AGRICOLA Database Guide

Produced by the National Agricultural Library, AGRICOLA contains bibliographic records of materials acquired by the National Agricultural Library and cooperating institutions in agricultural and related sciences. Records come from the NAL Online Public Access Catalog and NAL’s Article Citation Database. The catalog provides citations to books, audiovisual materials and serials. The article database provides citations to journal articles, book chapters, reports and reprints.

Coverage includes: agricultural administration, laws and regulations, economics, education, training and extension, engineering and products; animal science; aquatic sciences; chemistry; energy as related to agriculture; entomology; feed science; food science and food products; forestry; general agriculture; geography, meteriology, climatology and history; home economics and human ecology; human nutrition; institutional food service; life sciences; natural resources management and environmental pollution; pesticides; plant diseases; plant science and production; rural sociology; soil science; veterinary medicine.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
AGRA   1970 - Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 6 segments.

This database is updated online monthly.


The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) Identifier (ID) Physical Description (PD)
  Acquisition Information (AI) Institution (IN) Place of Publication (PP)
  Accession Number (AN) ISBN (IB) Publication Type (PT)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) ISSN (IS) Publisher (PB)
  Author (AU) Issue / Part (IP) Publisher Number (PN)
  Author NameID (AO) Journal Name (JN) Report Number (RN)
  Book Title (BT) Journal Word (JW) Series Information (SE)
  Coden (CD) Language (LG) Source (SO)
  Corporate Author (CA) Latest Revision (LR) Subject Heading (SH)
  Date of Publication (DP) Map Information (MX) SUDOC Number (SN)
  Descriptor (DE) Meeting Information (MI) Summary Language (SL)
  Edition (ED) NAL Location (AL) Target Audience (TA)
  Electronic Location (EL) Note (NT) Title (TI)
  Geographic Area (GC) Original Title (OT) Update Code (UP)
  GPO Item Number (GN) Pagination (PG) Volume (VO)
  Heading Word (HW) Personal Name as Subject (PS) Year of Publication (YR)
  Holding Institution (HL)    
Go: Table of Contents or Back 
Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: mi,ti,ot,mx,nt,ab,hw.
  Abstract (AB) Meeting Information (MI) Original Title (OT)
  Heading Word (HW) Note (NT) Title (TI)
  Map Information (MX)    
Go: Table of Contents or Back 

Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Identifier (ID) Place of Publication (PP)
  Acquisition Information (AI) ISBN (IB) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) ISSN (IS) Publisher Number (PN)
  Author (AU) Language (LG) Report Number (RN)
  Author NameID (AO) Local Messages (LM) Source (SO)
  Book Title (BT) NAL Location (AL) Subject Heading (SH)
  Coden (CD) Map Information (MX) SUDOC Number (SN)
  Corporate Author (CA) Meeting Information (MI) Summary Language (SL)

Descriptor (DE)

Note (NT) Target Audience (TA)
  Electronic Location (EL) Original Title (OT) Title (TI)
  Geographic Area (GC) Personal Name as Subject (PS) Update Code (UP)
  GPO Item Number (GN) Physical Description (PD) Year of Publication (YR)
Go: Table of Contents or Back 

All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Identifier (ID) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) Map Information (MX) Source (SO)
  Author (AU) Meeting Information (MI) Subject Heading (SH)
  Corporate Author (CA) Note (NT) Title (TI)
  Descriptor (DE) Original Title (OT) Update Code (UP)
  Electronic Location (EL) Personal Name as Subject (PS)  
Go: Table of Contents or Back 
Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Book Title (BT) Pagination (PG) Series Information (SE)
  Issue / Part (IP) Place of Publication (PP) Volume (VO)
  Journal Name (JN) Publisher (PB)  
Go: Menu or Back 
The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
dietary fiber.ab.
soil conservation.ab.
  The Abstract (AB) field contains the full text of the abstract. For records other than those describing journal articles and book chapters, this field may also contain a summary, annotation, review, or short description of the material.

All Searchable Fields

  All Searchable Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Headings (SH).
AI Acquisition Information [Word Index]
dept of
  The Acquisition Information (AI) field contains acquisition information for the item described or its reproduction. Stock numbers may be included.

NAL Location [Phrase Indexed]

  The NAL Location (AL) field contains either a National Agricultural Library (NAL) call number or an NAL classification number.

Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]

  The Accession Number (AN) contains a unique 11 character alphanumeric identifier assigned by the National Agricultural Library.

