CAB Abstracts Database Guide
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CAB ABSTRACTS is a bibliographic database compiled by CAB INTERNATIONAL. It covers the significant research and development literature in the fields of agriculture, forestry, human health and nutrition, animal health, and the management and conservation of natural resources. Over three million records have been added to the database since its computerization in 1973. These records are made available through a wide range of products and services both printed and electronic.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage   Number of Segments
CABA0 1910 - 1972 1 Segment
CABD 1910 - 1989 3 Segments
CABB 1973 - 1989 2 Segments
CABZ 1910 - Present 7 Segments
CABC 1984 - Present 5 Segments
CABA 1973 - Present 6 Segments
CABN 1990 - Present 4 Segments
CABF 2000 - Present 2 Segments

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 7 total segments.

This database is updated online weekly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
Abstract (AB) Electronic Subset Code (SS) Order Number (ON)
Accession Number (AN) E-mail Address (MA) Organism Descriptors (OD)
Additional Authors (AD) Every Title (ET) Original Title (OT)
Additional Title Data (AT) Exploded CABICODES Codes (XC) Pagination (PG)
All Searchable Fields (AF) Geographic Location (GL) Price (PR)
Author (AU, AE) Heading Words (HW) Publication Type (PT)
Broad Terms (BT) Identifiers (ID) Publisher (PU)
Issue/Part (IP) Institution (IN) References (RF)
CABICODES (CC) ISBN (IB) Secondary Journal Source (SJ)
CABICODES Words (CW) ISSN (IS) Source (SO)
CAS Registry Numbers (RN) Journal Name (JN) Subject Headings (SH)
Copyright (CR) Journal Name Word (JX) Summary Language (SL)
Corporate Author (CA) Language (LG) Title (TI)
Country of Publication (CP) Local Messages (LM) Update Code (UP)
Date of Publication (DP) Location of Publisher (LP) URL (UR)
Descriptor Index (DE) Meeting (MT) Volume (VO)
Digital Object Identifier (DO) Notes (NT) Year of Publication (YR)
Document Title (DT)    
Editor (ED)
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ab,ti,ot,bt,hw,id,cc.
Abstract (AB) Heading Words (HW) Title (TI)
Broad Terms (BT) Original Title (OT)
Go: Table of Contents or Back

Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

Abstract (AB) E-mail Address (MA) Original Title (OT)
Accession Number (AN) Every Title (ET) Pagination (PG)
Additional Authors (AD) Exploded CABICODES Codes (XC) Price (PR)
Additional Title Data (AT) Geographic Location (GL) Publication Type (PT)
Author (AU, AE) Identifiers (ID) Publisher (PU)
Broad Terms (BT) Institution (IN) References (RF)
Issue/Part (IP) ISBN (IB) Secondary Journal Source (SJ)
CABICODES (CC) ISSN (IS) Source (SO)
CAS Registry Numbers (RN) Journal Name (JN) Subject Headings (SH)
Copyright (CR) Language (LG) Summary Language (SL)
Corporate Author (CA) Local Messages (LM) Title (TI)
Country of Publication (CP) Location of Publisher (LP) Update Code (UP)
Date of Publication (DP) Meeting (MT) URL (UR)
Digital Object Identifier (DO) Notes (NT) Volume (VO)
Document Title (DT) Order Number (ON) Year of Publication (YR)
Editor (ED) Organism Descriptors (OD)  
Electronic Subset Code (SS)  
Go: Table of Contents or Back

All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

Abstract (AB) E-mail Address (MA) Original Title (OT)
Accession Number (AN) Every Title (ET) Pagination (PG)
Additional Authors (AD) Exploded CABICODES Codes (XC) Price (PR)
Additional Title Data (AT) Geographic Location (GL) Publication Type (PT)
Author (AU, AE) Identifiers (ID) Publisher (PU)
Broad Terms (BT) Institution (IN) References (RF)
Issue/Part (IP) ISBN (IB) Secondary Journal Source (SJ)
CABICODES (CC) ISSN (IS) Source (SO)
CAS Registry Numbers (RN) Journal Name (JN) Subject Headings (SH)
Corporate Author (CA) Language (LG) Summary Language (SL)
Country of Publication (CP) Local Messages (LM) Title (TI)
Date of Publication (DP) Location of Publisher (LP) Update Code (UP)
Digital Object Identifier (DO) Meeting (MT) URL (UR)
Document Title (DT) Notes (NT) Volume (VO)
Editor (ED) Order Number (ON) Year of Publication (YR)
Electronic Subset Code (SS) Organism Descriptors (OD)
Go: Table of Contents or Back
Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Issue/Part (IP) Journal Name (JN) Secondary Journal Source (SJ)
  Date of Publication (DP) Pagination (PG) Volume (VO)
  Document Title (DT) References (RF) Year of Publication (YR)
Go: Table of Contents or Back
The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
feed additives.ab.
 

The Abstracts (AB) are always in English and use British spelling throughout. They are designed to be objective and indicative of the content of the complete paper. All important concepts are included along with any results. Authors abstracts will often be used but will be amended, when necessary, in order to ensure that all the important points are covered. Some records will not include abstracts. There are two reasons for this. Some original articles, although significant, are short and require nothing more than a title to describe them while other items may be on the border line in terms of CABI's overall subject scope. While considered significant they may not warrant the extra effort required to prepare an abstract.

Searching the abstract field is ideal if you wish to retrieve absolutely every paper on a particular topic. This is particularly useful when searching for very new concepts where few records are anticipated. For the more common concepts, restricting the search to Titles (TI), Descriptors (DE) and CABICODES (CC) is recommended.

Here are a couple of search hints:

  • Specific cultivars of crops are not generally allocated a Descriptor (DE), so searching the abstract for these in combination with the appropriate descriptor term is recommended. Example: To find important papers about the C57 cultivar of soybeans you should consider searching for soybeans in the Subject Heading field and combining it (AND) with C57 searched in the abstract.
  • Concepts such as high temperature or specific techniques used in research, etc. are best searched in the abstract.
  • For maximum retrieval search the abstract bearing in mind it will, by definition, produce more false drops (low relevance).
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AD Additional Authors [Phrase Index]
  The Additional Authors (AD) field contains name and variants of authors or parts of documents (e.g. books) that are being treated as a single overall record/item.
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AE Added Entry Person [Search Alias]
a martinez m de los.ae.
  The Added Entry Person (AE) field has been designed to search for a person who has authored and/or edited items.
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AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
farm machinery.af.
  All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Headings (SH). The only thing excluded from an All Fields search are fields such as Heading Words (HW) which are created by the loading process and do not actually appear in the record.
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AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
20033075585.an.
 

The Accession Number (AN) field contains the identifier assigned by CAB International to uniquely identify a particular record.

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AT Additional Title Data [Display Only]
 

The Additional Title Data (AT) field contains data that is not appropriate for any of the other title fields, for example series statements for books and the titles of special issues of a journal and details of alternative series in which the record or item is also published.

This field is word indexed in Title (TI) and, when available, displays in Title (TI) field.

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AU Author [Phrase Indexed]
van de peer y.au.
dod$.au.
 

