals and alloys

A7125R Electronic structure of crystalline elemental semiconductors

A7125T Electronic structure of crystalline semiconductor compounds and insulators

A7125V Electronic structure of organic compounds and polymers

A7125W Electronic structure of solid clusters and nanoparticles

A7125X Electronic structure of fullerenes and fullerene-related materials; intercalation compounds

A7125Y Electronic structure of composite materials

A7127 Strongly correlated electron systems

A7128 Narrow-band systems, heavy-fermion metals; intermediate-valence solids

A7130 Metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions

A7135 Excitons and related phenomena

A7136 Polaritons

A7138 Polarons and electron-phonon interactions

A7145 Collective effects (condensed matter electronic structure)

A7145G Exchange, correlation, dielectric and magnetic functions, plasmons

A7145J Thomas-Fermi model (condensed matter)

A7145L Charge-density-wave systems

A7145N Calculations of total electronic binding energy

A7150 Localized single-particle electronic states

A7155 Impurity and defect levels

A7155D Impurity and defect levels in metals, semimetals, and alloys

A7155E Impurity and defect levels in elemental semiconductors

A7155F Impurity and defect levels in tetrahedrally bonded nonmetals

A7155G Impurity and defect levels in II-VI and III-V semiconductors

A7155H Impurity and defect levels in other nonmetals

A7155J Localization in disordered structures

A7165 Positron states (condensed matter)

A7170 Level splitting and interactions (condensed matter)

A7170C Crystal and ligand fields

A7170E Spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman, Stark and strain splitting (condensed matter)

A7170G Exchange interactions (condensed matter)

A7170J Nuclear states and interactions (condensed matter)

A7170M Other bulk localised states

A7190 Other topics in electron states of condensed matter

A7200 Electronic transport in condensed matter

A7210 Theory of electronic transport; scattering mechanisms

A7210B General formulation of electronic transport theory

A7210D Carrier scattering by phonons, magnons, and other nonlocalized excitations

A7210F Carrier scattering by point defects, dislocations, surfaces, and other imperfections

A7215 Electronic conduction in metals and alloys

A7215C Electrical and thermal conduction in amorphous and liquid metals and alloys

A7215E Electrical and thermal conduction in crystalline metals and alloys

A7215G Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (metals/alloys)

A7215H Thermomagnetic effects (metals/alloys)

A7215J Thermoelectric effects (metals/alloys)

A7215L Relaxation times and mean free paths (metals/alloys)

A7215N Collective modes; low-dimensional conductors

A7215Q Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect (metals/alloys)

A7215R Quantum localization (metals/alloys)

A7220 Electrical conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and insulators

A7220D General theory, carrier scattering mechanisms (semiconductors/insulators)

A7220F Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance (semiconductors/insulators)

A7220H High-field transport and nonlinear effects (semiconductors/insulators)

A7220J Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping (semiconductors/insulators)

A7220M Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (semiconductors/insulators)

A7220N Thermomagnetic effects (semiconductors/insulators)

A7220P Thermoelectric effects (semiconductors/insulators)

A7225 Spin polarized transport

A7230 High-frequency effects; plasma effects in electronic transport

A7240 Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects; photodielectric effects

A7250 Acoustoelectric effects (electronic transport)

A7255 Magnetoacoustic effects (electronic transport)

A7260 Mixed conductivity and conductivity transitions

A7270 Noise processes and phenomena in electronic transport

A7280 Electrical conductivity of specific semiconductors and insulators

A7280C Electrical conductivity of elemental semiconductors

A7280E Electrical conductivity of II-VI and III-V semiconductors

A7280G Electrical conductivity of transition-metal compounds

A7280J Electrical conductivity of other crystalline inorganic semiconductors

A7280L Electrical conductivity of organic compounds and polymers

A7280N Electrical conductivity of amorphous and glassy semiconductors

A7280P Electrical conductivity of liquid semiconductors

A7280R Electrical conductivity of fullerenes and related materials

A7280S Electrical conductivity of insulators

A7280T Electrical conductivity of composite materials

A7290 Other topics in electronic transport in condensed matter

A7300 Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures

A7315 Electronic structure: density of states and band structure (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315B Electronic structure of metals and alloys (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315D Electronic structure of elemental semiconductors (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315F Electronic structure of II-VI and III-V semiconductors (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315H Electronic structure of other inorganic semiconductors and insulators (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315J Electronic structure of amorphous and glassy materials (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315L Electronic structure of organic compounds and polymers (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315N Electronic structure of graphene and graphene-related materials (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7315P Electronic structure of composite materials (thin films, low dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7320 Electronic states (surfaces and interfaces)

A7320A Surface states, surface band structure, surface electron density of states

A7320D Electron states in low-dimensional structures

A7320F Weak localization (surface states)

A7320H Surface impurity and defect levels; energy levels of adsorbed species

A7320J Delocalization processes (surface states)

A7320M Collective excitations (surface states)

A7325 Surface conductivity and carrier phenomena

A7330 Surface double layers, Schottky barriers, and work functions

A7335 Mesoscopic systems and quantum interference

A7335A Ballistic transport

A7335C Coulomb blockade; quantum tunnelling

A7340 Electrical properties of interfaces

A7340B Static electrification

A7340C Contact resistance, contact potential, and work functions

A7340E Rectification at interfaces

A7340G Tunnelling: general (electronic transport)

A7340H Quantum Hall effect

A7340J Electrical properties of metal-to-metal contacts

A7340K Electrical properties of semiconductor quantum wells and related structures

A7340L Electrical properties of semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions

A7340M Electrical properties of semiconductor-electrolyte contacts

A7340N Electrical properties of metal-nonmetal contacts

A7340Q Electrical properties of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

A7340R Electrical properties of metal-insulator-metal structures

A7340S Electrical properties of metal-semiconductor-metal structures

A7340T Electrical properties of semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structures

A7340V Electrical properties of semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures

A7360 Electrical properties of thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures

A7360D Electrical properties of metals and metallic alloys (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360F Electronic properties of semiconductor thin films

A7360H Electrical properties of insulators (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360J Electrical properties of elemental semiconductors (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360L Electrical properties of II-VI and III-V semiconductors (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360N Electrical properties of amorphous and glassy semiconductors (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360P Electrical properties of other inorganic semiconductors (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360R Electrical properties of organic compounds and polymers (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360T Electrical properties of graphene and graphene-related materials (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7360V Electrical properties of composite materials (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7390 Other topics in electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films

A7400 Superconductivity

A7410 Superconducting critical temperature, occurrence

A7420 Theory of superconductivity

A7420D Phenomenological and two-fluid superconductivity theories

A7420F BCS theory of superconductivity

A7420M Other theories of superconductivity

A7430 General properties of superconductors

A7430C Magnetic properties of superconductors

A7430E Thermal and thermodynamic properties of superconductors

A7430F Transport properties of superconductors

A7430G Superconductor response to electromagnetic fields

A7430H Phase diagrams of superconductors

A7430J Electronic structure of superconductors

A7430K Phonons in superconductors

A7430L Mechanical and acoustic properties of superconductors

A7430M Optical properties of superconductors

A7440 Fluctuations and critical effects in superconductors

A7450 Superconductor tunnelling phenomena, proximity effects, and Josephson effect

A7455 Type-I superconductivity

A7460 Type-II superconductivity

A7460E Mixed state, Hc2, surface sheath

A7460G Flux pinning, flux motion, fluxon-defect interactions

A7460J Critical currents in type-II superconductors

A7460M Material effects on Tc, K, critical currents in type-II superconductors

A7465 Insulator-superconductor transition

A7470 Superconducting materials

A7470B Elemental superconductors

A7470C Superconducting A15 compounds and alloys

A7470E Superconducting interstitial compounds and alloys

A7470F Chevrel phase (ternary molybdenum chalcogenide) superconductors

A7470H Magnetic superconductors

A7470J Superconducting layer structures and intercalation compounds

A7470K Organic superconductors

A7470M Amorphous, highly disordered, and granular superconductors

A7470Q Laves phase (C15) superconductors

A7470S Superconducting metastable nonstoichiometric phases

A7470T Heavy-fermion superconductors

A7470V Perovskite phase and other high-temperature superconductors

A7470W Fullerene superconductors

A7470Y Other superconducting materials

A7475 Superconducting films and low-dimensional structures

A7490 Other topics in superconductivity

A7500 Magnetic properties and materials

A7510 General theory and models of magnetic ordering

A7510D Crystal-field theory and spin Hamiltonians (magnetism)

A7510H Ising and other classical spin models (magnetism)

A7510J Heisenberg and other quantized localized spin models (magnetism)

A7510L Band and itinerant models (magnetism)

A7510N Spin-glass models (magnetism)

A7520 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism

A7520C Diamagnetism and paramagnetism in nonmetals

A7520E Diamagnetism and paramagnetism in metals and alloys

A7520H Local moment in dilute alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions

A7525 Spin arrangements in magnetically ordered materials

A7530 Magnetically ordered materials, other intrinsic properties

A7530C Magnetic moments and susceptibility in magnetically ordered materials

A7530D Spin waves in magnetically ordered materials (inc. magnons)

A7530E Exchange and superexchange interactions in magnetically ordered materials

A7530F Spin-density waves in magnetically ordered materials

A7530G Magnetic anisotropy

A7530H Magnetic impurity interactions

A7530K Magnetic phase boundaries

A7530M Valence fluctuations, Kondo lattice and heavy fermions in magnetically ordered materials

A7530S Magnetocaloric effect in magnetically ordered materials

A7530T Surface magnetism

A7530V Enhanced magnetoresistance in bulk magnetic materials

A7540 Critical-point effects, specific heats, short-range order in magnetic materials

A7540C Static properties of magnetic materials

A7540G Dynamic properties of magnetic materials

A7540M Numerical simulation studies of magnetic materials

A7550 Studies of specific magnetic materials

A7550B Ferromagnetism of Fe and its alloys

A7550C Ferromagnetism of nonferrous metals and alloys

A7550D Ferromagnetism of nonmetals

A7550E Antiferromagnetics

A7550G Ferrimagnetics

A7550K Amorphous and nanostructured magnetic materials

A7550L Spin glasses (magnetic materials)

A7550M Magnetic liquids

A7550P Magnetic semiconductors

A7550R Magnetism in interface structures

A7550S Magnetic recording materials

A7550V High coercivity magnetic materials

A7550X Molecular magnets

A7560 Magnetic domain effects, magnetization curves, and hysteresis

A7560C Magnetic domain walls and domain structure

A7560E Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related effects

A7560G High coercivity magnetic materials

A7560J Fine-particle magnetic systems

A7560L Magnetic aftereffects

A7560N Magnetic annealing and temperature-hysteresis effects

A7570 Magnetic films, multilayers and low-dimensional structures

A7570A Magnetic properties of single layer thin films

A7570B Magnetic properties of nanostructures

A7570C Interfacial magnetic properties

A7570F Magnetic ordering in multilayers

A7570K Domain structure in magnetic films (magnetic bubbles)

A7570P Enhanced magnetoresistance in magnetic films and multilayers

A7580 Magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects, magnetostriction

A7590 Other topics in magnetic properties and materials

A7600 Magnetic resonances and relaxation in condensed matter; MoĆ└╗ssbauer effect

A7620 General theory of magnetic resonances and relaxation

A7630 Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation (condensed matter)

A7630D EPR of ions and impurities: general

A7630F EPR of iron group (3d) ions and impurities (Ti-Cu)

A7630H EPR of platinum and palladium group (4d and 5d) ions and impurities (Zr-Ag and Hf-Au)

A7630K EPR of rare-earth ions and impurities

A7630L EPR of other ions and impurities

A7630M EPR of colour centres and other defects

A7630P EPR of conduction electrons

A7630R EPR of free radicals (condensed matter)

