Educational Resources Information Center Database Guide

ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), is an information system sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences of the U.S. Department of Education that collects, creates, and distributes the U.S. national bibliographic database and full text materials whenever possible covering the literature of education.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
ERIC   1965 - Present
ERIC3   1992 - Present
ERIB   1982 - Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 3 segments.

The ERIC database is no longer updated monthly. Ovid is updating the database as soon as updates are available from the publisher. For 2022 there were only 3 updates available.


The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) IES Cited (IC) Page Count (PN)
  Access Rights (AR) IES Funded (IF) Pagination (PG)
  Accession Number (AN) IES Funding Link (FL) Peer Reviewed (PR)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) IES Publication Link (PL) Publication Type (PT)
  Assessment and Survey Identifiers (AS) Institution (IN) Publisher (PB)
  Audience Type (AT) ISBN (IB) Report Number (RP)
  Author (AU) ISSN (IS) Source (SO)
  Author ID (AI) Issue/Part (IP) Sponsoring Agency (SA)
  Date of Publication (DP) Journal Name (JN) Title (TI)
  Educational Level (EL) Journal Word (JX) Text Word (TW)
  Entry Month (EM) Language (LG) URL (UR)
  ERIC Subject Headings (SH) Law Identifiers (LI) Volume (VO)
  Grant Number (NO) Level of Availability (LV) What Works Clearinghouse Reviewed (WC)
  Heading Word (HW) Location Identifiers (LO) WWC Study Review Guide Link (WL)
  Identifiers (ID) Notes (NT)
Year of Publication (YR)
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ab,ti,hw,id.
  Abstract (AB) Identifiers (ID) Title (TI)
  Heading Word (HW)    
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Grant Number (NO) Peer Reviewed (PR)
  Access Rights (AR) Identifiers (ID) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) Institution (IN) Publisher (PB)
  Audience Type (AT) ISBN (IB) Report Number (RP)
  Author (AU) ISSN (IS) Source (SO)
  Date of Publication (DP) Language (LG) Sponsoring Agency (SA)
  Educational Level (EL) Level of Availability (LV) Title (TI)
  Entry Month (EM) Notes (NT) URL (UR)
  ERIC Subject Headings (SH) Page Count (PN)  
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Identifiers (ID) Notes (NT)
  Access Rights (AR) IES Cited (IC) Page Count (PN)
  Accession Number (AN) IES Funded (IF) Peer Reviewed (PR)
  Assessment and Survey Identifiers (AS) IES Funding Link (FL) Publication Type (PT)
  Audience Type (AT) IES Publication Link (PL) Publisher (PB)
  Author (AU) Institution (IN) Report Number (RP)
  Author ID (AI) ISBN (IB) Source (SO)
  Date of Publication (DP) ISSN (IS) Sponsoring Agency (SA)
  Educational Level (EL) Language (LG) Title (TI)
  Entry Month (EM) Law Identifiers (LI) URL (UR)
  ERIC Subject Headings (SH) Level of Availability (LV) What Works Clearinghouse Reviewed (WC)
  Grant Number (NO) Location Identifiers (LO) WWC Study Review Guide Link (WL)
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Issue/Part (IP) Pagination (PG) Year of Publication (YR)
  Journal Name (JN) Volume (VO) Date of Publication (DP)
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Index]
  The Abstract (AB) field contains a concise summary of the document. Abstracts in the ERIC database are written by the authors, and they appear for nearly all the records in the database.

The abstractor's initials appear in parentheses at the end of the abstract.

AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Abstract (AB).

AI Author ID [Word Index]

The Author ID (AI) field contains an embedded hyperlink that can be used to access the appropriate website if the author has an author identification number. ERIC supports links to SciENcv, NIH eRA Commons, NSF FastLane, and ORCID websites.

AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]

The Accession Number (AN) field contains a number assigned to each document to uniquely identify the record. Accession numbers for journal articles are preceded with EJ. Accession numbers for non-journal articles are preceded with ED.

AR Access Rights [Phrase Indexed]

The Access Rights (AR) field indicates whether or not ERIC can provide full text for the record. If this field is marked "Yes" that means we have the full text in ERIC, if it is marked "No" then the URL (UR) field may be populated.