The Author (AU) field is used for the input of the names of all the individual authors of the item being cited. In this field the names are entered in the preferred format set by the editorial rules. However, the user of the database cannot be expected to know or remember all these rules, so the Author Variants field is used for awkward names where the availability of variations would be useful for searching. The Author Variants field is indexed with the Authors field for searching purposes but only the Author field displays.

Editor names follow the same editorial rules as authors names and are combined with the author names in the Added Entry Person (AE) alias. To search for a person who has authored and/or edited items in the database search that persons name with an .ae. search qualification.

The basic format for the input of author and editor names is: surname first initial second initial.

Titles of honour such as Sir are transposed but academic titles like Dr and Professor are omitted. Relationship terms like Sr., Jr., II, III, IV, etc. are entered after the initials except for Portuguese names (Neto, Junior, Filho, Sobrinho, etc.) where they are cited in full immediately after the surname.

All separate particles such as de, Di, Le, von, van, etc. are transposed to follow the forename initials but because Author Variants are indexed, particles can be placed either before the last name or after the last initial when searching. Arabic names are standardized by inserting hyphens after the particles Al- and El-, so that they become part of the surname. Here are some examples:

  D'Arcy, J. P.       Hoch, H.
  El-Ragae, A. H.   Ivanov, Shch. Kh.
  Fowden, Sir L.   Rooy, J. de
  Hagedorn, D. J.   Vleck, L. D. van

It is also worth noting that names are phrase indexed so it is advisable to use truncation or the index expand/look-up feature. Searching simply for a surname without allowing for all the initials will usually result in no records being retrieved.

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BT Broad Terms [Phrase Indexed]
camelus.bt.
poxviridae.bt.
 

Up-posted descriptors are the broader thesaurus terms for specific groups of descriptors which have been assigned to a record at its particular level of specificity. The selection of these terms is driven by hierarchical relationships present in the CAB Thesaurus. They are applied ONLY to the descriptors that appear in the Organism Descriptors (OD) field and the Geographic Location (GL) field. The up-posted descriptors help in finding items which deal with any instance of a broader concept.

This is not the same as searching for items which deal broadly with that concept. For example, the term Africa as a Geographic Location Descriptor should retrieve all items which deal with the continent as a whole. A search for the same term among up-posted descriptors will retrieve records specific to Ghana or Algeria or East Africa or any other individual country or region in the continent. The up-posted descriptors are held in a different field from the descriptors applied at a document's own level of specificity, to avoid cluttering searches for broad-level concepts with unwanted items indexed at the more specific level. For example, a searcher looking for general texts on bacteria can search for this term as a descriptor term (e.g. bacteria.sh.) and avoid retrieving thousands of records on specific bacteria. In other words, the searcher is given the option of going for higher recall without losing the option of good precision.

Up-posting is an extremely complex operation. It cannot be automatically applied to every term in every hierarchy in the thesaurus because many terms have more than one meaning with the consequent, automatic, generation of a great many erroneous entries. Neither can up-posting be applied manually for all terms. The vast amount of extra editorial time and keyboarding would severely reduce the timeliness of the database. It is for this reason that the automatic up-posting has only been applied to organism names and geographic names.

Organism names (entries in the OD field)
All Organism Descriptors are up-posted using the full taxonomic hierarchies from the new
CAB Thesaurus. Hierarchies up-post to:
animals       plants       viruses
fungi   prokaryotes    
Geographic names (entries in the GL field)
All terms in the Geographic Descriptor field are up-posted using the geographic and
geopolitical hierarchies from the new thesaurus. Hierarchies up-post to one or
more of ACP Countries:
Africa       CACM       Indian Ocean Islands
America   Caribbean Community   Latin America
American Oceania   Commonwealth of Nations   Mediterranean Region
Andean Group   Developed Countries   Middle East
Anglophone Africa   Developing Countries   Netherlands Antilles
Antarctica   Europe   Oceania
Arctic Ocean   European Communities   OECD Countries
ASEAN Countries   EFTA   Pacific Islands
Asia   Francophone Africa   Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean   French Polynesia   SADCC Countries
Australian Oceania   French West Indies   Threshold Countries
Benelux   Indian Ocean    

Note: Broad Terms (BT) and Geographic Location (GL) have their own indexes but both are indexed in Descriptor Index (DE), allowing for simultaneous searching.

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CA Corporate Author [Word Indexed]
world bank.ca.
 

Corporate authors (CA), such as the World Health Organization, are entered in a field of their own. They are made searchable separately from personal authors/editors. It is impossible to impose any strict editorial control over the data entered into this field so, when searching, it is important to take into account any abbreviations and acronyms that may be used as well as any known name changes that may have occurred within the time limits of the particular search in question. In an attempt to alleviate the problem of inconsistency there is also a Corporate Author Variants field into which variations may be put. These two fields are merged for searching purposes.

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CC CABICODES [Phrase Indexed]
ee110.cc.
ss230.cc.
 

CABICODES are classification codes applied to all records to indicate the broad subject areas within which they fall. Altogether there are about 270 CABICODES, of which any one will typically retrieve thousands of records. They consist of two letters followed by three numbers. They are particularly useful for isolating a subset of the database within which a more specific search may be performed. They are ideally suited for the retrieval of records in areas that are difficult to define using keywords. For example, a search on VV300 will retrieve all papers on public health and nuisance pests from the point of view of human health and hygiene. CABICODES complement keyword indexing. This means to say that a concept which is allocated a CABICODES will also be indexed with all the appropriate keywords from the thesaurus.

Every record will have at least one CABICODE representing the main subject of the paper. In addition, relevant codes will be added for other important concepts that are explicitly discussed in the paper. Subjects reported by implication only will not be coded. For example, a paper on nitrogen nutrition of mulberry would be coded FF061 (PLANT NUTRITION) but not LL020 (SERICULTURE) unless the effect of the nitrogen nutrition on silkworms was actually discussed.

The codes are arranged in 20 distinct groups. Each group has a general code with its corresponding classification name. This is then followed by more specific codes and names. As with the keyword indexing the codes are allocated at the most appropriate level of specificity. CABICODES can be searched in full or with truncation.

This field is also browsable by way of a CABICODES classification code Tool, and can be searched by word in the CABICODES Words (CW) index.

Codes are cascaded, or exploded in the Exploded CABICODES (XC) index. Searching on VV000 in the CC field will only retrieve general papers on Human Health and Hygiene. It will not pick up all papers with a VV code. To do this you could search on VV truncated (e.g. VV$.cc.), or, more simply and quickly search the exploded form (e.g. VV000.xc.).

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CP Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
canada.cp.
 

The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the full name of the country in which a journal was published (such as USA ).

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CR Copyright [Word Indexed]
2017.cr.
  The Copyright (CR) field contains the copyright information associated with the article.
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CW CABICODES Words [Word Indexed]
irrigation.cw.
eggs.cw.
 

CABICODES are classification codes applied to all records to indicate the broad subject areas within which they fall. Altogether there are about 270 CABICODES, of which any one will typically retrieve thousands of records. They consist of two letters followed by three numbers. They are particularly useful for isolating a subset of the database within which a more specific search may be performed. They are ideally suited for the retrieval of records in areas that are difficult to define using keywords. For example, a search on VV300 will retrieve all papers on public health and nuisance pests from the point of view of human health and hygiene. CABICODES complement keyword indexing. This means to say that a concept which is allocated a CABICODES will also be indexed with all the appropriate keywords from the thesaurus.