A7640 Diamagnetic and cyclotron resonances (condensed matter)

A7650 Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic resonances; spin wave resonance

A7660 Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation (condensed matter)

A7660C Chemical and Knight shifts (condensed matter NMR)

A7660E Relaxation effects (condensed matter NMR)

A7660G Quadrupole resonance (condensed matter NQR)

A7660J Effects of internal magnetic fields (condensed matter NMR)

A7660L Spin echoes (condensed matter NMR)

A7670 Magnetic double resonances and cross effects (condensed matter)

A7670D Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) (condensed matter)

A7670E Dynamical nuclear polarization (condensed matter)

A7670F Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR) (condensed matter)

A7670H Optical double magnetic resonance (ODMR) (condensed matter)

A7670K Electron double resonance (ELDOR) (condensed matter)

A7675 Muon spin rotation and relaxation in condensed matter

A7680 MoĆ└╗ssbauer effect; other gamma-ray spectroscopy in condensed matter

A7690 Other topics in magnetic resonances and relaxation in condensed matter

A7700 Dielectric properties and materials

A7720 Dielectric permittivity

A7730 Dielectric polarization and depolarization effects

A7740 Dielectric loss and relaxation

A7750 Dielectric breakdown and space-charge effects

A7755 Dielectric thin films

A7760 Piezoelectricity and electrostriction

A7770 Pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects

A7780 Ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity

A7780B Ferroelectric transitions and Curie point

A7780D Ferroelectric domain structure and effects; hysteresis

A7780F Ferroelectric switching phenomena

A7785 Electrical resonances

A7790 Other topics in dielectric properties and materials

A7800 Optical properties and condensed matter spectroscopy and other interactions of matter with particles and radiation

A7820 Optical properties of condensed matter

A7820B Optical properties of pure homogeneous materials: general theory

A7820D Optical constants and parameters (condensed matter)

A7820E Optical rotatory power (condensed matter)

A7820F Birefringence (condensed matter)

A7820H Piezo-, elasto- and acousto-optical effects; photoacoustic effect (condensed matter)

A7820J Electro-optical effects (condensed matter)

A7820L Magneto-optical effects (condensed matter)

A7820N Thermo-optical and photothermal effects (condensed matter)

A7820P Photonic band gap (condensed matter)

A7820W Other optical properties of condensed matter

A7830 Infrared and Raman spectra and scattering (condensed matter)

A7830C Infrared and Raman spectra in liquids

A7830E Infrared and Raman spectra in metals

A7830G Infrared and Raman spectra in inorganic crystals

A7830J Infrared and Raman spectra in organic crystals

A7830L Infrared and Raman spectra in disordered solids

A7830N Infrared and Raman spectra in composite materials

A7835 Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering (condensed matter)

A7840 Visible and ultraviolet spectra (condensed matter)

A7840D Visible and ultraviolet spectra of liquids

A7840E Visible and ultraviolet spectra of elemental semiconductors

A7840F Visible and ultraviolet spectra of tetrahedrally bonded nonmetals

A7840G Visible and ultraviolet spectra of II-VI and III-V semiconductors

A7840H Visible and ultraviolet spectra of other nonmetals

A7840K Visible and ultraviolet spectra of metals, semimetals, and alloys

A7840M Visible and ultraviolet spectra of composite materials

A7845 Stimulated emission (condensed matter)

A7847 Ultrafast optical measurements in condensed matter

A7850 Impurity and defect absorption in solids

A7850E Impurity and defect absorption in insulators

A7850G Impurity and defect absorption in semiconductors

A7850J Impurity and defect absorption in metals, semimetals, and alloys

A7855 Photoluminescence (condensed matter)

A7855B Photoluminescence in liquids

A7855C Photoluminescence in elemental semiconductors

A7855D Photoluminescence in tetrahedrally bonded nonmetals

A7855E Photoluminescence in II-VI and III-V semiconductors

A7855F Photoluminescence in alkali halides

A7855H Photoluminescence in other inorganic materials

A7855K Photoluminescence in organic materials

A7855M Photoluminescence in composite materials

A7860 Other luminescence spectra and radiative recombination (condensed matter)

A7860F Electroluminescence (condensed matter)

A7860H Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence (condensed matter)

A7860K Thermoluminescence (condensed matter)

A7860M Sonoluminescence, triboluminescence (condensed matter)

A7860P Chemiluminescence (condensed matter)

A7865 Optical properties of thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures

A7865E Optical properties of metals and metallic alloys (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7865H Optical properties of elemental semiconductors (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7865J Optical properties of nonmetallic thin films

A7865K Optical properties of II-VI and III-V semiconductors (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7865M Optical properties of amorphous and glassy semiconductors and insulators (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7865P Optical properties of other inorganic semiconductors and insulators (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7865R Optical properties of composite materials (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7865T Optical properties of organic compounds and polymers (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7865V Optical properties of graphene and graphene related materials (thin films, low-dimensional and nanoscale structures)

A7870 Other interactions of condensed matter with particles and radiation

A7870B Positron annihilation (condensed matter)

A7870C X-ray scattering (condensed matter)

A7870D X-ray absorption and absorption edges (condensed matter)

A7870E X-ray emission threshold and fluorescence (condensed matter)

A7870F Channelling radiation

A7870G Microwave, radiofrequency and terahertz wave interactions with condensed matter

A7890 Other topics in optical properties of condensed matter and other interactions of matter with particles and radiation

A7900 Electron and ion emission by liquids and solids; impact phenomena

A7920 Surface impact phenomena

A7920D Laser-surface impact phenomena

A7920F Electron-surface impact: Auger emission

A7920H Electron-surface impact: secondary emission

A7920K Other electron-surface impact phenomena

A7920N Atom-, molecule-, and ion-surface impact and interactions

A7920R Atomic and molecular beam interactions with surfaces

A7940 Thermionic emission (from surfaces)

A7960 Photoemission and photoelectron spectra (condensed matter)

A7960C Photoelectron spectra of clean metals

A7960E Photoelectron spectra of semiconductors and insulators

A7960G Photoelectron spectra of composite surfaces

A7970 Field emission and field ionization

A7975 Exoelectron emission

A7980 Resonance tunnelling

A7990 Other topics in emission and impact phenomena in condensed matter

A8000 Cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology

A8100 Materials science

A8110 Methods of crystal growth and purification

A8110B Crystal growth from vapour

A8110D Crystal growth from solution

A8110F Crystal growth from melt

A8110H Zone melting and zone refining

A8110J Growth from solid phases

A8115 Methods of thin film deposition

A8115C Deposition by sputtering

A8115E Atomic layer deposition

A8115G Vacuum deposition

A8115H Chemical vapour deposition

A8115I Pulsed laser deposition

A8115J Ion plating and other vapour deposition

A8115L Deposition from liquid phases (melts and solutions)

A8115N Thin film growth from solid phases

A8115R Spray coating techniques

A8116 Methods of nanofabrication and processing

A8116D Self-assembly in nanofabrication

A8116F Nanofabrication using crystal growth techniques

A8116H Nanofabrication using thin film deposition methods

A8116N Nanolithography

A8116R Nanopatterning

A8116T Nanopositioning and atom manipulation

A8116W Other methods of nanofabrication

A8120 Other methods of preparation of materials

A8120E Powder techniques, compaction and sintering

A8120G Preparation of metals and alloys (compacts, pseudoalloys)

A8120J Preparation of particle-, dispersion-, fibre-, and platelet-reinforced metal-based composites

A8120L Preparation of ceramics and refractories

A8120N Preparation of cermets, ceramic and refractory composites

A8120P Preparation of glasses

A8120Q Preparation of glass-based composites

A8120S Preparation of polymers and plastics

A8120T Preparation of reinforced polymers and polymer-based composites

A8120V Preparation of graphene and graphene-related materials, intercalation compounds, and diamond

A8120X Preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid materials

A8130 Phase diagrams and microstructures developed by solidification and solid-solid phase transformations

A8130B Phase diagrams of metals and alloys

A8130D Phase diagrams of other materials

A8130F Solidification

A8130H Constant-composition solid-solid phase transformations: polymorphic, massive, and order-disorder

A8130K Martensitic transformations

A8130M Precipitation

A8140 Mechanical properties and materials treatment

A8140C Solid solution hardening, precipitation hardening, dispersion hardening

A8140E Cold working, work hardening; post-deformation annealing, recovery and recrystallisation; textures

A8140G Other heat and thermomechanical treatments

A8140J Elasticity and anelasticity

A8140L Deformation, plasticity and creep

A8140N Fatigue, embrittlement, and fracture

A8140P Friction, lubrication, and wear

A8140R Electrical and magnetic properties (related to treatment conditions)

A8140T Optical properties (related to treatment conditions)

A8160 Corrosion, oxidation, etching, and other surface treatments

A8160B Surface treatment and degradation of metals and alloys

A8160C Surface treatment and degradation in semiconductor technology

A8160D Surface treatment and degradation of ceramics and refractories

A8160F Surface treatment and degradation of glasses

A8160H Surface treatment and degradation of composites

A8160J Surface treatment and degradation of polymers and plastics

A8165 Adhesion and related phenomena

A8170 Materials testing

A8170B Nondestructive testing: acoustic methods

A8170C Nondestructive testing

A8170E Nondestructive testing: eddy current testing and related techniques

A8170G Nondestructive testing: optical methods

A8170J Nondestructive testing: X-ray methods

A8170L Nondestructive testing: other techniques

A8180 Reduced gravity experiments

A8185 Intelligent materials

A8190 Other topics in materials science

A8200 Physical chemistry

A8220 Chemical kinetics

A8220D Statistical theories of chemical kinetics

A8220F Stochastic and trajectory models of chemical kinetics, other theories and models

A8220H Mechanisms and product distributions in chemical kinetics

A8220K Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions

A8220M Nonequilibrium chemical kinetics

A8220P Measurements of chemical rate constants, reaction cross sections, and activation energies

A8220R Energy distribution and transfer, relaxation in chemical reactions

A8220T Kinetic and isotope effects in chemical reactions

A8220W Computational modelling of chemical kinetics

A8230 Specific chemical reactions; reaction mechanisms

A8230C Atom and radical reactions (with themselves or with molecules)

A8230E Molecule-molecule reactions

A8230F Ion-molecule, ion-ion, and charge-transfer reactions

A8230H Chemical exchanges (substitution, atom transfer, abstraction, disproportionation, and group exchange)

A8230L Decomposition reactions (pyrolysis, dissociation, and group ejection)

A8230M Oxidation, reduction and redox reactions (chemistry aspects)

A8230N Association, addition, and insertion

A8230Q Isomerization and rearrangement

A8230S Chain reactions

A8230V Homogeneous catalysis

A8235 Polymer reactions and polymerization

A8240 Chemical kinetics and reactions: special regimes

A8240D Atomic and molecular beam reactions

A8240F Chemical reactions in shock waves

A8240J Fast and ultrafast chemical reactions

A8240M Impulse techniques for chemical reactions

A8240P Flames, combustion, and explosions

A8240Q Plasma reactions

A8240T Chemiluminescence and chemical laser kinetics

A8240W Atmospheric chemistry

A8245 Electrochemistry and electrophoresis

A8245B Electrocatalysis

A8250 Photochemistry and radiation chemistry

A8250C Quantum yields in radiation chemistry and photochemistry

A8250E Photodissociation, photoionization as studied by luminescence and radiationless transitions

A8250F Photolysis and photodissociation by IR, UV and visible radiation

A8250G Radiolysis and dissociation by X-rays and gamma-rays

A8250H Photocatalysis

A8255 Radiochemistry

A8255D Hot atom reactions

A8255G Positronium chemistry

A8255K Tracer reactions

A8260 Chemical thermodynamics

A8260C Enthalpies of combustion, reaction and formation

A8260F Heat capacity and heats of phase transitions

A8260H Chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants

A8260L Thermodynamics of solutions

A8260N Nucleation (chemical thermodynamics)

A8265 Surface chemistry

A8265D Chemical thermodynamics of surfaces

A8265F Film and membrane processes; ion exchange; dialysis; osmosis, electro-osmosis

A8265J Heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces and other surface reactions

A8265M Sorption and accommodation coefficients (surface chemistry)

A8265N Other gas-surface interactions (surface chemistry)

A8270 Disperse systems

A8270D Colloids

A8270G Gels and sols

A8270K Emulsions and suspensions

A8270R Aerosols and foams

A8280 Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis

A8280B Chromatography

A8280D Electromagnetic radiation spectrometry (chemical analysis)

A8280F Electrochemical analytical methods

A8280H Nuclear chemical analysis

A8280K Energy conversion spectroscopic methods of chemical analysis

A8280M Mass spectrometry (chemical analysis)

A8280P Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (photoelectron, Auger spectroscopy, etc.)