AS Assessment and Survey Identifiers [Word Index]

The Assessment and Survey Identifiers (AS) field contains the assessment/survey identifiers for the publication.

AT Audience Type [Phrase Indexed]

The Audience Type (AT) field indicates the intended audience of a publication. There are eleven major audience types:

Policymakers       Teachers       Students


Practitioners   Media Staff   Community
Administrators   Support Staff    

Audience Type information is available from 1984 to the present.

AU Author [Phrase Indexed]
smith bruce
  The Author (AU) field contains up to two personal authors. The author names are entered into the index in the format of last name followed by first and middle names or up to two initials, as they appeared on the original article. Thus, a person named James C. Smith may appear as Smith James C, Smith J. Charles, Smith JC or Smith J.

Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name, a space and first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name, enter one version and you will be able to scroll through the list of names to find the other.

DP Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2010 12.dp.

The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the publication date of the article or monograph. The year of the DP field is indexed in the (YR) Year of Publication index.

Date of Publication displays in the DP field as a year and displays in the Source (SO) field with the month (when available) and year.

EL Educational Level [Phrase Indexed]
elementary education.el.

The Educational Level (EL) field identifies the specific audience (in this case by educational-level) for whom the resource is intended.

EM Entry Month [Phrase Indexed]
  The Entry Month (EM) field contains a 6-digit number in the format YYYYMM representing the year and month in which a document was entered into the ERIC database. In cases when the month is not available the format would be YYYY00. When an existing entry is updated, the EM field will also include the date of the latest revision.
FL IES Funding Link [Word Index]

The IES Funding Link (FL) field contains an imbedded hyperlink that can be clicked to send users to the appropriate IES funding page(s).

HW Heading Word [Word Indexed]

The Heading Word (HW) field is a Word indexed version of the ERIC Subject Headings (SH) field. The Heading Word field is an index only. Search results will display in the ERIC Subject Headings field.

IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
  The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) for a book or monographic publication. It appears as a number separated by hyphens. Search the ISBN number without hyphens or spaces.
IC IES Cited [Phrase Index]

The IES Cited (IC) field contains ERIC numbers for IES publications in ERIC that cite this study.

ID Identifiers [Word Indexed]

The Identifiers (ID) field consists of concepts mentioned in the abstract, but do not yet exist in the ERIC controlled vocabularies. These keywords are proper nouns from the following areas:

  Geographic Locations
  Tests and Testing
  Laws and Legislation

Individual words from these phrases are entered into the index; enter individual words to view the index.

IF IES Funded [Word Index]

The IES Funded (IF) field indicates when publication is funded by IES (whether published by IES or elsewhere). The value will be ‘Yes’.

IN Institution [Word Indexed]
  The Institution (IN) field contains the name of the institution with which the primary author was affiliated. Search for the most unique word or phrase in the institution data; for example, search "harvard" not "university".
IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
  The Issue/Part field (IP) contains the Issue and/or Part for a particular volume of a journal. The IP field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.
IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
  The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. It appears as a number separated by hyphens (use hyphens in your search).
JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
cognitive science.jn.

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which an article was published. This field is usually displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

Journal names are indexed as phrases -- to view journal titles in the index, enter as many of the words or letters in a journal name as are needed to distinguish it from other journals: cognitive sci for "Cognitive Science."

JX Journal Word [Word Indexed]
  The Journal Word (JX) field contains individual words from every journal name in ERIC. Journal Word is a word indexed version of the Journal Name (JN) field.
LG Language [Phrase Indexed]

The Language field (LG) contains the language(s) of publication of an article.

Enter the first few characters of a language name. The language index can quickly be scrolled to determine all languages which appear in ERIC.

The Limit to Languages includes all languages in their fully spelled-out form.

LI Law Identifiers [Word Index]

The Law Identifiers (LI) field contains the law identifiers for the publication.

LO Location Identifiers [Word Index]
arizona scottsdale.lo.

The Location Identifiers (LO) field contains the location identifiers for the publication.

LV Level of Availability [Phrase Indexed]

The Level of Availability (LV) field indicates whether or not the document can be accessed in an ERIC microfiche collection and only applies to documents which were indexed prior to 2005 (ERIC record numbers ED010000-ED483046).