Every record will have at least one CABICODE representing the main subject of the paper. In addition, relevant codes will be added for other important concepts that are explicitly discussed in the paper. Subjects reported by implication only will not be coded. For example, a paper on nitrogen nutrition of mulberry would be coded FF061 (PLANT NUTRITION) but not LL020 (SERICULTURE) unless the effect of the nitrogen nutrition on silkworms was actually discussed.

The codes are arranged in 20 distinct groups. Each group has a general code with its corresponding classification name. This is then followed by more specific codes and names. As with the keyword indexing the codes are allocated at the most appropriate level of specificity. CABICODES can be searched in full or with truncation.

This field is browsable by way of a CABICODE Classification Code Tool, and can also be searched in the CABICODES (CC) and Exploded CABICODES (XC) fields.

Codes are cascaded, or exploded in the Exploded CABICODES (XC) index. Searching for VV000.cc. field will only retrieve general papers on Human Health Hygiene. It will not pick up all papers with a VV code. To do this you could search on VV truncated (for example, VV$.cc.), or, more simply and quickly search the exploded form (for example, VV000.xc.).

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DE Descriptor Index [Phrase Indexed]
india.de.
 

The Descriptor Index contains the Geographic Locations (GL), the Organism Descriptors (OD) and Subject Headings (SH), and displays in any one of those fields.

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DO Digital Object Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
102527 jas2006 220.do.
  The Digital Object Identifier (DO) field contains the registered DOI for electronic documents. The Digital Object Identifier is a system for identifying intellectual property in digital environments.
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DP Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2007.dp.
 

The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the date of publication. This field is searchable and displays as a part of the Source (SO) field as well as displaying in a separate Year of Publication (YR) field.

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DT Document Title [Word Indexed]
edible fungi.dt.
 

This is the title of the complete document in which the abstracted item was published. If the item is an individual paper from a conference preceding then the Document Title (DT) will be the title of the proceedings.

This field displays in Source (SO).

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ED Editor [Phrase Indexed]
maxted n.ed.
 

The names are entered in the preferred format set by the editorial rules. However, the user of the database cannot be expected to know or remember all these complex rules, so an Editor Variant field is used for awkward names where the availability of variations would be useful for searching. Both these fields are combined for searching so, as long as one of the options provided is selected, the record will be retrieved.

Editor names follow the same editorial rules as authors names and are combined with the author names in the Added Entry Person (AE) alias. To search for a person who has authored and/or edited items in the database search that persons name with an.ae. search qualification.

The basic format for the input of author and editor names is: surname first initial second initial.

Titles of honour such as Sir are transposed but academic titles like Dr and Professor are omitted. Relationship terms like Sr., Jr., II, III, IV, etc. are entered after the initials except for Portuguese names (Neto, Junior, Filho, Sobrinho, etc.) where they are cited in full immediately after the surname.

All separate particles such as de, Di, Le, von, van, etc. are transposed to follow the forename initials. Arabic names are standardized by inserting hyphens after the particles Al- and El-, so that they become part of the surname. Here are some examples:

  D'Arcy, J. P.       Hoch, H.
  El-Ragae, A. H.   Ivanov, Shch. Kh.
  Fowden, Sir L.   Rooy, J. van
  Hagedorn, D. J.   Vleck, L. D. van

When searching for author or editor names you should familiarize yourself with the way they are indexed on the system you are using. It is also worth noting that names are phrase parsed so it is advisable to use truncation or the index expand/look-up feature. Searching simply for a surname without allowing for all the initials will usually result in very few or no records being retrieved.

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ET Every Title [Index Alias]
academy.et.
 

The Every Title (ET) alias searches the (English) Title (TI) and the Original Title (OT) fields.

Titles of original items fall into one of two categories: English and non-English. The non-English titles are further divided into Roman and non-Roman script. CAB ABSTRACTS is an English language database and, for this reason, all records in it are given an English title regardless of the language in which the original document was written. Where possible a non-English title is also provided to aid retrieval. There are two separate fields provided for data input; the (English) Title (TI) field and the Original Title (OT) field.

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GL Geographic Location [Phrase Indexed]
chile.gl.
 

Geographic Location descriptors describe the countries and subdivisions, such as states or provinces, that are relevant to the record. The field contains only controlled terms from the latest version of the CAB Thesaurus and these are manually allocated to the record at the stage of record creation. The object of applying vocabulary control is to label each important concept in the source item with one, unambiguous name, preferably the name a searcher would choose for the same concept. The thesaurus lists all the allowed descriptors and provides guidance as to the scope of each. Precision and recall are both enhanced if the thesaurus is consulted by searchers as well as indexers.

To search Geographic Location by word, use the Heading Words (HW) index.

All the terms in the Geographic Location field are automatically upposted so that all their higher thesaurus terms are added to the separately searchable Broad Term (BT) field.

Note: Geographic Location (GL) and Broad Term (BT) have their own indexes but both are indexed in Descriptor Index (DE), allowing for simultaneous searching.

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HW Heading Words [Word Indexed]
paspalum.hw.
malnutrition.hw.
 

Sometimes you may wish to retrieve every Subject Heading (SH), Organism Descriptors (OD), Broad Term (BT), Geographic Location (GL) and Identifiers (ID) that includes a particular word or words; this is done by searching the desired word(s) in the Heading Words (HW) field.

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IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
9985816153.ib.
 

This field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN). These are unique identification numbers which are allocated, by publishers, to books and other non-serial publications. An ISBN consists of ten digits divided into four groups:

  • Group identifier (national, geographic, language, or other type of group)
  • Publisher or producer identifier
  • Title identifier
  • Check digit which may be either a number or the letter X.

However, despite this standard format, ISBNs vary enormously on the source documents, e.g.:
  971-539-001-3       1-880653-23-0
  92-0-105595-1   1-880653-23-0
  0-913235-91-1   0-08-042903-3

Consequently, they have also been put into the index without spaces or dashes, e.g.:
  9715390013       1880653230
  9201055951   1880653230
  0913235911   0080429033

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ID Identifiers [Phrase Indexed]
cacao.id.
 

The field contains free language words or phrases assigned by indexers to give fuller notation of the document content than that provided by the controlled index terms. Often, the Identifiers field contains new terms, for example the names of new species, which are not yet in the CAB Thesaurus.

Identifiers are word indexed in Heading Words (HW).

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IN Institution [Word Indexed]
simon fraser.in.
cairo, egypt.in.
 

The Institution (IN) or Author Affiliation field is used for the addresses of both personal and corporate authors. Details entered in this field include institution name, town and country when available. Where possible the full address is now entered and will include post and zip codes. The field itself is intended to give the address of where the work was done. For personal authors the address is that of the first author. If a correspondence address is given with a paper it is only cited if no author address is present and when used the phrase "correspondence address" is appended in the record display.