Author NameID [Word Indexed]

  The Author NameID (AO) field contains author's full name and its Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) unique identifier that may be supplied by the publisher for records added or updated beginning in May 2023.
AU Author [Phrase Indexed]
  The Author (AU) field contains one or more authors. The author's last name is followed by either initials or given names. You may search an author's name by entering the last name followed by the first initial, if known. Use truncation to find variations in author names.

Book Title [Word Indexed]

  The Book Title (BT) field includes the title of the book containing the chapter that has been individually indexed.

Corporate Author [Word Indexed]
international potato
world health


The Corporate Author (CA) field contains corporate names and may also include departments and sub-departments.

The information is taken from the source document and is not standardized. Enter the single most descriptive word in a corporate name, for example, "harvard" rather than "university". Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

CD Coden [Phrase Indexed]
  The Coden (CD) field contains a five or six character unique identifier for scientific and technical periodical titles.

Descriptor [Phrase Indexed]

  The Descriptors (DE) field contains controlled vocabulary terms that are not from the National Agricultural Library Agricultural Thesaurus. See the Subject Heading (SH) field for terms from the National Agricultural Library Agricultural Thesaurus. See the Personal Name as Subject (PS) field for a person who is the subject of a work.

Date of Publication [Display Only]

  The Date of Publication (DP) field consists of the date of publication for an article or chapter. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Edition [Word Indexed]

  The Edition (ED) field contains information relating to the edition of a work. Edition information displays as part of the Title (TI) field.

Electronic Location [Word Indexed]
gpo gov.el.

  The Electronic Location (EL) field contains the information required to locate an electronic item. Elements of the electronic location are individually indexed. For example, you may search for individual elements of an internet domain.

Geographic Area [Phrase Indexed]

  The Geographic Area (GC) field includes countries, individual states or provinces, and geographic regions when appropriate. Consider both the country and its principle sovereign entities when searching.

GPO Item Number [Phrase Indexed]

  The GPO Item Number (GN) field contains an item number assigned by the Government Printing Office (GPO). The item number is used to manage the distribution of publications to libraries within the GPO's Depository Library System.

Holding Institution [Word Indexed]


The Holding Institution (HL) field contains the USMARC code of the institution reporting that it holds the item. For your institution's local holdings, consider the Local Messages (LM), and Locally Held (LH) fields.


Heading Word [Word Indexed]
lactic acid.hw.

  The Heading Word (HW) field includes words from the Subject Heading (SH), Identifier (ID), Personal Name as Subject (PS), and Geographic Area (GC) fields. You may enter both words and phrases when searching this field.

ISBN [Phrase Indexed]

  The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number.

Identifier [Phrase Indexed]

  The Identifier (ID) field contains headings not derived from a controlled subject heading system or thesaurus. Consider this field as a supplement to both Subject Heading (SH) and free-text fields, such as Title (TI) and Abstract (AB).

Institution [Word Indexed]

  The Institution (IN) field contains all author's affiliations and address.

Issue / Part [Word Index]

The Issue / Part (IP) field contains the issue, supplement, or part number.

ISSN [Phrase Indexed]

  The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number. It appears as an 8-digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793. Use a hyphen or space when searching.

Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
american bee journal.jn.
nucleic acids research.jn.

  The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full Journal Name used in AGRICOLA. The Journal Name displays in the Source (SO) field.

Journal Word [Word Indexed]
poultry research.jw.

  The Journal Word (JW) field contains words from the Journal Name. You may use both words and phrases to search this field. The JW index is not available on the Microsoft Windows NT platform.

Language [Phrase Indexed]

  The Language (LG) field contains the language or languages included in a work.

Latest Revision [Phrase Indexed]

The Latest Revision (LR) field indicates the year, month, and day a record was revised by the National Agricultural Library. The Latest Revision displays in the Update Code (UP) field.

Meeting Information [Word Indexed]
european isko conference.mi.
milwaukee, wis.mi.

  The Meeting Information (MI) field contains information for a meeting or conference citation. Included is the conference name, place, and date.

Map Information [Word Indexed]

  The Map Information (MX) field contains mathematical data associated with cartographic material, including a statement of scale, statement of projection, and a statement of bounding coordinates. The coordinates can represent a bounding rectangle, the outline of the area covered, or the outline of an interior area not covered. For celestial charts, it may also contain a statement of zone, declination data, ascension data, and equinox.

Note [Word Indexed]
includes bibliographical references.nt.
summary in spanish.nt.