Level   Indicates
1 and 2   the item is available on microfiche
3   the item is indexed only

Previously, the LV field was used to indicate ERIC full text availability. That information is now found in the Access Rights (AR) field.

NO Grant Number [Phrase Indexed]
j leaa 013

The Grant Number (NO) field contains an alphanumeric code identifying the contract supporting the project and/or publication. Through June of 1976, only U.S. Office of Education (OE) or National Institute of Education (NIE) grants were cited; since then a broader range of granting institutions contract numbers have been included.

Records added to this database after June 2005 do not contain data in this field. However, this field contains data in records older than July 2005.

NT Notes [Word Indexed]

The Notes (NT) field contains various types of descriptive information augmenting the Source data, such as the relationship of the present work to a previous work. This is a free text field used most frequently to capture complex publication histories such as series and theses.

Records added to this database after June 2005 do not contain data in this field. However, this field contains data in records older than July 2005.

PB Publisher [Word Indexed]
national center for education statistics.pb.
  The Publisher (PB) field contains the Publisher name and contact information. The PB field also consists of the secondary availability of a document and can be used to find a source for the full-text of a Resource when ERIC does not have distribution rights.

This field is present for non-journal records only.

PG Pagination [Word Indexed]

The Pagination (PG) field consists of the initial page of the document. The full page range displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

PL IES Publication Link [Word Index]

The IES Publication Link (PL) field contains an appropriate IES webpage hyperlink where additional information on the publication can be found.

PN Page Count [Phrase Indexed]

The Page Count (PN) field lists the number of pages of the article.

PR Peer Reviewed [Phrase Indexed]

The Peer Reviewed (PR) field indicates the peer reviewed status of the Source/Journal. The values will be either Yes, No or NA.

PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
  Each document in ERIC is assigned terms to describe its publication type. Publication Types (PT) include such broad categories as "Journal Articles" or "Historical Materials" and also more specific entries such as "Creative Works" and "Test Questionnaires."

The Limit to Publication Types includes all publication types in their fully spelled-out form.


Report Number [Phrase Indexed]
75205 1810 300 4 68 2m.rp.


The Report Number (RP) field contains the unique identifying number assigned this document by the organization producing or disseminating the work.

The RP field may also contain International Standard Book Number (ISBN) information.

SA Sponsoring Agency [Word Indexed]
  The Sponsoring Agency (SA) field contains the English language name of the organization which funded (in whole or in part) the project described in the document.
SH ERIC Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]

The ERIC Subject Headings (SH) field consists of terms taken from the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors.

Subject headings which describe the major point, or focus, of an article, will be preceded with an asterisk (*) in the document display.

SO Source [Display Only]
  The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Name or Monograph Publisher, volume, issue, pagination, and year of publication.
TI Title [Word Indexed]
An Innovative Teacher Training Approach: Combine Live Instruction with a Web-Based Reflection System.ti.
  The Title (TI) field contains the title and subtitle of the document. In cases where there is no title or the title is not informative, indexers may create title information; such entries will be enclosed in brackets.
TW Text Word [Word Indexed]

The Text Word (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in a database which contain text words and which are appropriate for a free text subject search.

The Text Word fields in ERIC include Title (TI), Abstract (AB), Heading Word (HW), and Identifiers (ID).

UR URL [Word Indexed]

The URL (UR) field contains the reference to the external article, using URL's or similar identifiers (Handles, DOIs, etc.)

VO Volume [Word Indexed]
  The Volume (VO) field consists of the volume of a serial publication. The VO field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.
WC What Works Clearinghouse Reviewed [Word Index]

The What Works Clearinghouse Reviewed (WC) field is populated with a value if the study has been reviewed by the WWC.

WL WWC Study Review Guide Link [Word Index]

The WWC Study Review Guide Link (WL) field contains a WWC Study Guide hyperlink where additional information on the WWC review information can be found.

YR Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]

The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the four digit year in which an article or monograph was published. You must search the year using four digits (two digit years are no longer searchable). Also, years must be searched individually; do not enter a range of years.

The year is normally displayed as part of the Source (SO) field and Date of Publication (DP) field.