As with the corporate author field, it is not possible to apply rigid editorial rules to this field so, when searching, it is important to take into account all possible variations and combinations, including name changes and abbreviations. Some examples are:

  Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
  ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria
  IRCT, 75116, Paris, France
  Operations Research Division, EMBRAPA, 70-333 DF, Brazil
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IP Issue/Part [Phrase Indexed]
10301.ip.
"9".ip.
 

The Issue/Part field (IP) contains the issue/part, bulletin, edition number for a particular bibliographic item. The IP field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
00016314.is.
 

The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number for the journal in which an article was published.

The ISSN is the International Standard Serial Number and is a unique number identifying serial publications such as journals. The ISSN consists of two groups of four digits in Arabic numerals, except possibly for the last, check digit, which may be an X. This conformity makes it easy to search for ISSNs, which can be entered with or without the hyphen between the two groups of four characters.

It appears as an 8 digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793.

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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
tree physiology.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which an article was published. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Journal names are indexed as phrases, so enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index: new engl$ (for New England Journal of Medicine).

To search by word, use the Journal Name Word (JW) Index.

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JX Journal Name Word [Word Indexed]
geochemistry.jw.
soybean.jx.
 

The Journal Name Word (JX) index is a word index of the names of the journals indexed in CAB Abstracts. Enter the single most descriptive word in a journal title.

A single heavily posted word, such as "journal" will search slowly.

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LG Language [Phrase Indexed]
romanian.lg.
 

The Language (LG) field contains the original language(s) of the entire document. The language French will appear as "French" but is also indexed with the Ovid three digit language Code.

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LM Local Messages [Display Only]
 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by the System Administrator to indicate information about journals held in your local library system.

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LP Location of Publisher [Word Indexed]
edinburgh.lp.
 

The Location of Publisher (LP) is the town of publication of a record/item with optional province/state.

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MA E-mail Address [Word Indexed]
harvard.ma.
 

The E-Mail Address (MA) field contains the e-mail addresses of the persons responsible for the work represented by the record.

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MT Meeting [Word Indexed]
iawa.mt.
 

It will contain any or all of the following data if available: the title of the conference, its location and dates. There is no strict editorial control regarding the way the data is entered so all possible variations should be accounted for when searching. Enter the single most descriptive word in a conference name, location or date. Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

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NT Notes [Word Indexed]
map.nt.
 

The Notes (NT) field contains any additional, supplementary or explanatory information about the document.

The field is meant for display purposes only, although it is searchable.

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OD Organism Descriptors [Phrase Indexed]
hippophae rhamnoides.od.
pinopsida.od.
 

The majority of the names are taxonomic; common names are used for livestock and common crops, and some well known wild organisms. The field contains only controlled terms from the latest version of the CAB Thesaurus and these are manually allocated to the record at the stage of record creation. The object of applying vocabulary control is to label each important concept in the source item with one, unambiguous name, preferably the name a searcher would choose for the same concept. The thesaurus lists all the allowed descriptors and provides guidance as to the scope of each. Precision and recall are both enhanced if the thesaurus is consulted by searchers as well as indexers.

To search Organism Descriptors by word, use the Heading Words (HW) index.

All the terms in the Organism Descriptors field are automatically upposted so that all their higher thesaurus terms are added to the separately searchable Broad Term (BT) field.

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ON Order Number [Word Indexed]
76-11.on.
 

Sometimes referred to as the availability field, it contains any numbers, provided with the original item, which may be of use when ordering copies of the original document. Examples include Dissertation Abstracts UMI numbers, FAO numbers and OECD numbers.

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OT Original Title [Word Indexed]
cana de acucar.ot.
 

Titles of original items fall into one of two categories: English and non-English. The non-English titles are further divided into Roman and non-Roman script. CAB ABSTRACTS is an English language database and, for this reason, all records in it are given an English title regardless of the language in which the original document was written. Where possible a non-English title is also provided to aid retrieval. There are two separate fields provided for data input; the Every Title (ET) field and the Original Title (OT) field. Both these are made searchable.

For non-English items with non-English titles the OT field contains the original language title provided that it is in Roman script (e.g. French, German, Italian, etc.).It is not possible to provide original language titles for item titles in non-Roman script (e.g. Greek and Cyrillic) and the current editorial policy states that no transliterated versions will be provided. However, users will find a few transliterated titles in older records on the database.

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PG Pagination [Word Indexed]
1000.pg.
 

The Pagination (PG) index contains the first page of each item's citation.

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PR Price [Phrase Indexed]
73 euro.pr.
 

This field contains any price information which was given with the original item.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
thesis.pt.
conference paper.pt.
 

All records in the database are designated at least one of the following publication type categories:

Abstract only          Bulletin       Correspondence       Miscellaneous
Annual report   Bulletin article   Editorial   Patent
Annual report section   Conference paper   Journal article   Standard
Book   Conference proceedings   Journal issue   Thesis
Book chapter            

The field is mandatory and is validated against an authority file. The field has also been added to the back file records and entries created automatically. However, as with any automatic system, there were inevitably some records which could not be recognized so these are all grouped in with the "Miscellaneous" records.

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PU Publisher [Word Indexed]
society for range management.pu.
plenum.pu.
 

 The Publisher (PU) field contains the name of the publisher, location of publisher and country of publication. The information is not standardized. Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

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RF References [Word Indexed]
many ref.rf.
  This field contains a number corresponding to the number of references cited in the original article. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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RN CAS Registry Numbers [Phrase Indexed]
9005-49-6.rn.
 

The field contains the CAS (Chemical Abstracts) Registry Number for all chemical names entered in the Subject Headings field for which a corresponding registry number exists. Entries are generated automatically from an authority file.

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SH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
gene location.sh.
palaeoecology.sh.
 

The field contains only controlled terms from the latest version of the CAB Thesaurus which describe the key points of the paper and these are manually allocated to the record at the stage of record creation. The object of applying vocabulary control is to label each important concept in the source item with one, unambiguous name, preferably the name a searcher would choose for the same concept. The thesaurus lists all the allowed descriptors and provides guidance as to the scope of each. Precision and recall are both enhanced if the thesaurus is consulted by searchers as well as indexers.

The SH field contains any Thesaurus term that is not considered to be an Organism Descriptors or a Geographic Location descriptor. Examples would be terms like Pesticides, Nutrition, Leisure Management, etc. Refer to the notes on Organism Descriptors (OD) and Geographic Location (GL) descriptors for details of what these two separate index fields contain.

To search Subject Headings by word, use the Heading Words (HW) index.

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SJ Secondary Journal Source [Word Indexed]
publishers.sj.
 

If CAB International did not see the original publication, the secondary source is cited here. When available, the SJ field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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SL Summary Language [Phrase Indexed]
serbo croatian.sl.
italian.sl.
  This field contains the language of the original author's summary if this is different from the text language.
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SO Source [Phrase Indexed]
1996.so.
chinese journal of parasitic disease control.so.
 

The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Name (JN) or Document Title (DT), Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), References (RF), and Secondary Journal Source (SJ).

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SS Electronic Subset Code [Word Indexed]
AA.ss.
0W.ss.
 

The Electronic Subset Code (SS) field contains 2-character codes, assigned by CABI, which indicate subsets to which a record belongs. The Electronic Subset Code (SS) is included in CAB Abstracts to aid in linking. Although it can be searched, a list of code translations is not available.