A8280S Analytical methods using colligative properties

A8280T Chemical sensors

A8285 Physical chemistry aspects of chemical technology

A8290 Other topics in physical chemistry

A8600 Energy research and environmental science

A8605 Energy and environmental policy, economics and legislation

A8610 Energy resources and fuels

A8610A Biofuel and biomass resources

A8610B Fossil fuels

A8610C Hydrogen fuel

A8610D Wind energy

A8610F Tidal and flow energy

A8610H Geothermal energy

A8610K Solar energy

A8610N Nuclear energy

A8610W Waste resources

A8610Z Other topics in energy resources

A8620 Energy utilisation

A8620A General transportation (energy utilisation)

A8620B Automotive transportation (energy utilisation)

A8620C Aerospace transportation (energy utilisation)

A8620D Marine transportation (energy utilisation)

A8620E Rail transportation (energy utilisation)

A8620F Other transportation (energy utilisation)

A8620H Heating (energy utilisation)

A8620K Refrigeration and cooling (energy utilisation)

A8620M Lighting (energy utilisation)

A8620Q Buildings (energy utilisation)

A8620S Industry and manufacturing (energy utilisation)

A8620U Agriculture (energy utilisation)

A8620W Electrical/electronic equipment (energy utilisation)

A8620X Telecommunication systems (energy utilisation)

A8620Z Other energy utilisation

A8630 Energy conversion

A8630D Electrochemical conversion

A8630E Primary cells

A8630F Secondary cells

A8630G Fuel cells

A8630J Photoelectric conversion; solar cells and arrays

A8630K Photoelectrochemical conversion

A8630L Electrogasdynamic and magnetohydrodynamic conversion

A8630M Thermoelectric conversion

A8630N Thermionic conversion

A8630P Photosynthesis and bioenergy conversion

A8630Q Chemical energy conversion

A8630R Thermal energy conversion (heat engines and heat pumps)

A8630S Photothermal conversion

A8630T Energy harvesting

A8630Z Other topics in energy conversion

A8640 Energy storage

A8640C Storage in mechanical energy

A8640F Storage in thermal energy

A8640H Storage in chemical energy

A8640K Hydrogen storage and technology

A8640N Storage in electrical energy

A8640Z Other topics in energy storage

A8660 Requirement for energy: ecological aspects

A8670 Environmental science

A8670C Soil and rock (environmental science)

A8670E Water (environmental science)

A8670G Atmosphere (environmental science)

A8670H Indoor environment

A8670J Noise (environmental science)

A8670L Measurement techniques and instrumentation in environmental science

A8670Z Other topics in environmental science

A8675 Environmental science technology

A8675C Pollution removal at source

A8675F Contamination remediation (environmental science technology)

A8675M Carbon storage/sequestration (environmental science technology)

A8675T Waste disposal (environmental science technology)

A8675Z Other topics in environmental science technology

A8690 Other topics in energy research and environmental science

A8700 Biophysics, medical physics, and biomedical engineering

A8710 General, theoretical, and mathematical biophysics

A8715 Molecular biophysics

A8715B Biomolecular structure, configuration, conformation, and active sites

A8715D Physical chemistry of biomolecular solutions and condensed states

A8715H Biomolecular dynamics, molecular probes, molecular pattern recognition

A8715K Biomolecular interactions, charge transfer complexes

A8715M Interactions with radiations at the biomolecular level

A8715P Model reactions in molecular biophysics

A8716 Biothermics

A8720 Membrane biophysics

A8720C General theory of biophysical interfaces

A8720E Natural and artificial biomembranes

A8725 Cellular biophysics

A8725B Bioenergetics

A8725D Biological transport; cellular and subcellular transmembrane physics

A8725F Physics of subcellular structures

A8728 Bioelectricity

A8730 Biophysics of neurophysiological processes

A8730C Electrical activity in neurophysiological processes

A8730E External and internal data communications, nerve conduction and synaptic transmission

A8730G Brain models

A8732 Physiological optics, vision

A8732C Anatomy and optics of the eye

A8732E Physiology of the eye; nerve structure and function

A8732J Eye modulation transfer

A8732L Vision: light detection, adaptation and discrimination

A8732N Colour vision: detection, adaptation and discrimination

A8732Q Scales for light and colour detection in vision

A8732S Psychophysics of vision, visual perception, binocular vision

A8734 Audition

A8734B Auditory effects of noise

A8734D Otoacoustic emissions

A8734F Auditory prostheses and hearing aids

A8736 Speech and biocommunications

A8738 Mechano- and chemio-ceptions

A8740 Biomagnetism

A8745 Biomechanics, biorheology, biological fluid dynamics

A8745B Mechanical properties of tissues and organs

A8745D Physics of body movements

A8745F Rheology of body fluids

A8745H Haemodynamics, pneumodynamics

A8750 Biological effects of radiations

A8750B Interactions of biosystems with radiations

A8750C Bioacoustics (sonic and ultrasonic effects on living matter)

A8750E Bio-optics (effects of microwaves, light, laser and other electromagnetic waves)

A8750G Biological effects of ionizing radiations (UV, X-ray, gamma-ray; particle radiation effects)

A8760 Medical and biomedical uses of fields, radiations, and radioactivity; health physics

A8760B Sonic and ultrasonic radiation (medical uses)

A8760D Electric and magnetic fields (medical uses)

A8760F Optical and laser radiation (medical uses)

A8760G Microwaves and other electromagnetic waves (medical uses)

A8760I Medical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

A8760J X-rays and particle beams (medical uses)

A8760K Nuclear medicine, emission tomography

A8760L Preparation of radioactive materials for medical and biomedical uses

A8760M Radiation dosimetry in medical physics

A8760P Radiation protection in medical physics

A8760R Radioactive pollution and natural radioactivity: health aspects

A8765 Aerospace biophysics and medical physics (effects of accelerations, weightlessness and environment)

A8770 Biomedical engineering

A8770E Patient diagnostic methods and instrumentation

A8770F Electrodiagnostics and other electrical measurement techniques

A8770G Patient care and treatment

A8770H Radiation therapy

A8770J Prosthetics and other practical applications

A8770M Biomedical materials

A8780 Biophysical instrumentation and techniques

A8780B Biosensors

A8780S Genomic techniques

A8780U Proteomic techniques

A8783 Nanotechnology applications in biomedicine

A8790 Other topics in biophysics, medical physics, and biomedical engineering

A9000 Geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics

A9100 Solid Earth physics

A9110 Geodesy and gravity

A9110B Mathematical geodesy: general theory

A9110D Cartography

A9110J Topography: geometrical observations of the Earth

A9110L Photogrammetry of land surfaces

A9110N Rotational variations of the Earth: polar wobble

A9110Q Gravity fields of the Earth

A9110T Earth tides and crustal tilt

A9125 Geomagnetism and geoelectricity

A9125C Origins and models of the geomagnetic field; dynamo theories

A9125E Magnetotellurics

A9125G Geomagnetic spatial variations (all harmonics and anomalies)

A9125J Geomagnetic spatial variations attributed to sea floor spreading

A9125L Geomagnetic temporal variations and reversals

A9125N Palaeomagnetism

A9125Q Geoelectricity; electromagnetic induction and conductivity

A9130 Seismology

A9130B Seismic sources

A9130D Seismicity (spatial and temporal distribution)

A9130F Seismic waves

A9130K Oscillations of the Earth interior (periods less than 12 hours)

A9130M Seismic strong motions and damage

A9130N Tsunami

A9130P Earthquake prediction and precursory phenomena

A9130R Controlled source seismology

A9135 Earth interior

A9135C Earth models

A9135D Terrestrial heat

A9135E Earth core and lower mantle

A9135G Earth crust and upper mantle

A9135L Geochemistry

A9135N Geochronology

A9140 Volcanology

A9145 Tectonics

A9145B Sub-plate scale tectonics (faults, folds, rifts, etc.)

A9145D Plate tectonics

A9145F Convection currents in the mantle and crust

A9145P Slow vertical crustal movements

A9145S Gravity observations related to tectonics and isostasy

A9150 Marine geology and geophysics

A9150C Beach, coastal and shelf processes

A9150E Seafloor processes

A9150G Bathymetry and seafloor topography

A9150J Marine sedimentation and sediments

A9160 Physical properties of rocks, minerals and soil

A9160B Mechanical and acoustic properties of rocks, minerals and soil

A9160F Equations of state of minerals

A9160H Phase changes in minerals

A9160K Thermal properties of rocks, minerals and soil

A9160P Magnetic and electric properties of rocks, minerals and soil

A9160W Other properties of rocks, minerals and soil

A9165 Geophysical aspects of geology and mineralogy

A9185 Geophysical aspects of vegetation

A9190 Other topics in solid Earth physics

A9200 Hydrospheric and lower atmospheric physics

A9210 Physics of the oceans

A9210B Physical properties of seawater

A9210D Dynamics of the deep ocean

A9210F Dynamics of the upper ocean

A9210H Surface waves, tides, and sea level

A9210J Seiches

A9210K Sea-air interactions

A9210L Turbulence, diffusion, mixing, and convection in the oceans

A9210M Thermohaline structure and circulation of the oceans

A9210P Optical and other electromagnetic aspects of oceanography

A9210R Sea ice

A9210S Coastal and estuarine oceanography

A9210V Underwater sound

A9210X Palaeo-oceanography

A9220 Interdisciplinary aspects of oceanography

A9220C Chemistry of the oceans

A9220G Energy extraction from the oceans

A9220J Biological aspects of oceanography

A9220N Pollution of the oceans

A9240 Hydrology and glaciology

A9240C General hydrological theory

A9240E Precipitation (hydrological)

A9240F Rivers, runoff, and streamflow

A9240G Erosion and sedimentation (hydrological)

A9240J Evaporation and transpiration (hydrological)

A9240K Groundwater

A9240L Soil moisture

A9240N Lakes

A9240Q Water quality and water resources

A9240R Land surface snow

A9240S Land surface ice

A9240V Glaciers and ice sheets

A9260 Lower atmosphere

A9260B General atmospheric circulation

A9260C Synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric phenomena

A9260D Gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves in the lower atmosphere

A9260E Convection, turbulence, and diffusion in the lower atmosphere

A9260F Atmospheric boundary layer structure and processes

A9260G Winds and their effects in the lower atmosphere

A9260H Chemical composition and chemical interactions in the lower atmosphere

A9260J Water in the atmosphere (humidity, clouds, evaporation, precipitation)