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax listed below to combine search terms or strategically develop a search. Full documentation is provided in the Advanced Searching Techniques section of the Online Help.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y test or anxiety

"Measuring Treatment Integrity: Testing a Multiple-Component, Multiple-Method Intervention Implementation Evaluation Model "


The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y prekindergarten and disabilities

"Even Start Family Literacy program; Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program; programs for students with disabilities, including the SuperStart Prekindergarten Program,"


The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y special education not gifted

"This guide is the product of a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education..."


The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y special adj education

"This updated publication includes guidance on the law and how it supports teachers and schools; valuable information on special education,..."


The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y prekindergarten adj4 disabilities

"...programs for students with disabilities, including the SuperStart Prekindergarten Program,... "


The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n gifted.ab. /freq=5

"...the teaching experiment methodology is used to observe firsthand a gifted student's mathematical... teaching experiments was conducted with 1 gifted investigate how the gifted student's .... opportunities for gifted and average students .... the gifted student was able to use analytical, .... "


The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ child$

"This article argues that merely discrediting No Child Left Behind"
"Effects of Child Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Teachers and Children"


Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or * (asterisk). For example, in the truncated search child*, Ovid retrieves the word child as well as the words children, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n


"play fetch with your dog or push a couch across the room...."
"schools in the UK will discover piles of textbooks in various dog-eared states"


Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y


"...degrees earned by women,..."
"Families maintained by a woman with no husband present had lower incomes;... "


Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r

"....especially for low-income students and students of color...."
"Previous studies have revealed that children increase the size of drawings of topics about which they feel positively and use their most preferred colours for colouring in these drawings, ... "


The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "child/adult"

"Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios..."
"...and the attendant effects on professional practice and child-adult relations..."

"n" "3".vo

"The Achiever: Volume 3, Number 13. 4 p."


Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.


Audience Type Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to administrators

A limit to Audience Type restricts retrieval to documents by the intended audience of a publication.

Policymakers, Researchers, Practitioners, Administrator, Teachers, Counselors, Media Staff, Support Staff, Students, Parents and Community.

Educational Levels Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to high school equivalency programs

Since 1975, at least one Educational Level is assigned to every document and journal article (unless a level is entirely inappropriate). The limit to Educational Levels restricts your search to levels such as "Preschool Education" or "Adult Basic Education."

If you choose this limit, Ovid presents you with a list of ERIC Educational Levels from which to select. Select all the levels that are appropriate.

ERIC Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to eric full text

A limit to ERIC Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is an ERIC full text link. To limit to Ovid full text and other types of external full text use the limit to Full Text.

English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english language
  A limit to English restricts retrieval to articles which are written in the English language. This limit excludes Non-English articles with English abstracts.
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text
  A limit to Full Text restricts retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. All full text documents, including ERIC Full Text, Ovid Full Text and external full text, are included in this limit.
Journal Articles Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to journal articles

A limit to Journal Article will restrict retrieval to Journal Articles.

Languages Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to chinese
  A limit to Language restricts retrieval to any of the languages indexed by ERIC. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetic list of those languages from which to select from Abenaki to Zoque.
Latest Update Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to latest update
  New journal documents are added to the ERIC database every month. A limit to latest update restricts retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.
Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax:
limit 1 to ovid full text available

A limit to Ovid Full Text Available restricts retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available.

Peer Reviewed Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to peer reviewed

A limit by Peer Reviewed restricts retrieval to articles that have been peer reviewed.

Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to creative works
limit 1 to books

A limit by Publication Type restricts retrieval by any of the publication types indexed by ERIC, including such classifications as "Information Analyses", "Viewpoints", and "Tests, Evaluation Instruments." In the ERIC database, more than one publication type is usually assigned to a document.

If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of publication types, and a definition for each, from which to select.

Publication Year Sentence Syntax:

 limit 1 to yr=1996

Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=1996

You can restrict retrieval to any of the years which this database covers. If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year: the format is 4 digits, "2004."