The field contains the CAS (Chemical Abstracts) Registry Number for all chemical names entered in the Subject Headings (SH) field for which a corresponding registry number exists. Entries are generated automatically from an authority file.

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TI Title [Word Indexed]
organic carbon.ti.
 

Titles of original items fall into one of two categories: English and non-English. The non-English titles are further divided into Roman and non-Roman script. CAB ABSTRACTS is an English language database and, for this reason, all records in it are given an English title regardless of the language in which the original document was written. Where possible a non-English title is also provided to aid retrieval. There are two separate fields provided for data input; the Every Title (ET) field and the Original Title (OT) field. Both these are made searchable.

If the original document is in English with an English title then this title is input exactly as given. Subtitles are included and any abbreviations or American spellings are not altered. The only changes that are allowed are corrections of obvious spelling errors which are important for retrieval purposes. In a small percentage of cases some titles may be annotated to improve sense or clarity.

If the original document is not in English but carried an English language version of the title this will be used, as far as possible, exactly as given. It will be edited only as necessary to clarify either sense or grammar or to correct any obvious spelling errors.

If no English version is available, or if the English version provided diverges a lot from the non-English version, the latter is translated, by CABI, into English.

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UP Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
20170830.up.
  The Update Code (UP) is in the format YYYYMMDD, where YYYY is the 4 digit year, MM is month, and DD is every Wednesday of the month. For example, 20070131 is January 31, 2007.
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UR URL [Word Indexed]
700043a7b839c5cabea8750271837ac7.ur.
 

The URL (UR) field contains the Internet Uniform Resource Locator of electronic documents and document collections that have URLs believed to be stable.

Each part of the URL and file name is indexed, so enter the most descriptive word or words in a URL or filename.

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VO Volume [Phrase Indexed]
"47".vo.
 

This field contains volume numbers for serial publications.

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XC Exploded CABICODES Codes [Phrase Indexed]
nn050.xc.
 

The Exploded CABICODES Codes (XC) field contains the classification codes exploded to post in the Classification Code Tool. Searching the top level code in the VV hierarchy (VV000.xc.) will post all the records containing a VV code.

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YR Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
1995.yr.
 

The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which a document was published. The year may be searched using four digits, e.g. "1994".

Only individual years may be searched here; do not enter a range of years. (Use the Limit to Publication Year to restrict sets to a range of years.)

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y vitamin c or ascorbic acid

"vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn"

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y vitamin c and ascorbic acid

"Effect of chilli leaf curl virus disease on the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of fruit in different chilli cultivars"

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y blastula not embryo

"tail bud embryos and blastula embryos in the protogynous hermaphrodite orange-spotted grouper"

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y gene expression patterns

"Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection and gene expression in human tumors by microarray analysis"

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y patterning adj3 embryo

"A major role for zygotic hunchback in patterning the Nasonia embryo"

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab./freq=5

"Blood pressure, levels of serum lipids, liver enzymes and blood glucose by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and drinking habit in Japanese men"

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ rat$

"a high rate of use of heather and dry meadows"

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1

"Cardiovascular therapy in dogs and cats"

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n

"TORCH infection in women with bad obstetric history"

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r

"Color and antioxidant properties of cyanidin-based anthocyanin pigments"

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "Hot / Cold"

"The hot and cold paste of the starch-gellan gum mixture exhibited the highest viscosity values in the Brookfield viscometer"

"n" "3".vo

"2006. 3: 1, 13-17. 8 ref."

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.
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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.
Limit Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/ ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract.
Electronic Subset Code Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to cab abstracts plus
 

A limit by Electronic Subset Code will restrict retrieval to any of the full text offerings offered by CAB International. These limits are based on the Electronic Subset Code (SS) field as follows:

CAB Abstracts Plus  

based on presence of FF code in Electronic Subset Code (SS) field -
all available CAB Abstracts hosted full text

CAB Abstracts Full Text Select  

based on presence of FT code in Electronic Subset Code (SS) field

CAB Reviews  

based on presence of FR code in Electronic Subset Code (SS) field

CAB Reviews Archive   based on presence of FA code in Electronic Subset Code (SS) field
CAB Distribution Maps of Plant Pests  

based on presence of FV code in Electronic Subset Code (SS) field

CAB Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria   based on presence of FX code in Electronic Subset Code (SS) field
CAB Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases  

based on presence of FW code in Electronic Subset Code (SS) field

English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=english
 

A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles which are written in the English language.

Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Full Text
  A limit to Full Text will result in only those records that have links to full text. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.
Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to french
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=french
  A limit to Language will restrict retrieval to any of the languages indexed in CAB Abstracts.

If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetic list of languages from which to select.

Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Ovid Full Text Available
  A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available.
Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to patent
limit 1 to journal article
limit 1 to book chapter
 

A limit by Publication Type will restrict retrieval by any of the publication types indexed by CAB International, which are:

 Abstract only          Bulletin       Correspondence       Miscellaneous
Annual report   Bulletin article   Editorial   Patent
Annual report section   Conference   Journal   Standard
Book   Conference paper   Journal article   Thesis
Book chapter   Conference proceedings   Journal issue    

If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of publication types from which to select.

Note: Limiting to Journal will also find citations with a publication type of journal issue and journal article. Likewise, limiting to Conference will also find citations with a publication type of conference proceedings and conference paper.

Publication Years Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=1997
Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=97
  You can restrict retrieval to any of the years which this CAB Abstracts segment covers.

If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits: "1989" or a range: "1994-1995".

Latest Update Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to update
 

New documents are added to CAB Abstract every week. If you limit to Latest Update you will restrict retrieval to documents which were added to the database in the most recent database update.