A9260K Temperature of the lower atmosphere

A9260L Ionic interactions and processes in the lower atmosphere

A9260M Particles and aerosols in the lower atmosphere

A9260N Cloud physics

A9260P Atmospheric electricity

A9260Q Atmospheric storms

A9260S Climatology

A9260T Air quality and air pollution

A9260V Electromagnetic wave propagation and interactions in the lower atmosphere

A9260W Sunlight and atmospheric radiation

A9260X Weather analysis and prediction

A9260Y Meteorological applications

A9260Z Palaeo-atmosphere

A9265 Atmospheric optics

A9265D Atmospheric optical propagation, radiative transfer

A9265H Atmospheric spectral energy distribution, spectral absorption

A9265M Atmospheric optical scattering, polarization

A9265R Atmospheric laser beam propagation

A9265S Atmospheric optical imaging

A9265T Atmospheric optical modulation transfer

A9265V Clouds, fog, haze, aerosols, effects of pollution on atmospheric optics

A9290 Other topics in hydrospheric and atmospheric physics

A9300 Geophysical observations, instrumentation, and techniques

A9330 Information related to geographical regions

A9330B Africa

A9330C Antarctica

A9330D Asia

A9330F Australasia

A9330G Europe

A9330H North America

A9330J South America

A9330K Islands

A9330L Arctic Ocean

A9330M Atlantic Ocean

A9330N Indian Ocean

A9330P Pacific Ocean

A9330Q Southern Ocean

A9330R Regional seas

A9355 Research organizations and programmes in geophysics

A9365 Data and information; acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination in geophysics

A9385 Instrumentation and techniques for geophysical, hydrospheric and lower atmosphere research

A9400 Aeronomy, space physics, and cosmic rays

A9410 Neutral upper atmosphere

A9410B General properties of the upper atmosphere

A9410D Structure, pressure, density, and temperature of the upper atmosphere

A9410F Chemical composition and chemical interactions in the upper atmosphere

A9410G Electromagnetic wave propagation and interactions in the upper atmosphere

A9410J Tides, waves, winds, and circulation in the upper atmosphere

A9410L Convection, diffusion, mixing, and turbulence in the upper atmosphere

A9410N Dust and aerosols in the upper atmosphere

A9410Q Airglow, nightglow, and geocorona

A9410S Aurora

A9420 Ionosphere

A9420B Ionospheric electromagnetic wave propagation

A9420D Ionospheric structure

A9420E D-region

A9420G E-region

A9420J F-region

A9420L Topside region

A9420Q Ionospheric particle precipitation

A9420R Ionospheric plasma waves, instabilities, and interactions

A9420S Ionospheric electric fields and currents

A9420T Ionospheric plasma motion, convection, and circulation

A9420V Ionospheric disturbances and modification experiments

A9420W Interaction between ionosphere and magnetosphere

A9420Z Radiowave and rocket soundings of the ionosphere

A9430 Magnetosphere

A9430B Plasmasphere and plasmapause

A9430C Magnetospheric configuration and coordinate systems

A9430D Magnetopause

A9430E Geomagnetic tail

A9430F Magnetospheric plasma motion, convection, and circulation

A9430G Magnetospheric plasma instabilities and interactions

A9430H Trapped particles in the magnetosphere

A9430K Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

A9430L Magnetospheric magnetic storms, substorms

A9430M Magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere

A9430N Magnetospheric plasma waves

A9430P Magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagation

A9430Q ELF and ULF waves in the magnetosphere

A9430R VLF and LF waves in the magnetosphere

A9430S Magnetosheath

A9430V Magnetospheric interaction with solar wind

A9430W Magnetospheric interaction with cosmic rays

A9440 Cosmic rays

A9440C Cosmic ray origin and propagation outside the solar system

A9440E Cosmic ray interplanetary propagation and effects

A9440H Energetic solar particles and photons

A9440K Cosmic ray solar modulation

A9440L Cosmic ray composition and energy spectra

A9440N Cosmic ray showers and bursts

A9440R High-energy cosmic ray interactions, energy >10 GeV

A9440T Cosmic ray muons and neutrinos

A9440V Cosmic ray effects in meteorites and terrestrial, lunar, and planetary matter

A9460 Interplanetary space

A9460D Interplanetary magnetic fields

A9460F Interplanetary electric fields

A9460G Solar wind plasma

A9460K Interplanetary neutral gases

A9460Q Solar wind interaction with Moon, planets, satellites, and comets

A9460R Shock waves in interplanetary space

A9460S Electromagnetic radiation in interplanetary space

A9460V Outer heliosphere and interstellar interaction

A9480 Instrumentation and techniques for aeronomy, space physics, and cosmic rays

A9490 Other topics in aeronomy, space physics, and cosmic rays

A9500 Fundamental astronomy and astrophysics, instrumentation and techniques and astronomical observations

A9510 Fundamental astronomy

A9510C Celestial mechanics

A9510E Orbit determination and improvement

A9510G Eclipses, transits and occultations

A9510J Astrometry and spherical astronomy

A9530 Fundamental aspects of astrophysics

A9530C Elementary particle and nuclear processes in astrophysics

A9530E Astrophysical atomic, molecular, and solid state processes and interactions

A9530G Astrophysical radiation mechanisms

A9530J Astrophysical radiative transfer

A9530L Astrophysical fluid dynamics

A9530Q Astrophysical hydromagnetics and plasmas

A9530S Relativity and gravitation in astrophysics

A9545 Astronomical observatories

A9555 Astronomical and space-research instrumentation

A9555B Astrometric instruments

A9555C Ground-based telescopes

A9555E Solar instruments

A9555J Radiotelescopes

A9555K X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes

A9555L Aerospace instrumentation

A9555P Lunar, planetary, and deep-space probes

A9555S Auxiliary and recording instruments in astronomy

A9555W Other astronomical and space-research instrumentation

A9575 Astronomical techniques

A9575D Astronomical photographic and electronic imaging, and photometry

A9575F Astronomical spectroscopy

A9575H Astronomical polarimetry

A9575K Astronomical interferometry

A9575M Astronomical data and image processing

A9575P Mathematical and computer techniques in astronomy

A9575S Other astronomical techniques

A9580 Astronomical observations

A9580D Radio, radar, and microwave astronomical observations

A9580E Sub-millimetre astronomical observations

A9580G Infrared astronomical observations

A9580J Photographic region astronomical observations

A9580M Space ultraviolet astronomical observations

A9580N X-ray astronomical observations

A9580Q gamma-ray and cosmic ray observations

A9580S Other astronomical observations

A9585 Astronomical catalogues, atlases, and finding charts

A9590 Other topics in astronomy and astrophysics

A9600 Solar system

A9610 General, solar nebula, and cosmogony

A9620 Moon

A9620B Lunar origin, evolution, and age

A9620D Lunar interior, surface, and atmosphere

A9620J Lunar gravitational field, selenodesy, magnetic fields

A9630 Planets and satellites

A9630D Mercury

A9630E Venus

A9630G Mars and satellites

A9630H Asteroids

A9630K Jupiter and satellites

A9630M Saturn and satellites

A9630P Uranus and satellites

A9630Q Neptune and satellites

A9630R Pluto and satellites

A9630T Other planets

A9630W Planetary rings

A9635 Planetary and satellite characteristics and properties

A9635B Planetary origin, evolution, and ages

A9635E Planetary chemical composition

A9635F Planetary masses, sizes; gravitational fields; rotation; orbits

A9635G Planetary surfaces and topography; tectonics

A9635H Planetary neutral atmospheres

A9635K Planetary ionospheres; magnetospheres

A9635M Planetary interiors

A9635P Planetary electric and magnetic fields

A9650 Other objects in the planetary system

A9650D Interplanetary dust

A9650G Comets

A9650K Meteors, showers and meteoroids

A9650M Meteorites, micrometeorites

A9660 Solar physics

A9660C Physical properties of the Sun

A9660F Solar chemical composition

A9660H Solar magnetic and electric fields

A9660K Solar interior

A9660L Solar oscillations and waves

A9660M Solar photosphere, granulation

A9660N Solar chromosphere and chromosphere-corona transition

A9660P Solar corona

A9660Q Sunspots, faculae, plages

A9660R Solar flares, bursts, and related phenomena

A9660S Solar prominences and mass ejections

A9660T Solar electromagnetic radiation and spectra

A9660V Solar particle radiation, solar wind

A9690 Other topics on the solar system

A9700 Stars

A9710 Stellar characteristics

A9710B Star formation

A9710C Stellar interiors, evolution, nucleosynthesis, and ages

A9710E Stellar atmospheres, radiative transfer, opacity, and line formation

A9710F Circumstellar shells and expanding envelopes

A9710H Stellar mass transfer

A9710K Stellar rotation

A9710L Stellar magnetic and electric fields

A9710N Stellar masses

A9710Q Stellar diameters and surface features; oscillations

A9710R Stellar radiation and spectra

A9710T Stellar abundances and chemical composition

A9710V Stellar distances, parallaxes, and space density

A9710W Stellar space motions (proper motions, radial velocities, and orbits)

A9720 Normal stars (by class): general or individual

A9720D Pre-main-sequence stars

A9720E Main-sequence: early-type stars (O and B)

A9720G Main-sequence: intermediate type A and F stars

A9720J Main-sequence: late-type stars (G, K, and M)

A9720L Late-type giants and subgiants

A9720P Supergiant stars

A9720R Faint blue stars, white dwarfs, degenerate stars and nuclei of planetary nebulae

A9720T Population II stars

A9720V Brown dwarfs

A9730 Variable and peculiar stars

A9730D Beta Cep (Beta CMa) stars

A9730E Emission-line stars (Of, Wolf-Rayet, Be, etc.)

A9730F Chemically peculiar stars (Ap, Am stars, etc.)

A9730G Delta Cep, W Vir, RV Tau, and Delta Sct stars

A9730H S and C types and related stars

A9730J Long-period variables (Miras) and semi-regulars

A9730K RR Lyr stars

A9730N Flare stars

A9730Q Novae, dwarf novae

A9730S Other types of variable and peculiar stars

A9760 Late stages of stellar evolution

A9760B Supernovae

A9760G Pulsars

A9760J Neutron stars

A9760L Black holes

A9760S Other objects believed to be disintegrating or collapsing

A9780 Binary and multiple stars

A9780D Visual binaries and optical doubles

A9780F Spectroscopic binaries

A9780G Cataclysmic binaries

A9780H Eclipsing binaries

A9780J X-ray binaries

A9780K Multiple stars

A9780M Extrasolar planetary systems

A9785 Extrasolar planetary systems

A9785A Extrasolar planetary formation

A9785C Extrasolar planetary motion

A9785E Extrasolar planetary chemical composition

A9785F Extrasolar planetary masses

A9785H Extrasolar planetary atmospheres

A9785N Extrasolar planetary dimensions

A9785P Extrasolar planetary radiation and spectra

A9790 Other topics in stellar astronomy

A9800 Stellar systems; Galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; Universe

A9810 Stellar dynamics

A9820 Stellar clusters and associations

A9820C Associations of stars (OB, T, etc.)