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The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/eric
  Sentence Syntax: use eric
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Sample Documents
Sample 1

Accession Number:
	Brown, Ryan A. Dickerson, Daniel L. Klein, David J. Agniel, Denis. Johnson, Carrie L. D'Amico, Elizabeth J.
Author ID:
	Brown, Ryan A.; ORCID:
Sponsoring Agency:
        National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) (NIH)
	Identifying as American Indian/Alaska Native in Urban Areas: Implications for Adolescent Behavioral Health and Well-Being
	SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail: [email protected]; Web site:
	Youth and Society. v53 n1 p54-75 Jan 2021
Page Count:
Peer Reviewed:
Date of Publication:
ERIC Subject Headings:
	American Indians
        Alaska Natives
        At Risk Persons
        Urban American Indians
        Health Behavior
        Well Being
        Identification (Psychology)
        American Indian Culture
        Substance Abuse
        Mental Health
        Alcohol Abuse
        Psychological Patterns
        American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit multiple health disparities, including high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, violence and delinquency, 
        and mental health problems. Approximately 70% of AI/AN youth reside in urban areas, where negative outcomes on behavioral health and well-being are often high. Identity 
        development may be particularly complex in urban settings, where youth may face more fragmented and lower density AI/AN communities, as well as mixed racial-ethnic ancestry 
        and decreased familiarity with AI/AN lifeways. This study examines racial-ethnic and cultural identity among AI/AN adolescents and associations with behavioral health and well-being
        by analyzing quantitative data collected from a baseline assessment of 185 AI/AN urban adolescents from California who were part of a substance use intervention study. Adolescents who       
        identified as AI/AN on their survey reported better mental health, less alcohol and marijuana use, lower rates of delinquency, and increased happiness and spiritual health. (As Provided)
Access Rights:
Publication Type:
	Journal Articles. Reports - Research.
Grant Number:
Location Identifiers:
Assessment and Survey Identifiers:
	Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure
Year of Publication:
Entry Month:
Sample 2
Accession Number:
	Lin, Wei-Lun. Shih, Yi-Ling.
	Designing EEG Neurofeedback Procedures to Enhance Open-Ended versus Closed-Ended Creative Potentials
	Routledge. Available from: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 325 Chestnut Street Suite 800, Philadelphia, PA 19106. Tel: 800-354-1420; 
    Fax: 215-625-2940; Web site:
	Creativity Research Journal. v28 n4 p458-466 2016
Page Count:
Peer Reviewed:
Date of Publication:
ERIC Subject Headings:
	Pretests Posttests
	Comparative Analysis
	College Students
	Foreign Countries
	Creative Thinking
	Creativity Tests
	Regression (Statistics)
	Recent empirical evidence demonstrated that open-ended creativity (which refers to creativity measures that require various 
    and numerous responses, such as divergent thinking) correlated with alpha brain wave activation, whereas closed-ended 
    creativity (which refers to creativity measures that ask for one final correct answer, such as insight problem solving) was 
    related to larger variability in electroencephalogram (EEG) differences between alpha and beta waves. This study designed 
    two EEG neurofeedback procedures to examine their training effects on open- versus closed-ended creative potentials. In the
    alpha-enhancement condition, participants were reinforced to elevate only their alpha frequencies by auditory feedback for 10 
    sessions. In the alpha-transformation condition, enhancement and suppression of the signal tone (and hence, the 
    appearance and disappearance of alpha waves) were both practiced. Pre- and posttest comparisons indicated that, 
    compared to the active contrast condition, the alpha-enhancement practice improved only open-ended creativity performance. 
    The alpha-transformation training enhanced closed-ended creativity performance, which was first demonstrated in the 
    literature, and simultaneously facilitated open-ended creativity performances. In addition, changes in brain wave patterns by 
    training positively correlated with change in predicted creativity performances. All of these results were of medium to large 
    effect sizes. The effectiveness of these EEG neurofeedback procedures for creativity training was implied and discussed. (As 
Access Rights:
Publication Type:
	Journal Articles. Reports - Research.
Location Identifiers:
Assessment and Survey Identifiers:
	Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking
Number of References:
Education Level:
	Higher Education, Postsecondary Education
Year of Publication:
Entry Month:
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Institute of Education Sciences
550 12th Street, SW
Washington, DC 20024
Telephone: (202) 245-6940
The ERIC database is owned and controlled by the U.S. Department of Education, but it is not copyrighted. Its use for educational purposes of all types is encouraged. The ERIC facility is the sole source of the original (updated monthly) ERIC bibliographic database.
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