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Tools
The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/caba
  Sentence Syntax: use caba
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number:	
	20113115614
Author:	
	Krogmann, L.; Mauss, V.; Schwenninger, H. R.
Institution:	
	Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Abteilung Entomologie, Rosenstein 1, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany.
E-mail Address:
	lars.krogmann@smns-bw.de
	volker.mauss@gmx.de
	h.u.k.schwenninger@t-online.de
Editor:
	Krogmann, L.; Mauss, V.; Schwenninger, H. R.
Meeting:
	Proceedings of the Hymenoptera Symposium held on 8-10 October 2010 in Stuttgart, Germany.
Title:
	Proceedings of the Hymenoptera Symposium held on 8-10 October 2010 in Stuttgart, Germany. [German]
Original Title:
	Beitrage der Hymenopterologen-Tagung in Stuttgart (8.-10.10.2010).
Source:
	Beitrage der Hymenopterologen-Tagung in Stuttgart (8.-10.10.2010); 2010. :46 pp. 
Publisher:
	Hans R. Schwenninger
Location of Publisher:
	Stuttgart
Country of Publication:
	Germany
CABICODES:
	Plant Pests [FF620]. Apiculture [LL010]. Biological Resources (Animal) [PP710]. Anatomy and Morphology (Wild Animals) 
   	[YY100]. Genetics and Molecular Genetics (Wild Animals) [YY300]. Pathogens, Parasites and Infectious Diseases (Wild Animals) 
   	[YY700]. Animal Ecology [ZZ332]. Molecular Biology and Molecular Genetics [ZZ360]. Taxonomy and Evolution [ZZ380].
Subject Headings:
	arthropod pests. conservation. entomopathogens. genetic diversity. genetic variation. geographical distribution. insect pests. 
    	molecular taxonomy. morphology. natural enemies. parasites. parasitoids. pathogens. pests. phylogenetics. plant pests. species 
    	diversity. taxonomy.
Organism Descriptors:
	Apidae. arthropods. Bombus. Coleoptera. Hymenoptera. insects.
Broad Terms:
	Hymenoptera. insects. Hexapoda. arthropods. invertebrates. animals. eukaryotes. Apidae.
Identifiers:
	genetic variability. genotypic variability. genotypic variation. pest arthropods. pest insects. systematics.
Language:
	German.
Publication Type:
	Conference proceedings.
Electronic Subset Code:
	7E, 7B, 0E, 0J, CA, PE, EC, PA, ZG, NA, ZS
Update Code:
	20110000
Year of Publication:
	2010
Copyright:
	copyright 2017 CAB International
Sample 2
Accession Number:
 	20001910021
Author:
  	Wakugami, K.; Loawhakasetr, P.
Institution:
  	Sekai Kyusei Kyo and Nature Farming Forum, Bangkok, Thailand.
Editor:
  	Senanayake, Y. D. A.; Sangakkara, U. R.
Meeting:
  	Fifth International Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming, Bangkok, Thailamd, 23-26 0ctober 1997.
Title:
  	Developments and prospect of EM technology in Thailand.    
Source:
  	Fifth International Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming, Bangkok, Thailamd, 23-26 0ctober 1997.; 1999. :45-48.  
Publisher:
  	Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya
Location of Publisher:
  	Peradeniya
Country of Publication:
  	Sri Lanka       
Abstract:
  	The technology of Effective Microorganisms was introduced into Thailand in 1980. Since its inception, the programme has gained 
 	momentum rapidly, through the offices of the Sekai Kyusei Kyo of Thailand. At present, EM is successfully used in orchard 
  	management, vegetable and livestock farming and in fish and prawn culture. It is also utilized in zoological gardens, garbage 
  	treatment and environmental protection. At present there are over 17 000 trained personnel who use EM. The people range from 
  	farmers, teachers to administrators. Thus, the Department of Agricultural Extension of the Ministry of Agriculture and 
  	Cooperatives, Royal Government of Thailand, together with key farmers trained in EM technology have established the Nature 
  	Farming of Thailand Forum. Its objectives are to promote the production and provide markets for EM based products, that are 
  	free of chemical pollutants. The technology of EM is widely used in Thailand, and the progress made is presented.
CABICODES:
 	Soil Biology [JJ100]. Plant Cropping Systems [FF150]. Aquaculture (Animals) [MM120].
Subject Headings:
  	aquaculture. aquatic animals. aquatic invertebrates. aquatic organisms. cooperatives. domestic animals. environmental 
    	protection. extension. farmers. farming. fish culture. gardens. livestock. livestock farming. markets. microorganisms. orchards. 
    	organic farming. personnel. pollutants. prawns. shellfish. shellfish culture. shrimp culture. wastes.
Organism Descriptors:
  	Decapoda.
Broad Terms:
  	Malacostraca. Crustacea. arthropods. invertebrates. animals. eukaryotes. APEC countries. Developed Countries. East Asia. Asia. 
    	OECD Countries. Japan. ASEAN Countries. Developing Countries. South East Asia.
Geographic Location:
  	Japan. Ryukyu Archipelago. Thailand.
Identifiers:
  	advisory services. aquatic species. eco-agriculture. ecological agriculture. employees. extension activities. fish farming. micro-
    	organisms. organic culture. pisciculture. shellfish farming. shellfish ranching. shrimp farming. shrimp ranching. staff.   
Language:
  	English.
Publication Type:
 	Conference paper.
Electronic Subset Code:
  	SO, CA, AG, PE, EC, ZC, ZG, 0S, ZS 
Update Code:
  	20000000
Year of Publication:
  	1999
Copyright:
  	copyright 2017 CAB International
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CABICODE List

The following is the complete list of CABICODES for the CAB ABSTRACTS and Global Health databases.

 

AA000 Agriculture (General)

AA500 Research

 

BB500 History and Biography

BB700 Palaeontology and Archaeology

 

CC000 Education, Extension, Information and Training (General)

CC100 Education and Training

CC200 Extension and Advisory Work

CC300 Information and Documentation

CC310 Documentation, (Discontinued March 2000)

CC400 Collections

CC700 Professions; Practice and Service

CC720 Veterinary Profession, (Discontinued March 2000)

CC740 Medical Profession, (Discontinued March 2000)

CC760 Farming as a Profession, (Discontinued March 2000)

CC780 Horticulture, Recreation and Amenity Professions, (Discontinued March 2000)

 

DD100 Agencies and Organizations

DD500 Laws and Regulations

 

EE000 Economics (General), (New June 2002)

EE100 Economics (General), (Discontinued March 2000)

EE110 Agricultural Economics

EE111 Horticultural Economics, (New March 2000)

EE112 Forestry Economics, (New March 2000)

EE113 Aquacultural and Fisheries Economics, (New March 2000)

EE115 Natural Resource Economics, (New March 2000)

EE116 Food Economics, (New March 2000)

EE117 Veterinary Economics, (New March 2000)

EE118 Health Economics, (New March 2000)

EE119 Leisure, Recreation and Tourism Economics, (New March 2000)

EE120 Policy and Planning

EE125 Aid, (New March 2000)

EE130 Supply, Demand and Prices

EE140 Input Supply Industries (Macroeconomics)

EE145 Input Utilization (Microeconomics)

EE150 Environmental Economics, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE160 Land Use and Valuation, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE165 Structure, Ownership and Tenure

EE170 Water Resources, Irrigation and Drainage Economics, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE200 Farming Systems and Management, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE300 Cooperatives, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE350 Rural Industry and Enterprises

EE450 Development Aid, Agencies and Projects, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE500 Food Policy, Food Security and Food Aid, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE520 Food Industry, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE600 International Trade

EE700 Marketing and Distribution

EE720 Consumer Economics

EE730 Transport, (Discontinued March 2000)

EE800 Investment, Finance and Credit

EE900 Labour and Employment

EE950 Income and Poverty

 

FF000 Plant Science (General)

FF003 Horticultural Crops, (New March 2000)

FF005 Field Crops, (New March 2000)

FF007 Forage and Fodder Crops, (New March 2000)

FF020 Plant Breeding and Genetics

FF030 Plant Morphology and Structure

FF040 Plant Composition

FF060 Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

FF061 Plant Nutrition

FF062 Plant Water Relations

FF100 Plant Production

FF150 Plant Cropping Systems

FF160 Plant Propagation

FF170 in vitro Culture of Plant Material

FF400 Mycorrhizas and Fungi of Economic Importance; Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation, (Discontinued March 2000)

FF500 Weeds and Noxious Plants

FF600 Pests, Pathogens and Biogenic Diseases of Plants, (Discontinued March 2000)

FF610 Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Diseases of Plants, (New March 2000)

FF620 Plant Pests, (New March 2000)