A9820E Open clusters

A9820G Globular clusters

A9840 Interstellar medium; nebulae

A9840B Interstellar matter

A9840C Interstellar molecules and masers

A9840F H I regions and diffuse H I

A9840H H II regions and ionised gas, emission nebulae

A9840J Interstellar IR sources

A9840K Reflection nebulae, dark clouds, and molecular clouds

A9840L Star-forming regions

A9840M Planetary nebulae

A9840N Supernova remnants

A9850 The Galaxy, extragalactic objects and systems

A9850B Origin, evolution, and ages of galaxies

A9850C General parameters, classifications of galaxies

A9850D Kinematics, dynamics, and rotation of galaxies

A9850E Galactic structure, content and morphology

A9850F Masses of galaxies

A9850G Radiation and spectra of galaxies

A9850H Red shift, distances, and spatial distribution of galaxies

A9850K Groups, clusters, and superclusters of galaxies

A9850L The Galaxy

A9850M Local Group of galaxies

A9850R Active and peculiar galaxies

A9850S Radiogalaxies

A9850T Intergalactic and intracluster matter

A9870 Other astronomical sources and radiations

A9870D Cosmic radio sources

A9870J Quasars

A9870L Cosmic IR sources

A9870N Cosmic UV sources

A9870Q Cosmic X-ray sources

A9870R Cosmic gamma-ray sources

A9870S Cosmic ray sources

A9870T Cosmic gravitational wave sources

A9870V Background cosmic radiations

A9880 Cosmology

A9880B Origin and early evolution of the Universe

A9880D Theoretical cosmology

A9880F Origin and formation of the light elements

A9880L Observational cosmology

A9880M Dark energy

A9880N Dark matter

A9890 Other topics in galactic and extragalactic astronomy


B0000 General topics, engineering mathematics and materials science

B0100 General electrical engineering topics

B0120 Education and training

B0140 Administration and management

B0140B Planning

B0150 Electrical contracting and installation

B0160 Plant engineering, maintenance and safety

B0170 Project and production engineering

B0170C Project and design engineering

B0170E Production facilities and engineering

B0170G General fabrication techniques

B0170J Product packaging

B0170L Inspection and quality control

B0170N Reliability

B0170Q Environmental factors

B0170S Control equipment and processes in production engineering

B0180 Other general electrical engineering topics

B0200 Engineering mathematics and mathematical techniques

B0210 Algebra

B0220 Mathematical analysis

B0230 Integral transforms

B0240 Probability and statistics

B0240C Queueing theory

B0240E Game theory

B0240G Monte Carlo methods

B0240J Markov processes

B0240P Principal component analysis

B0240R Error statistics (inc. error probability)

B0240T Time series

B0240V Regression analysis

B0240Z Other topics in statistics

B0250 Combinatorial mathematics

B0260 Optimisation techniques

B0290 Numerical analysis

B0290B Error analysis in numerical methods

B0290D Functional analysis (numerical analysis)

B0290F Interpolation and function approximation (numerical analysis)

B0290H Linear algebra (numerical analysis)

B0290K Nonlinear and functional equations (numerical analysis)

B0290M Numerical integration and differentiation

B0290P Differential equations (numerical analysis)

B0290R Integral equations (numerical analysis)

B0290T Finite element analysis

B0290X Integral transforms in numerical analysis

B0290Z Other numerical methods

B0500 Materials science for electrical and electronic engineering

B0510 Crystal growth

B0510D Epitaxial growth

B0520 Thin film growth and epitaxy

B0520B Sputter deposition

B0520D Vacuum deposition

B0520E Atomic layer deposition

B0520F Chemical vapour deposition

B0520H Pulsed laser deposition

B0520J Deposition from liquid phases

B0520X Other thin film deposition techniques

B0530 Metals and alloys (engineering materials science)

B0540 Ceramics and refractories (engineering materials science)

B0550 Composite materials (engineering materials science)

B0560 Polymers and plastics (engineering materials science)

B0570 Glasses (engineering materials science)

B0580 Powders and porous materials (engineering materials science)

B0585 Intelligent materials (engineering materials science)

B0587 Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and related materials (engineering materials science)

B0590 Materials testing

B1000 Circuit theory and circuits

B1100 Circuit theory

B1110 Network topology

B1130 General circuit analysis and synthesis methods

B1130B Computer-aided circuit analysis and design

B1150 Linear network analysis and design

B1150D Lumped linear networks

B1150F Distributed linear networks

B1160 Nonlinear network analysis and design

B1165 Chaotic behaviour in circuits

B1180 Time varying and switched networks

B1190 Other and miscellaneous topics in circuit theory

B1200 Electronic circuits

B1205 Analogue circuit design, modelling and testing

B1210 Power electronics, supply and supervisory circuits

B1220 Amplifiers

B1230 Signal generators

B1230B Oscillators

B1230G Function generators

B1230J Pulse generators

B1250 Modulators, demodulators, discriminators and mixers

B1260 Pulse circuits

B1265 Digital electronics

B1265A Digital circuit design, modelling and testing

B1265B Logic circuits

B1265D Memory circuits

B1265F Microprocessors and microcomputers

B1265G Digital signal processing chips

B1265H A/D and D/A convertors

B1265M System-on-chip

B1265N Network-on-chip

B1265Z Other digital circuits

B1270 Filters and other networks

B1270D Passive filters and other passive networks

B1270E Active filters and other active networks

B1270F Digital filters

B1280 Mixed analogue-digital circuits

B1285 Analogue processing circuits

B1290 Other analogue circuits

B1290B Convertors

B1295 Neural nets (circuit implementations)

B1300 Microwave technology

B1305 Microwave materials and structures

B1305M Metamaterials and structures (microwave)

B1310 Waveguides and microwave transmission lines

B1320 Waveguide and microwave transmission line components

B1350 Microwave circuits and devices

B1350D Parametric microwave circuits and devices

B1350F Solid-state microwave circuits and devices

B1350H Microwave integrated circuits

B1350P Microwave photonics

B1370 Industrial and medical applications of microwaves

B2000 Components, electron devices and materials

B2100 Passive circuit components, cables, switches and connectors

B2110 Conductors

B2120 Resistors

B2130 Capacitors

B2140 Inductors and transformers

B2160 Wires and cables

B2160D Cable accessories

B2180 Electrical contacts

B2180B Relays and switches

B2180E Connectors

B2190 Fuses

B2200 Printed circuits, hybrid integrated circuits and molecular electronics

B2210 Printed circuits

B2210B Printed circuit layout and design

B2210D Printed circuit manufacture

B2210F Printed circuit accessories

B2220 Integrated circuits

B2220C General integrated circuit fabrication techniques

B2220E Thin film circuits

B2220G Thick film circuits

B2220J Hybrid integrated circuits

B2230 Molecular electronics

B2230B Biomolecular electronics

B2230F Fullerene, nanotube and related devices

B2240 Microassembly techniques

B2250 Multichip modules

B2300 Electron tubes

B2310 Vacuum physics

B2315 Gas discharges

B2320 Electron emission, materials and cathodes

B2330 Electron tube technology and manufacture

B2340 Vacuum tubes

B2340B Transmitting valves

B2340E Vacuum microelectronics

B2350 Microwave tubes

B2350D Travelling wave tubes

B2350F Electron beam semiconductor tubes

B2360 Electron beam scanned tubes

B2360C Solid-state tubes

B2370 Phototubes

B2380 Gas discharge tubes and devices

B2390 Electron and ion microscopes

B2395 Other electron tubes

B2500 Semiconductor materials and technology

B2520 Semiconductor theory, materials and properties

B2520C Elemental semiconductors

B2520D II-VI and III-V semiconductors

B2520E Oxide and ferrite semiconductors

B2520F Amorphous and glassy semiconductors

B2520H III-VI and IV-VI semiconductors

B2520J Organic semiconductors

B2520K Ternary and quaternary semiconductors

B2520M Other semiconductor materials

B2530 Semiconductor junctions and interfaces

B2530B Semiconductor junctions

B2530C Semiconductor superlattices, quantum wells and related structures

B2530D Semiconductor-metal interfaces

B2530F Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

B2530G Metal-insulator-metal and metal-semiconductor-metal structures

B2530N Other semiconductor interfaces and junctions

B2550 Semiconductor technology

B2550A Annealing processes in semiconductor technology

B2550B Semiconductor doping

B2550E Surface treatment (semiconductor technology)

B2550F Metallisation and interconnection technology

B2550G Lithography (semiconductor technology)

B2550N Nanometre-scale semiconductor fabrication technology

B2550R Radiation effects (semiconductor technology)

B2550X Semiconductor process modelling and simulation

B2560 Semiconductor devices

B2560B Semiconductor device modelling, equivalent circuits, design and testing

B2560F Bulk effect devices

B2560H Junction and barrier diodes

B2560J Bipolar transistors

B2560L Thyristors and silicon controlled rectifiers

B2560P Power semiconductor devices

B2560R Insulated gate field effect transistors

B2560S Other field effect devices

B2560X Quantum interference devices

B2560Z Other semiconductor devices

B2570 Semiconductor integrated circuits

B2570A Semiconductor integrated circuit design, layout, modelling and testing

B2570B Bipolar integrated circuits

B2570D CMOS integrated circuits

B2570F Other MOS integrated circuits

B2570H Other field effect integrated circuits

B2570K Mixed technology integrated circuits

B2570P Power integrated circuits

B2575 MEMS and NEMS device technology

B2575B Materials for MEMS and NEMS device technology

B2575D Design and modelling of MEMS and NEMS devices

B2575F Fabrication of MEMS and NEMS devices

B2800 Dielectric materials and devices

B2810 Dielectric materials and properties

B2810D Dielectric breakdown and discharges

B2810E Gaseous insulation, breakdown and discharges

B2810F Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials

B2830 Insulation and insulating coatings

B2830C Organic insulation

B2830E Inorganic insulation

B2860 Piezoelectric and ferroelectric devices

B2860A Piezoelectric devices

B2860C Acoustic wave devices

B2860F Ferroelectric devices

B2890 Other dielectric applications and devices

B3000 Magnetic and superconducting materials and devices

B3100 Magnetic materials and devices

B3110 Magnetic materials

B3110C Ferromagnetic materials

B3110E Ferrites and garnets

B3110M Magnetic multilayers

B3120 Magnetic material applications and devices

B3120B Magnetic recording

B3120D Magnetic cores

B3120E Permanent magnets

B3120G Microwave magnetic devices

B3120J Magneto-acoustic, magnetoresistive, magnetostrictive and magnetostatic wave devices

B3120L Magnetic bubble domain devices

B3120N Magnetic thin film devices

B3120W Other magnetic material applications and devices

B3200 Superconducting materials and devices

B3220 Superconducting materials

B3220B Conventional low-temperature superconducting materials

B3220H High-temperature superconducting materials

B3220M Superconducting wires and tapes

B3240 Superconducting devices

B3240C Superconducting junction devices

B3240E Superconducting coils and magnets

B3240G Other superconducting material applications and devices

B3240M Superconducting microwave devices

B3240R Superconducting receivers and detectors

B3240Y Other superconducting devices and material applications

B4000 Optical materials and applications, electro-optics and optoelectronics

B4100 Optical materials and devices

B4110 Optical materials

B4120 Optical storage and retrieval

B4125 Fibre optics

B4130 Optical waveguides

B4140 Integrated optics

B4145 Micro-optical devices and technology

B4146 Nanophotonic devices and technology

B4150 Electro-optical devices

B4150D Liquid crystal devices

B4160 Magneto-optical devices

B4170 Acousto-optical devices

B4180 Optical logic devices and optical computing techniques

B4185 Optical switches

B4190 Other optical system components

B4190F Optical coatings and filters

B4200 Optoelectronic materials and devices

B4210 Photoconducting materials and properties

B4220 Luminescent materials

B4220M Phosphors

B4250 Photoelectric devices

B4260 Electroluminescent devices

B4260D Light emitting diodes

B4270 Integrated optoelectronics

B4300 Lasers and masers

B4310 Masers

B4320 Lasers

B4320C Gas lasers

B4320E Liquid lasers and organic dye lasers

B4320F Fibre lasers and amplifiers

B4320G Solid lasers

B4320J Semiconductor lasers

B4320K Free electron lasers

B4320L Laser resonators and cavities

B4320M Laser accessories and instrumentation

B4330 Laser beam interactions and properties

B4330B Laser beam modulation, pulsing and switching; mode locking and tuning

B4340 Nonlinear optics and devices

B4340F Optical phase conjugation and multiwave mixing

B4340G Optical saturation and related effects

B4340J Optical self-focusing and related effects

B4340K Optical harmonic generation, frequency conversion, parametric oscillation and amplification

B4340P Optical bistability, multistability and switching

B4340S Optical solitons

B4350 Holography

B4360 Laser applications

B4360B Laser materials processing

B4360E Metrological applications of lasers

B4360H Biological and medical applications of lasers

B5000 Electromagnetic fields

B5100 Electric and magnetic fields

B5110 Electrostatics

B5120 Magnetostatics

B5130 Magnetic effects of electric currents

B5140 Electromagnetic induction

B5150 Moving charges in electric and magnetic fields

B5180 Electromagnetic device applications

B5180D Electrostatic devices

B5180F Solenoids and electromagnets

B5180W Other electromagnetic device applications

B5200 Electromagnetic waves, antennas and propagation

B5205 Artificial electromagnetic wave materials and structures

B5205M Metamaterials and structures

B5210 Electromagnetic wave propagation

B5210C Radiowave propagation

B5210E Light propagation

B5210H Electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

B5230 Electromagnetic compatibility and interference

B5240 Transmission line theory

B5240D Waveguide and cavity theory

B5260 Antenna theory

B5270 Antennas

B5270B Single antennas

B5270D Antenna arrays

B5270F Antenna accessories

B6000 Communications

B6100 Information and communication theory

B6110 Information theory

B6120 Modulation and coding methods

B6120B Codes

B6120D Cryptography

B6130 Speech and audio signal processing

B6130C Speech and audio coding

B6130E Speech recognition and synthesis

B6135 Optical, image and video signal processing

B6135C Image and video coding

B6135E Image recognition

B6140 Signal processing and detection

B6140B Filtering methods in signal processing

B6140C Optical information, image and video signal processing

B6140M Signal detection

B6150 Communication system theory

B6150C Communication switching

B6150D Communication channel equalisation and identification

B6150E Multiple access communication

B6150J Queueing systems

B6150M Protocols

B6150P Communication network design, planning and routing

B6200 Telecommunication

B6210 Telecommunication applications

B6210C Network management

B6210D Telephony

B6210F Telegraphy

B6210G Electronic mail

B6210H Facsimile transmission

B6210J Telemetry

B6210K Viewdata and teletext

B6210L Computer communications


B6210P Teleconferencing

B6210Q Intelligent networks

B6210R Multimedia communications

B6210Z Other data transmission

B6215 Telecommunication power supplies

B6220 Stations and subscriber equipment

B6220B Subscriber loops

B6220C Telephone stations

B6220F ISDN and multimedia terminal equipment

B6220J Modems

B6220M Codecs, coders and decoders

B6220W Other telecommunication terminals and equipment

B6230 Switching centres and equipment

B6230B Electronic switching systems and exchanges

B6230D Other telephone exchanges

B6230F Integrated switching and transmission systems

B6230H Photonic switching systems

B6230Y Other switching centres

B6240 Transmission line links and equipment

B6240D Waveguide and coaxial cable systems

B6240G Submarine cable systems

B6240J Power line systems

B6240Z Other transmission line links

B6250 Radio links and equipment

B6250B Radio access systems

B6250D Point-to-point radio systems

B6250F Mobile radio systems

B6250G Satellite communication systems

B6250H Space communication systems

B6250K Wireless sensor networks

B6250L RFID systems

B6250Z Other radio links and systems

B6260 Optical communication

B6260C Optical communication equipment

B6260F Optical fibre networks

B6260M Multiplexing and switching in optical communication

B6260S Free-space optical links

B6270 Acoustic and other telecommunication systems and equipment

B6300 Radar and radionavigation

B6310 Radar theory

B6320 Radar equipment, systems and applications

B6320C Optical radar

B6320E Sonar and acoustic radar

B6330 Radionavigation and direction finding

B6360 Radioastronomical techniques and equipment

B6400 Radio, television and audio

B6410 Legislation, frequency allocation and spectrum pollution

B6420 Radio and television broadcasting

B6420B Radio and television transmitters

B6420D Radio and television receivers

B6430 Television and video equipment, systems and applications

B6430B Electronic news gathering

B6430C High definition television and video

B6430D CATV and wired systems

B6430F Closed circuit television

B6430G Video on demand and video servers

B6430H Video recording

B6430J Other applications of television and video systems

B6450 Audio equipment and systems

B6450B Hi-Fi equipment and systems

B6450D Audio recording media and techniques

B6450F Sound synthesisers

B7000 Instrumentation and special applications

B7100 Measurement science

B7110 Measurement theory

B7120 Measurement units

B7130 Measurement standards and calibration

B7140 Determination and value of fundamental constants

B7200 Measurement equipment and instrumentation systems

B7210 Instrumentation and measurement systems

B7210A Automatic test systems

B7210B Computerised instrumentation

B7210E Instrumentation buses and protocols

B7210F Telemetering systems

B7210G Data acquisition systems

B7210N Network and spectrum analysers

B7210X Other instrumentation and measurement systems

B7220 Signal processing and conditioning equipment and techniques

B7230 Sensing devices and transducers

B7230C Photodetectors

B7230E Fibre optic sensors

B7230G Image sensors

B7230J Biosensors

B7230L Chemical sensors

B7230M Microsensors and nanosensors

B7230S Intelligent sensors

B7250 Bench and portable instruments

B7250E Signal generators

B7250G Display, recording and indicating instruments

B7250J Bridge instruments

B7250Z Other bench instruments

B7260 Display technology

B7260B Display materials

B7260D Display characteristics

B7260F Display equipment and systems

B7300 Measurement of specific variables

B7310 Electric and magnetic variables measurement methods

B7310B Voltage measurement

B7310C Charge measurement

B7310D Current measurement

B7310F Power and energy measurement

B7310G Frequency measurement

B7310H Phase and gain measurement

B7310J Impedance and admittance measurement

B7310K Dielectric variables measurement

B7310L Magnetic variables measurement

B7310N Microwave measurement techniques

B7310S Electric noise and interference measurement

B7310Z Other electric variables measurement

B7320 Nonelectric variables measurement methods

B7320C Spatial variables measurement

B7320E Velocity, acceleration and rotation measurement

B7320G Mechanical variables measurement

B7320K Time measurement

B7320M Mass and density measurement

B7320P Optical variables measurement

B7320Q Acoustic variables measurement

B7320R Thermal variables measurement

B7320T Chemical variables measurement

B7320V Pressure and vacuum measurement

B7320W Level, flow and volume measurement

B7320X Humidity measurement

B7320Z Other nonelectric variables measurement

B7400 Elementary particle and nuclear instrumentation

B7410 Particle accelerators

B7410B Particle beam handling and diagnostics

B7410D Particle sources and targets

B7420 Particle and radiation detection and measurement

B7420C Particle track visualisation

B7430 Counting circuits and electronics for particle physics

B7440 Particle spectrometers

B7450 X-ray and gamma-ray equipment

B7500 Medical physics and biomedical engineering

B7510 Biomedical measurement and imaging

B7510B Radiation and radioactivity applications in biomedicine

B7510D Bioelectric signals

B7510F Biomagnetic signals

B7510H Sonic and ultrasonic radiation (biomedical imaging/measurement)

B7510J Optical and laser radiation (biomedical imaging/measurement)

B7510L Microwaves and other electromagnetic waves (biomedical imaging/measurement)

B7510N Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

B7510P X-ray techniques: radiography and computed tomography (biomedical imaging/measurement)

B7510R Nuclear medicine, emission tomography

B7520 Patient care and treatment

B7520C Radiation therapy

B7520E Prosthetics and orthotics

B7520H Aids for the handicapped

B7530 Health Physics

B7530B Radiation protection and dosimetry

B7540 Hospital Engineering

B7550 Biomedical communication

B7580 Biological engineering and techniques

B7600 Aerospace

B7605 Aerospace management

B7610 General aspects of aircraft, space vehicles and satellites

B7620 Aerospace testing and simulation

B7630 Aerospace instrumentation and equipment

B7630A Aircraft electronics

B7630B Aerospace power systems

B7630D Space vehicle electronics

B7640 Aerospace propulsion

B7640H Spacecraft propulsion

B7640R Aircraft propulsion

B7650 Ground support and air traffic control

B7650A Airport and airbase operations

B7650C Air traffic control and navigation

B7650E Spaceports and launch facilities

B7670 Human space exploration and engineering

B7690 Other topics in aerospace

B7700 Earth sciences

B7710 Geophysical techniques and equipment

B7710B Atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric techniques and equipment

B7710D Oceanographic and hydrological techniques and equipment

B7720 Pollution detection and control

B7730 Other topics in Earth sciences

B7800 Sonics and ultrasonics

B7810 Sonic and ultrasonic equipment

B7810C Sonic and ultrasonic transducers and sensors

B7820 Sonic and ultrasonic applications

B7900 Military and defence systems

B7905 Policy, government and political aspects (military and defence)

B7910 Military circuits, components, and equipment

B7910D Sensors and transducers (military and defence)

B7910M Transportation (military and defence)

B7910R Weapons

B7910V Other military equipment

B7930 Military communications

B7930D Optical communications (military and defence)

B7930G Radio communications (military and defence)

B7930L Computer communications (military and defence)

B7930T Other communications (military and defence)

B7950 Military detection and tracking systems

B7950C Optical systems (military and defence)

B7950F Radar and radiowave systems (military and defence)

B7950J Sonar and acoustic systems (military and defence)

B7950L Chemical and biological systems (military and defence)

B7950P Electric and magnetic detection systems (military and defence)

B7950V Other detection and tracking systems (military and defence)

B7970 Electronic warfare

B7980 National security

B7990 Other military topics

B8000 Power systems and applications

B8100 Power networks and systems

B8110 Power systems

B8110B Power system management, operation and economics

B8110C Power system control

B8110D Power system planning and layout

B8120 Power transmission, distribution and supply

B8120C Network and transmission line calculations

B8120E a.c. transmission

B8120G d.c. transmission

B8120J Distribution networks

B8120K Distributed power generation

B8120L Power supply quality and harmonics

B8120W Wireless power transmission

B8120Z Other power transmission

B8130 Power transmission lines and cables

B8130B Power cables

B8130D Superconducting power cables

B8130F Overhead power lines

B8130H Power line supports, insulators and connectors

B8140 Power system protection

B8140C Protection apparatus

B8150 Power system measurement and metering

B8200 Generating stations and plants

B8210 Energy resources

B8215 Energy conservation

B8220 Nuclear power stations and plants

B8220B Nuclear reactors

B8230 Thermal power stations and plants

B8230E Steam power stations and plants

B8230F Gas-turbine power stations and plants

B8230G Combined cycle power stations and plants

B8230H Diesel power stations and plants

B8230J Geothermal power stations and plants

B8240 Hydroelectric power stations and plants

B8240B Wave power

B8240C Tidal power stations and plants

B8240D Pumped storage stations and plants

B8245 Wind power plants

B8250 Solar power stations and photovoltaic power systems

B8255 Fuel cell power plants

B8260 Other power stations and plants

B8300 Power apparatus and electric machines

B8310 a.c. machines

B8310D Synchronous machines

B8310E Asynchronous machines

B8320 d.c. machines

B8330 Linear machines

B8340 Small and special purpose electric machines

B8340C Piezoelectric motors

B8340M Micromotors

B8350 Transformers and reactors

B8360 Power convertors and power supplies to apparatus

B8360A AC-AC power convertors

B8360D DC-DC power convertors

B8360J AC-DC power convertors (rectifiers)

B8360N DC-AC power convertors (invertors)