FF700 Plant Disorders and Injuries (Not caused directly by Organisms)

FF800 Plant Toxicology

FF900 Environmental Tolerance of Plants

 

HH000 Pathogen, Pest, Parasite and Weed Management (General)

HH100 Biological Control

HH200 Environmental Pest Management

HH300 Integrated Pest Management

HH400 Pesticides and Drugs (General)

HH405 Pesticides and Drugs; Control, (New March 2000)

HH410 Pesticide and Drug Resistance

HH420 Pesticides and Drugs; Chemistry and Formulation, (New March 2000)

HH430 Pesticide and Drug Residues and Ecotoxicology, (New March 2000)

HH500 Repellents and Attractants

HH600 Host Resistance and Immunity

HH700 Other Control Measures

 

JJ000 Soil Science (General)

JJ100 Soil Biology

JJ200 Soil Chemistry and Mineralogy

JJ300 Soil Physics

JJ400 Soil Morphology, Formation and Classification

JJ500 Soil Surveys and Land Evaluation

JJ600 Soil Fertility

JJ700 Fertilizers and other Amendments

JJ800 Soil Water Management (Irrigation and Drainage), (Revised June 2002)

JJ900 Soil Management

 

KK000 Forestry, Forest Products and Agroforestry (General)

KK100 Forests and Forest Trees (Biology and Ecology)

KK110 Silviculture and Forest Management

KK120 Forest Mensuration and Management, (Discontinued March 2000)

KK130 Forest Fires

KK140 Protection Forestry, (Discontinued March 2000)

KK150 Other Land Use, (Discontinued March 2000)

KK160 Ornamental and Amenity Trees

KK500 Forest Products and Industries (General)

KK510 Wood Properties, Damage and Preservation

KK515 Logging and Wood Processing

KK520 Wood Utilization and Engineered Wood Products

KK530 Chemical and Biological Processing of Wood

KK540 Non-wood Forest Products

KK600 Agroforestry and Multipurpose Trees: Community, Farm and Social Forestry

 

LL000 Animal Science (General)

LL001 Unallocated Animal Science Records (Discontinued 1995)

LL010 Apiculture

LL020 Sericulture

LL030 Other Invertebrate Culture (Not Aquaculture)

LL040 Laboratory Animal Science

LL050 Game Animals

LL060 Draught Animals

LL070 Pets and Companion Animals

LL075 Sport Animals, (New March 2000)

LL080 Zoo Animals

LL100 Animal Husbandry (General), (Discontinued March 2000)

LL110 Dairy Animals

LL120 Meat Producing Animals

LL130 Egg Producing Animals

LL140 Animal Husbandry (Wool and Other Fibres), (Discontinued March 2000)

LL145 Wool Producing Animals, (New March 2000)

LL148 Fur-bearing Animals, (New March 2000)

LL150 Animal Husbandry (Other Products), (Discontinued March 2000)

LL180 Animal Husbandry and Production, (New March 2000)

LL190 Animal Slaughter

LL200 Animal Breeding and Genetics, (Discontinued March 2000)

LL210 Animal Reproduction and Development, (Discontinued March 2000)

LL220 Animal Genetics, (Discontinued March 2000)

LL240 Animal Genetics and Breeding, (New March 2000)

LL250 Animal Reproduction and Embryology, (New March 2000)

LL300 Animal Behaviour

LL400 Animal Anatomy and Morphology, (New March 2000)

LL500 Animal Nutrition (General)

LL510 Animal Nutrition (Physiology)

LL520 Animal Nutrition (Production Responses)

LL600 Animal Physiology and Biochemistry (Excluding Nutrition)

LL650 Animal Immunology, (New March 2000)

LL700 Animal Tissue and Cell Culture

LL800 Animal Health and Hygiene (General)

LL810 Animal Welfare

LL820 Parasites, Vectors, Pathogens and Biogenic Diseases of Animals, (Discontinued March 2000)

LL821 Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Animals, (New March 2000)

LL822 Protozoan, Helminth, Mollusc and Arthropod Parasites of Animals, (New March 2000)

LL823 Veterinary Pests, Vectors and Intermediate Hosts, (New March 2000)

LL860 Non-communicable Diseases and Injuries of Animals

LL870 Animal Injuries, (Discontinued March 2000)

LL880 Animal Treatment and Diagnosis (Non-Drug), (Discontinued March 2000)

LL882 Veterinary Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology, (New March 2000)

LL884 Animal Surgery and Non-drug Therapy, (New March 2000)

LL886 Diagnosis of Animal Diseases, (New March 2000)

LL900 Animal Toxicology, Poisoning and Pharmacology, (Discontinued March 2000)

LL950 Toxicology and Poisoning of Animals, (New March 2000)

 

MM000 Aquatic Sciences (General)

MM110 Fisheries

MM120 Aquaculture (Animals)

MM130 Aquaculture (Plants)

MM300 Aquatic Biology and Ecology

 

NN000 Engineering and Equipment (General)

NN050 Automation and Control

NN100 Ergonomics and Safety, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN200 Farm Vehicles as Power Sources, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN300 Farm and Horticultural Structures

NN310 Environmental Control in Structures, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN400 Agricultural and Forestry Equipment (General)

NN410 Aquacultural Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN420 Fertilizer Application Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN430 Pest and Weed Control Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN440 Irrigation and Drainage Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN450 Soil Cultivation and Handling Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN451 Crop Sowing and Planting Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN452 Crop Tending Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN453 Crop Harvesting Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN460 Cleaning, Grading, Handling, Storage and Transport Equipment

NN461 Food and Feed Packaging Technology and, Equipment(Discontinued March 2000)

NN470 Drying Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN480 Animal Feeding and Watering Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN490 Milking and Dairy Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN500 Storage Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN600 Processing Equipment and Technology

NN700 Waste Handling and Treatment Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN800 Cooling and Refrigeration Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

NN900 Other Equipment, (Discontinued March 2000)

 

PP000 Natural Resources (General)

PP100 Energy

PP200 Water Resources

PP210 Freshwater and Brackish Water, (Discontinued March 2000)

PP220 Saltwater, (Discontinued March 2000)

PP300 Land Resources

PP320 Wetlands

PP350 Grasslands and Rangelands

PP400 Erosion: Soil and Water Conservation

PP500 Meteorology and Climate

PP600 Pollution and Degradation

PP700 Biological Resources (General)

PP710 Biological Resources (Animal)

PP720 Biological Resources (Plant)

PP800 Natural Disasters

 

QQ000 Food Science and Food Products (Human)

QQ010 Milk and Dairy Produce

QQ020 Sugar and Sugar Products

QQ030 Meat Produce

QQ040 Eggs and Egg Products

QQ050 Crop Produce

QQ060 Aquatic Produce

QQ070 Other Produce

QQ100 Food Processing (General)

QQ110 Food Storage and Preservation

QQ111 Storage Problems and Pests of Food

QQ120 Microbial Technology in Food Processing

QQ130 Food Additives

QQ200 Food Contamination, Residues and Toxicology

QQ500 Food Composition and Quality

QQ600 Food Chemistry, (New June 2002)

QQ700 Food Service, (New June 2002)

 

RR000 Forage and Feed Products (Non-human)