B8360P Pulsed power supplies

B8370 Switchgear

B8375 Substations

B8380 Control gear and apparatus

B8380M Microactuators

B8385 Power filters

B8390 Other power apparatus and electric machines

B8400 Direct energy conversion and energy storage

B8410 Electrochemical conversion and storage

B8410C Primary cells

B8410E Secondary cells

B8410G Fuel cells

B8420 Solar cells and arrays

B8430 Magnetohydrodynamic conversion

B8450 Energy harvesting

B8460 Other direct energy conversion

B8465 Storage in electrical energy

B8470 Other energy storage

B8500 Power utilisation

B8510 Drives

B8520 Transportation

B8520B Automobile electronics and electrics

B8530 Lighting technology

B8530B Light sources

B8530D Lighting

B8540 Electric heating

B8540C Process heating

B8540E Space heating

B8550 Air conditioning

B8560 Refrigeration and cold storage

B8570 Domestic appliances

B8580 Other power utilisation

B8600 Industrial applications of power

B8610 Power applications in metallurgical industries

B8620 Power applications in manufacturing industries

B8630 Power applications in chemical and oil refining industries

B8640 Power applications in textile industries

B8650 Power applications in wood-processing, pulp and paper industries

B8660 Power applications in printing industries

B8670 Power applications in glass, ceramic, brick and cement industries

B8680 Power applications in agriculture and horticulture

B8690 Power applications in food processing industries

B8695 Power applications in water treatment and supply

B8699 Power applications in other industries


C0000 General and management topics

C0100 General control topics

C0110 Control education and training

C0130 Economic, social and political aspects of control

C0130B Legal aspects of control and robotics

C0140 Ergonomic aspects of control and robotics

C0150 Environmental aspects of control and robotics

C0200 General computer topics

C0220 Computing education and training

C0230 Economic, social and political aspects of computing

C0230B Legal aspects of computing

C0240 Ergonomic aspects of computing

C0250 Environmental aspects of computing

C0300 Management topics

C0310 Computing/EDP management

C0310B Computer facilities

C0310D Computer installation management

C0310F Software management

C0310H Computer equipment and software evaluation methods

C0310P Computing/DP personnel management

C0310S Computing security management

C0320 Control engineering management

C1000 Systems and control theory

C1100 Mathematical techniques

C1110 Algebra

C1120 Mathematical analysis

C1130 Integral transforms

C1140 Probability and statistics

C1140C Queueing theory

C1140E Game theory

C1140G Monte Carlo methods

C1140J Markov processes

C1140P Principal component analysis

C1140R Error statistics (inc. error probability)

C1140T Time series

C1140V Regression analysis

C1140Z Other topics in statistics

C1160 Combinatorial mathematics

C1180 Optimisation techniques

C1200 Systems theory and cybernetics

C1210 General system theory

C1210B Reliability theory

C1220 Simulation, modelling and identification

C1230 Artificial intelligence (theory)

C1230D Neural nets (theory)

C1230L Learning in AI (theory)

C1230R Reasoning and inference in AI (theory)

C1240 Adaptive system theory

C1250 Pattern recognition

C1250B Character recognition

C1250C Speech recognition

C1250M Image recognition

C1260 Information theory

C1260C Cryptography theory

C1260S Signal processing theory

C1270 Man-machine systems

C1290 Applications of systems theory

C1290B Systems theory applications in natural resources and ecology

C1290D Systems theory applications in economics and business

C1290E Systems theory applications in emergency management

C1290F Systems theory applications in industry

C1290H Systems theory applications in transportation

C1290J Systems theory applications in education

C1290L Systems theory applications in biology and medicine

C1290N Systems theory applications in demography

C1290P Systems theory applications in social science and politics

C1290Z Other applications of systems theory

C1295 Other topics in systems theory

C1300 Control theory

C1310 Control system analysis and synthesis methods

C1320 Stability in control theory

C1330 Optimal control

C1340 Specific control systems

C1340B Multivariable control systems

C1340D Discrete control systems

C1340E Self-adjusting control systems

C1340F Fuzzy control

C1340G Time-varying control systems

C1340J Distributed parameter control systems

C1340K Nonlinear control systems

C1340L Linear control systems

C1340N Neurocontrol

C1340Z Other control systems

C1390 Other topics in control theory

C3000 Control technology

C3100 Control and measurement of specific variables

C3110 Electric and magnetic variables control

C3110B Voltage control

C3110D Current control

C3110E Power and energy control

C3110G Frequency control

C3110H Phase and gain control

C3110J Impedance and admittance control

C3110K Dielectric variables control

C3110L Magnetic variables control

C3110Z Other electric variables control

C3120 Nonelectric variables control

C3120C Spatial variables control

C3120E Velocity, acceleration and rotation control

C3120F Mechanical variables control

C3120H Time control

C3120K Mass and density control

C3120M Optical variables control

C3120N Thermal variables control

C3120P Chemical variables control

C3120R Pressure and vacuum control

C3120T Level, flow and volume control

C3120Z Other nonelectric variables control

C3200 Control equipment and instrumentation

C3210 Control systems and instrumentation

C3210B Recorders and indicators for control systems

C3210G Data acquisition systems for control

C3210J Meters and gauges for control systems

C3210P Control systems

C3210T Signal conditioning for control systems

C3210Z Other control instrumentation and measurement systems

C3220 Controllers

C3220B Programmable controllers

C3230 Control logic

C3230C Electronic control logic

C3230E Fluid logic

C3230Z Other control logic elements

C3240 Transducers and sensing devices

C3240D Electric transducers and sensing devices

C3240F Nonelectric transducers and sensing devices

C3240H Fibre optic sensors

C3240K Image sensors

C3240M Tactile sensors

C3240N Intelligent sensors

C3240P Microsensors

C3250 Telecontrol and telemetering components

C3260 Actuating and final control devices

C3260B Electric actuators and final control equipment

C3260G Hydraulic and pneumatic control equipment

C3260J Electrohydraulic and electropneumatic control equipment

C3260N Intelligent actuators

C3260P Microactuators

C3260Q Electromagnetic actuators

C3260R Electromechanical actuators

C3260Z Other final control equipment

C3290 Other control equipment

C3300 Control applications

C3310 Natural resources and environmental control

C3310C Control applications in agriculture

C3310E Control applications in mining, oil and natural gas technology

C3310G Pollution control

C3310J Control applications in other natural resources

C3320 Control applications to materials handling

C3320B Control applications to postal services

C3330 Control applications in building and civil engineering

C3340 Control of power systems and devices

C3340B Control of heat systems

C3340D Control of hydraulic systems

C3340F Control of nuclear systems

C3340H Control of electric power systems

C3340Z Control of other power systems

C3350 Control in industrial production systems

C3350C Control applications in metallurgical industries

C3350E Control applications in the electronics industry

C3350G Control applications in chemical and oil refining industries

C3350H Control applications in textile industries

C3350J Control applications in wood-processing, pulp and paper industries

C3350L Control applications in printing and associated industries

C3350N Control applications in glass, ceramics, brick and cement industries

C3350P Control applications in food processing industries

C3350Z Control applications in other industries

C3355 Control applications in manufacturing processes

C3355C Control applications in machining processes and machine tools

C3355F Control applications in assembling

C3355Z Control applications in other manufacturing processes

C3360 Transportation system control

C3360B Road-traffic system control

C3360D Rail-traffic system control

C3360F Control of other land traffic systems

C3360H Control of lift and aerial cableway systems

C3360J Marine system control

C3360L Aerospace control

C3360Z Control of other transport systems

C3365 Automated buildings

C3370 Control applications in telecommunications

C3370C Control applications in telephony

C3370E Control applications in telegraphy

C3370G Control applications in data transmission

C3370H Control applications in radio and radar

C3370J Control applications in television

C3370L Control applications in remote signalling, dispatching and safety devices

C3370N Control applications in photography and cinematography

C3370P Control applications in video and audio techniques

C3370R Control applications in optical communication

C3370Z Other control applications in telecommunications

C3375 Military control systems

C3380 Control applications in instrumentation systems and laboratory techniques

C3380B Control of electronic instruments

C3380D Control of physical instruments

C3380E Control of astronomical instruments

C3380L Laboratory control techniques

C3380P Control of optical systems

C3380R Control applications to materials processing

C3380Z Other control applications in instrumentation

C3385 Biological and medical control systems

C3385C Prosthetic and orthotic control systems

C3390 Robotics

C3390C Mobile robots

C3390M Manipulators

C3390T Telerobotics

C3390V Humanoid robots

C3395 Other applications of control

C4000 Numerical analysis and theoretical computer topics

C4100 Numerical analysis

C4110 Error analysis in numerical methods

C4120 Functional analysis (numerical analysis)

C4130 Interpolation and function approximation (numerical analysis)

C4140 Linear algebra (numerical analysis)

C4150 Nonlinear and functional equations (numerical analysis)

C4160 Numerical integration and differentiation

C4170 Differential equations (numerical analysis)

C4180 Integral equations (numerical analysis)

C4185 Finite element analysis

C4188 Integral transforms in numerical analysis

C4190 Other numerical methods

C4200 Computer theory

C4210 Formal logic

C4210L Formal languages and computational linguistics

C4220 Automata theory

C4230 Switching theory

C4230B Combinatorial switching theory

C4230D Sequential switching theory

C4230M Multiprocessor interconnection

C4240 Programming and algorithm theory

C4240C Computational complexity

C4240L Logic programming theory

C4240P Parallel programming and algorithm theory

C4250 Database theory

C4260 Computational geometry

C4270 Quantum computing theory

C4280 Biocomputing theory

C4290 Other computer theory

C5000 Computer hardware

C5100 Circuits and devices

C5110 Logic elements

C5110C Semiconductor logic elements

C5110D Optical logic elements

C5110E Other logic elements

C5120 Logic and switching circuits

C5130 Microprocessor chips

C5135 Digital signal processing chips

C5137 System-on-chip

C5139 Network-on-chip

C5140 Firmware

C5150 Other circuits for digital computers

C5160 Analogue circuits

C5180 A/D and D/A convertors

C5190 Neural net devices

C5200 Logic design and digital techniques

C5210 Logic design methods

C5210B Computer-aided logic design

C5215 Hardware-software codesign

C5220 Computer architecture

C5220P Parallel architecture

C5230 Digital arithmetic methods

C5240 Digital filters

C5250 Microcomputer techniques

C5260 Digital signal processing

C5260A Sensor fusion

C5260B Computer vision and image processing techniques

C5260D Video signal processing

C5260S Speech processing techniques

C5270 Optical computing techniques

C5280 Other digital techniques

C5285 Biocomputing techniques

C5290 Neural computing techniques

C5295 Quantum computing techniques

C5300 Computer storage equipment and techniques

C5310 Storage system design

C5320 Digital storage

C5320C Storage on moving magnetic media

C5320E Storage on stationary magnetic media

C5320G Semiconductor storage

C5320K Optical storage

C5320M Memory cards

C5320Z Other digital storage

C5330 Analogue storage

C5340 Associative storage

C5380 Other aspects of storage devices and techniques

C5400 Analogue and digital computers and systems

C5420 Mainframes and minicomputers

C5430 Microcomputers

C5440 Multiprocessing systems

C5450 Analogue and hybrid computers and systems

C5460 Analogue and hybrid computing techniques

C5470 Performance evaluation and testing

C5480 Security aspects of hardware

C5490 Other aspects of analogue and digital computers

C5500 Computer peripheral equipment

C5520 Data acquisition equipment and techniques

C5530 Pattern recognition and computer vision equipment

C5540 Terminals and graphic displays

C5540B Interactive-input devices

C5540D Computer displays

C5550 Printers, plotters and other hard-copy output devices

C5560 Data preparation equipment

C5580 Computer output on microform (COM)

C5585 Speech recognition and synthesis equipment

C5590 Other computer peripheral equipment

C5600 Data communication equipment and techniques

C5610 Computer interfaces

C5610F Instrumentation buses

C5610N Network interfaces

C5610P Peripheral interfaces

C5610S System buses

C5620 Computer networks and techniques

C5620L Local area networks

C5620M Metropolitan area networks

C5620S Computer network security

C5620W Other computer networks

C5630 Networking equipment

C5630M Multimedia servers

C5640 Protocols

C5670 Computer network performance

C5690 Other data communication equipment and techniques

C6000 Computer software

C6100 Software techniques and systems

C6110 Systems analysis and programming

C6110B Software engineering techniques

C6110F Formal methods

C6110J Object-oriented programming

C6110L Logic programming

C6110P Parallel programming

C6110R Software performance evaluation

C6110S Software metrics

C6110V Visual programming

C6115 Programming support

C6120 File organisation

C6130 Data handling techniques

C6130B Graphics techniques

C6130D Document processing and analysis techniques

C6130E Data interchange

C6130G Groupware

C6130M Multimedia

C6130S Data security

C6130V Virtual reality

C6140 Programming languages

C6140B Machine-oriented languages

C6140D High level languages

C6140E Other programming languages

C6150 Systems software

C6150C Compilers, interpreters and other processors

C6150E General utility programs

C6150G Diagnostic, testing, debugging and evaluating systems

C6150J Operating systems

C6150N Distributed systems software

C6150Z Other systems operation programs

C6155 Computer communications software

C6160 Database management systems (DBMS)

C6160B Distributed databases

C6160D Relational databases

C6160J Object-oriented databases

C6160K Deductive databases

C6160M Multimedia databases

C6160S Spatial and pictorial databases

C6160Z Other DBMS

C6170 Expert systems and other AI software and techniques

C6170K Knowledge engineering techniques

C6170T Knowledge engineering tools

C6180 User interfaces

C6180G Graphical user interfaces

C6180N Natural language processing

C6180R Human-robot interaction

C6185 Simulation techniques

C6190 Distributed systems software

C6190G Grid computing

C6190J Internet software

C6190P Parallel software

C6190V Mobile, ubiquitous and pervasive computing

C6190Z Other distributed systems software

C6200 Artificial intelligence software and techniques

C6210 Knowledge based systems

C6220 Knowledge acquisition

C6220D Data mining

C6230 Knowledge representation

C6240 Knowledge verification

C6250 Reasoning and inference techniques

C6260 Machine learning (artificial intelligence)

C6261 Supervised learning

C6262 Unsupervised learning

C6263 Reinforcement learning

C6264 Neural nets

C6265 Support vector machines

C6266 Other learning models (inc. Naive Bayes)

C7000 Computer applications

C7100 Business and administrative computing

C7102 Decision support systems

C7104 Office automation

C7106 Word processing

C7108 Desktop publishing

C7110 Educational administration

C7120 Financial computing

C7130 Public administration

C7135 Emergency management

C7140 Medical administration

C7150 Military administration

C7160 Manufacturing and industrial administration

C7165 Public utility administration

C7170 Marketing computing

C7180 Retailing and distribution computing

C7185 Administration of other service industries

C7190 Other fields of business and administrative computing

C7200 Information science and documentation

C7210 Information services and centres

C7210L Library automation

C7210N Information networks

C7220 Generation, dissemination, and use of information

C7230 Publishing and reproduction

C7240 Information analysis and indexing

C7250 Information storage and retrieval

C7250C Bibliographic retrieval systems

C7250L Non-bibliographic retrieval systems

C7250N Search engines

C7250R Information retrieval techniques

C7260 Information science education

C7290 Other aspects of information science and documentation

C7300 Natural sciences computing

C7310 Mathematics computing

C7320 Physics and chemistry computing

C7330 Biology and medical computing

C7340 Geophysics computing

C7350 Astronomy and astrophysics computing

C7360 Environmental science computing

C7390 Other natural sciences computing

C7400 Engineering computing

C7410 Electrical engineering computing

C7410B Power engineering computing

C7410D Electronic engineering computing

C7410F Communications computing

C7410H Computerised instrumentation

C7415 Optical engineering computing

C7420 Control engineering computing

C7420D Control system design and analysis

C7430 Computer engineering

C7440 Civil and mechanical engineering computing

C7445 Traffic engineering computing

C7450 Chemical engineering computing

C7460 Aerospace engineering computing

C7465 Military engineering computing

C7470 Nuclear engineering computing

C7480 Production engineering computing

C7485 Smart cities

C7490 Computing in other engineering fields

C7800 Other computer applications

C7810 Social and behavioural sciences computing

C7810C Computer-aided instruction

C7820 Humanities computing

C7820M Machine translation

C7830 Home computing

C7830B Hobby computing

C7830D Computer games

C7840 Geography and cartography computing

C7850 Computer assistance for persons with handicaps

C7860 Agriculture, forestry and fisheries computing

C7890 Other special applications of computing


D1000 General and Management aspects of Information Technology

D1010 IT consultancy services

D1030 IT training requirements

D1040 Human aspects of IT

D1050 Legal requirements of IT

D1060 Security aspects of IT

D1070 Environmental aspects of IT

D2000 Applications of Information Technology

D2010 Business and professional IT applications

D2020 Design and graphics IT applications

D2030 Education and training IT applications

D2040 Emergency services IT applications

D2045 Farming and horticultural IT applications

D2050 Financial applications of IT

D2050B IT in accounting

D2050E IT in banking

D2050F IT in financial markets

D2050G IT in insurance

D2060 Health care applications of IT

D2070 Industrial and manufacturing applications of IT

D2080 Information services and database systems in IT

D2090 Leisure industry, travel and transport applications of IT

D2105 Media-TV, radio, press applications of IT

D2110 Personnel applications of IT

D2115 Property market and building industry applications of IT

D2120 Public administration and law applications of IT

D2130 Public utilities' applications of IT

D2140 Marketing, retailing and distribution applications of IT

D3000 General Information Technology systems and equipment

D3010 Copiers and copy boards for business automation

D3020 Furniture and office environment for business automation

D3025 Mailroom systems for business automation

D3030 Microform equipment for business automation

D3035 Monitoring and alarm systems for business automation

D3045 Records management systems for business automation

D3050 Video systems for business automation

D3060 Voice equipment, dictation for business automation

D4000 Office automation

D4010 Television systems for office automation

D4020 Electronic mail systems for office automation

D4040 Facsimile systems for office automation

D4045 Mobile communications systems for office automation

D4060 Teleconferencing systems for office automation

D4070 Telephone systems for office automation

D4080 Telex for office automation

D4090 Viewdata and teletext for office automation

D5000 Office automation

D5010 Computers and work stations for office automation

D5010B Portable computers for office automation

D5010D Computer selection guides for office automation

D5010G Terminals for office automation

D5020 Computer networks and intercomputer communications in office automation

D5030 Printers and other peripherals for office automation

D5040 Supplies, stationery and storage media for office automation

D5050 Word processing equipment for office automation

D5060 Software for office automation


E0000 General topics in manufacturing and production engineering

E0100 Management and business

E0110 Organisational aspects

E0120 Management issues

E0120B General management

E0120D Planning

E0120F Contractual issues

E0120H Purchasing

E0120K Financial management

E0120M Human resource management

E0120P Marketing and sales

E0120R Customer services

E0200 General support functions

E0210 Engineering mathematics and numerical techniques

E0210A Algebra

E0210C Mathematical analysis

E0210E Combinatorial mathematics

E0210G Optimisation

E0210J Statistics

E0210L Numerical analysis

E0220 Economics

E0230 Environmental issues

E0240 Safety and security

E0240C Security aspects

E0240H Health and safety aspects

E0250 Education and training

E0260 Social and political issues

E0270 Legal aspects

E0290 Other support functions

E0400 Information technology

E0410 Information technology applications

E0410D Industrial applications of IT

E0410F Business applications of IT

E0410H Mechanical engineering applications of IT

E0410Y Other engineering applications of IT

E0420 Information management

E0430 Information resources and networks

E1000 Manufacturing and production

E1010 Production management

E1020 Maintenance and reliability

E1030 Research and development

E1400 Design

E1410 Ergonomics

E1500 Production technology

E1510 Manufacturing systems

E1520 Manufacturing processes

E1520A Machining

E1520C Assembling

E1520E Joining processes and welding

E1520G Forming processes

E1520J Powder technology

E1520L Heat treatment

E1520N Surface treatment and coating techniques

E1520P Nanofabrication

E1520R Three-dimensional printing

E1520Z Other manufacturing processes

E1525 Industrial processes

E1530 Manufacturing facilities

E1540 Systems theory applications

E1550 Control technology and theory (production)

E1550A Robotics

E1560 Production equipment

E1600 Measurement and testing

E1610 Inspection and quality control

E1620 Measurement

E1630 Testing

E1640 Instrumentation

E1650 Standards and calibration

E1700 Manufacturing resources and products

E1710 Engineering materials

E1780 Products and commodities

E1800 Materials handling and distribution

E1810 Packaging

E1820 Warehousing and storage

E1830 Goods distribution

E1840 Recycling

E1850 Materials handling equipment

E2000 Engineering mechanics

E2100 General mechanics

E2110 Mechanical structures

E2110A General shapes and structures

E2110B Building structures

E2110C Bridges

E2110D Geotechnical structures

E2110Z Other structures

E2120 Heat and thermodynamic processes (mechanical engineering)

E2130 Fluid mechanics and aerodynamics (mechanical engineering)

E2140 Tribology (mechanical engineering)

E2150 Biomechanics (mechanical engineering)

E2160 Micromechanics (mechanical engineering)

E2170 Acoustic properties (mechanical engineering)

E2180 Specific mechanical properties (mechanical engineering)

E2180A Elasticity (mechanical engineering)

E2180B Plasticity (mechanical engineering)

E2180C Buckling and instability (mechanical engineering)

E2180D Vibrations and shock waves (mechanical engineering)

E2180E Fracture mechanics and hardness (mechanical engineering)

E2180F Ballistics and mechanical impact (mechanical engineering)

E2180H Adhesion (mechanical engineering)

E2180Z Other specific mechanical properties (mechanical engineering)

E2200 Mechanical components, systems and devices

E2210 Mechanical components

E2220 Vehicle mechanics

E2230 Robot and manipulator mechanics

E2300 Mechanical machinery

E2310 Power and plant engineering (mechanical engineering)

E2320 Engines

E2330 Mechanical drives and transmissions

E2900 Other mechanical engineering aspects

E3000 Industrial sectors

E3010 Agriculture

E3020 Mining, oil drilling and natural gas industries

E3030 Construction industry

E3040 Public utilities

E3050 Service industries

E3600 Manufacturing industries

E3602 Food industry

E3604 Beverage industry

E3606 Textile industry

E3608 Clothing industry

E3610 Leather industry

E3612 Footwear industry

E3614 Wood processing industry

E3616 Furniture industry

E3620 Paper and pulp industries

E3622 Printing industry

E3624 Fuel processing industry

E3626 Chemical industry

E3626A Pharmaceutical industry

E3628 Biotechnology industry

E3630 Rubber and plastics industry

E3632 Glass and ceramics industries

E3634 Cement and concrete industry

E3636 Metallurgical industries

E3638 Machinery and equipment industry

E3640 Measurement and control instrumentation industry

E3642 Electrical industry

E3642A Electrical equipment manufacturing

E3642C Domestic appliance manufacturing

E3642F Power equipment manufacturing

E3644 Electronics industry

E3644A Semiconductor industry

E3644C Printed circuit manufacture

E3644E Computer and peripheral industry

E3644H Audio and video equipment manufacturing

E3644L Communications equipment manufacturing

E3644N Optoelectronics manufacturing

E3644P Magnetic recording industry

E3644R Superconductor industry

E3644T Nanotechnology industry

E3644V Mechatronics industry

E3646 Defence industry

E3650 Transportation industry

E3650A Automobile industry

E3650C Aerospace industry

E3650E Railway industry

E3650H Ship building and marine industry

E3650Z Other transportation industries

E3654 Medical equipment and supplies industry

E3690 Other manufacturing industries


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