RR100 Forage and Feed Processing

RR110 Feed Storage and Preservation, (Discontinued March 2000)

RR111 Biodeterioration, Storage Problems and Pests of Feed, (Discontinued March 2000)

RR120 Microbiology of Feed Processing, (Discontinued March 2000)

RR130 Feed Additives

RR200 Feed Contamination, Residues and Toxicology

RR300 Feed Composition and Quality

 

SS000 Non-food/Non-feed Agricultural Products (General)

SS100 Non-food/Non-feed Animal Products

SS110 Biodeterioration, Storage Problems and Pests of Animal Products, (Discontinued March 2000)

SS120 Residues and Contamination of Animal Products, (Discontinued March 2000)

SS130 Composition and Quality of Animal Products, (Discontinued March 2000)

SS200 Non-food/Non-feed Plant Products

SS210 Storage Problems and Pests of Non-food/Non-feed Plant Products

SS220 Residues and Contamination of Plant Products, (Discontinued March 2000)

SS230 Composition and Quality of Non-food/Non-feed Plant Products

SS300 Biodeterioration

SS310 Biodeterioration (Non-biological Products), (Discontinued March 2000)

SS320 Biodeterioration Organisms, (Discontinued March 2000)

 

TT100 Medical and Veterinary Helminthology Records (Discontinued 1995)

TT200 Medical and Veterinary Protozoology Records (Discontinued 1995)

TT300 Medical and Veterinary Entomology Records (Discontinued 1995)

 

UU000 Social Sciences (General)

UU100 Housing and Settlement

UU150 Urban Regeneration, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU200 Demography

UU250 Human Fertility, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU300 Public Services and Infrastructure

UU350 Health Services

UU360 Communication and Mass Media

UU450 Community Participation and Development, (New March 2000)

UU460 Community Development, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU470 Participation and Self Help, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU480 Social Structure, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU485 Social Psychology and Social Anthropology, (New March 2000)

UU490 Social Psychology and Culture, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU495 Conflict, (New March 2000)

UU500 Women

UU600 Leisure

UU610 Recreational Facilities and Management, (New March 2000)

UU620 Recreation and Sport, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU625 Sport and Recreational Activities, (New March 2000)

UU630 Arts, Entertainment and Cultural Heritage

UU640 Pastimes and Social Life, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU670 Gardening, Landscaping and Landscapes, (Discontinued March 2000)

UU700 Tourism and Travel

UU800 Rural Sociology, (New March 2000)

UU850 Rural Development, (New March 2000)

 

VV000 Human Health and Biology (General), (Revised June 2002)

VV050 Human Physiology and Biochemistry

VV055 Human Immunology and Allergology, (New March 2000)

VV060 Human Reproduction and Development

VV065 Human Sexual and Reproductive Health, (New March 2000)

VV080 Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, (New June 2002)

VV100 Human Nutrition (General)

VV110 Diet Studies

VV120 Physiology of Human Nutrition

VV130 Nutrition related Disorders and Therapeutic Nutrition

VV140 Animal Models of Human Nutrition

VV200 Parasites, Vectors, Pathogens and Biogenic Diseases of Humans, (Discontinued March 2000)

VV210 Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Humans, (New March 2000)

VV220 Protozoan, Helminth and Arthropod Parasites of Humans, (New March 2000)

VV230 Public Health Pests, Vectors and Intermediate Hosts, (New March 2000)

VV300 Public Health and Nuisance Pests, (Discontinued March 2000)

VV400 Animal Models of Human Diseases, (New March 2000)

VV450 Animal and in vitro Models for Pharmaceuticals, (New March 2000)

VV500 Human Health and the Environment

VV550 Rural Health, (New March 2000)

VV600 Non-communicable Human Diseases and Injuries

VV610 Human Injuries, (Discontinued March 2000)

VV700 Human Treatment and Diagnosis (Non-Drug), (Discontinued March 2000)

VV710 Non-drug Therapy and Prophylaxis of Humans, (New March 2000)

VV720 Diagnosis of Human Disease, (New March 2000)

VV730 Pharmacology, (New March 2000)

VV800 Human Toxicology, Poisoning and Pharmacology, (Discontinued March 2000)

VV810 Human Toxicology and Poisoning, (New March 2000)

VV820 Toxinology, (New March 2000)

VV900 Occupational Health and Safety

WW000 Biotechnology (General), (Revised June 2002)

WW100 Genetic Engineering, Gene Transfer and Transgenics, (New June 2002)

WW300 Cell, Tissue and Embryo Manipulation, (New June 2002)

WW500 Fermentation Technology and Industrial Microbiology, (New June 2002)

WW700 Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Pharmacological Biotechnology, (New June 2002)

WW900 Biosensors and Biological Nanotechnology, (New June 2002)

 

XX000 Wastes (General)

XX100 Animal Wastes

XX200 Plant Wastes

XX300 Human Wastes and Refuse

XX400 Industrial Wastes and Effluents

XX500 Radioactive Wastes, (Discontinued March 2000)

XX600 Waste Conversion and Utilization, (Discontinued March 2000)

XX700 Biodegradation

 

YY000 Zoology of Wild Animals (Vertebrates and Invertebrates) (General), (New March 2000)

YY100 Anatomy and Morphology (Wild Animals), (New March 2000)

YY200 Reproduction, Development and Life Cycle (Wild Animals), (New March 2000)

YY300 Genetics and Molecular Genetics (Wild Animals), (New March 2000)

YY400 Physiology and Biochemistry (Wild Animals), (New March 2000)

YY500 Behaviour (Wild Animals), (New March 2000)

YY700 Pathogens, Parasites and Infectious Diseases (Wild Animals), (New March 2000)

YY800 Other Wildlife Diseases, (New March 2000)

YY900 Toxicology and Poisoning (Wild Animals), (New March 2000)

 

ZZ000 Other Sciences

ZZ100 Mathematics and Statistics

ZZ200 Materials Science

ZZ300 Life Sciences (General)

ZZ310 Anatomy, Morphology and Structure (General), (Discontinued March 2000)

ZZ320 General Biology, (Discontinued March 2000)

ZZ330 Ecology (General)

ZZ331 Plant Ecology

ZZ332 Animal Ecology

ZZ333 Microbial Ecology, (New March 2000)

ZZ340 General Physiology, (Discontinued March 2000)

ZZ350 General Biochemistry, (Discontinued March 2000)

ZZ360 Molecular Biology and Molecular Genetics, (Discontinued March 2000, Reinstated and Revised June 2002)

ZZ370 Genetics (General and Theoretical), (Discontinued March 2000)

ZZ380 Taxonomy and Evolution

ZZ390 Microbiology (General)

ZZ392 Morphology of Microorganisms, (New March 2000)

ZZ394 Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, (New March 2000)

ZZ395 Genetics and Molecular Biology of Microorganisms, (New March 2000)

ZZ396 Microbial Life Cycles, (New March 2000)

ZZ400 Environmental Sciences (General), (Discontinued March 2000)

ZZ500 Physical Sciences (General)

ZZ600 Chemistry, (Discontinued March 2000)

ZZ700 Forensic Science

ZZ800 Geology and Geomorphology (General)

ZZ900 Techniques and Methodology

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