  The Note (NT) field contains additional information which may be helpful identifying a work or its content.

Original Title [Word Indexed]
bovins laitiers.ot.

  The Original Title (OT) field contains the title in its original language.

Publisher [Word Indexed]

  The Publisher (PB) field contains the publisher for books and serials.

Physical Description [Word Indexed]
in box.pd.
instruction booklet.pd.

  The Physical Description (PD) field contains the physical description of the item which consists of its extent, dimensions, and other physical details, including information concerning accompanying material. It displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Pagination [Phrase Indexed]

  The Pagination (PG) field displays the full pagination of the article or chapter. It displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Publisher Number [Word Index]

  The Publisher Number (PN) field contains publishers' numbers and names used for sound recordings, printed music, and video recordings.

Place of Publication [Phrase Indexed]

  The Place of Publication (PP) field includes both countries and individual states or provinces when appropriate. Consider both the country and its principle sovereign entities when searching.

Personal Name as Subject [Phrase Indexed]
losee c$.ps.


The Personal Name as Subject (PS) field contains the subject heading when it contains the name of a person who is the subject of a work. Generally, the full name is included. You may also find dates and information specifically relating to the type of information included in the work. It is wise to use truncation when searching this field eg. Pailing, Linus$.ps.


Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]

  The Publication Type (PT) field contains both the type of work as well as the content of a work.

Report Number [Word Indexed]
(a or epa530).rn.

  The Report Number (RN) field contains the report number assigned by a specific agency or institution.

Series Information [Word Indexed]
99th congress, 1st

  The Series Information (SE) field contains information gleaned from a variety of series statements. It displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Subject Heading [Phrase Indexed]

  The Subject Heading (SH) field contains terms from the National Agricultural Library Agricultural Thesaurus. See the Descriptors (DE) field for controlled vocabulary terms from other thesauri and the Personal Name as Subject (PS) field for a person who is the subject of a work

Summary Language [Phrase Indexed]

  The Summary Language (SL) field contains the language or languages of abstracts or summaries included in a work.

SUDOC Number [Word Indexed]

  The SUDOC Number (SN) field contains the classification number assigned to a government document by a government agency at any level, that is, state, national or international.

journal of food

  The Source (SO) field includes the Journal Name (JN), Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue (IP), and Pagination (PG) for journal articles; Book Title (BT) for book chapters, Place of Publication (PP), Publisher (PB), Series Information (SE) and Date of Publication (DP) for books and book chapters; and Place of Publication (PP) and Publisher (PB) for serials.

Target Audience [Phrase Indexed]

  The Target Audience (TA) field contains the target level for which a work is intended. Levels include Preschool, Primary, Elementary or junior high, Secondary or senior high, Adult, Specialized, General, and Juvenile.

Title [Word Indexed]
pale bird syndrome.ti.

  The Title (TI) field contains the title of a journal article, book chapter, book or serial and also information from the Edition (ED) field if available. In records for book chapters, the Book Title (BT) field will display in the Source (SO) field.

Update Code [Phrase Indexed]


The Update Code (UP) field contains the four-digit numeric code indicating the year (Y) and month (M) of the update in the format YYYYMM. Latest Revision by the producer also appears here in the format YYYYMMDD.


Volume [Word Indexed]

  The Volume (VO) field contains the volume number or designation of a work. Volume information is displayed in the Source (SO) field.

Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]

  The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which a work is reported to be published.
Go: Menu or Back 


Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax listed below to combine search terms or strategically develop a search. Full documentation is provided in the Advanced Searching Techniques section of the Online Help.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y influenza or h5n1 "H9N2 influenza A virus infection in chickens"


The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search vitamin c or ascorbic acid retrieves results that contain the terms vitamin c, ascorbic acid or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y influenza and h5n1 "potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus"


The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search learning and nutrition retrieves results that contain the term learning and the term nutrition together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y influenza not h5n1 "1999-2000 avian influenza epidemic"


The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search education not primary retrieves only those records that contain the term education but excludes the term primary. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y avian influenza "Vaccination of chickens against H5N1 avian influenza"


The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y influenza adj3 africa "avian influenza A virus in wild waterfowl in South Africa"


The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n poultry.ab. /freq=3 "total PCBs in poultry fat tissue was not influenced by the type of poultry"


The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase. For instance, blood.ab./freq=5, will retrieve records containing the word "blood," at least five times in the Abstract (ab) field.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ rat$ "interstitial fibrosis of rats induced by cisplatin"


Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or * (asterisk). For example, in the truncated search rat*, Ovid retrieves the word rat as well as the words rats, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1 "Epilepsy afflicts 1% of humans and 5% of dogs"


Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n "women with a high dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds"


Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r "Feather Color in a Migratory Songbird"


The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "Heat / Cold Application"

"color analyses of hot and cold break tomato juices"

"n" "3".vo

"Vadose zone journal VZJ. 2004 Aug. 3(3)"


Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

Go: Menu or Back 


The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

Go: Menu or Back 


The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.


Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/ ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract. Over 50% of the DatabaseName records after 1975 contain abstracts. All abstracts included in the DatabaseName are in English and were written by the author(s) of the original article.
Books Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to books
  A limit to Book restricts retrieval to books and manuscripts as well as other monographic items, such as computer files.
Book Chapters Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to book chapter
  A limit to Book Chapter restricts retrieval to book chapter records.
English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=en
  A limit to English Language restricts retrieval to works written primarily in English.
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text
  A limit to Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.
Government Publication Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to international
limit 1 to federal <national>
Command Syntax: .l/1 up=y
  You may limit retrieval to one or more types of government publications, including autonomous or semi-autonomous, federal or national, international, local, multistate, and state or provincial.
Journal Article Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to journal articles
  A limit to Journal Articles will restrict retrieval to documents which are indexed from journals. Use this limit to eliminate the retrieval of any of the other available Publication Types.
Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to czech
  You may limit retrieval to one or more languages. The languages listed in this limit retrieve over 90 per cent of the records in AGRICOLA. However, there are many more available and may be searched by either language or three-letter MARC code in the Language(LG) index.
Latest Update Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to latest update
Command Syntax: ..1/ xx=y
  A limit to latest update restricts retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.
Literature Reviews Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "literature review"
  A limit to Literature Reviews restricts retrieval to books containing literature surveys and reviews and to those journal article and book chapter records indexed from 1985 to present as literature reviews, literature surveys or reviews.
Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
  A limit to Local Holdings restricts retrieval to documents from journals held in your local library or library system.
Nature of Contents Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to handbooks
limit 1 to filmographies
  You may limit retrieval to one or more types of contents.
Ovid Full Text Available: Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ovid full text available
  A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available.
Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to journal article
limit 1 to government publication
imit 1 to literature review
  You may limit retrieval to one or more Publication Types.
Publication Year Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=1996
Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=1996
  A limit to Publication Year restricts retrieval to any of the publication years covered in the AGRICOLA database. If you choose this option you will be promoted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits: "1989" or a range: "1994-1995".
Target Audience Sentence Syntax: llimit 1 to adult
limit 1 to primary
  You may limit retrieval to a specific audience.
Go: Menu or Back 


The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
Go: Menu or Back 


Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/agra
  Sentence Syntax: use agra

Click on this link to see other Advanced Search Techniques

Go: Menu or Back 


Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number
  Quereda, J. J.; Herrero-Medrano, J. M. ; Abellaneda, J. M.; Garcia-Nicolas, O. ; Martinez-Alarcon, L. ; Pallares, F. J. ; Ramirez, P. ; Munoz, A. ; Ramis, G.
 Quereda, J. J.: Departamento de Produccion Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain Departamento de Anatomia y Anatomia Patologica Comparadas, Facultad de
  Veterinaria, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain Servicio de Cirugia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Servicio Murciano de Salud, Murcia, Spain
  Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus Copy Number in Different Pig Breeds is not Related to Genetic Diversity
 Zoonoses and public health. 2012 Sept. 59(6) p. 401-407.
  The risk of zoonoses is a major obstacle to xenotransplantation. Porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) poses a potential risk of zoonotic infection, and its control is a prerequisite 
  for the  development of clinical xenotransplantation. The copy number of PERV varies among different breeds, and it has been suggested that the PERV integrations number is increased 
  by inbreeding. The purpose of this study was (i) to examine the copy number of PERV in different Spanish pig breeds, Spanish wild boar and commercial cross-bred pigs from five different 
  farms and genetic background (CCP1-CCP5) and (ii) to investigate the correlation between PERV copy number and the genetic background of the pigs in order to improve the selection of pigs 
  for xenotransplantation. PERV copy number was determined by quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reactions. Thirty-four microsatellite markers were genotyped to describe the genetic 
  diversity within populations (observed and expected heterozygosities, Ho and He, respectively) and the inbreeding coefficient (F). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine 
  the relationship between PERV copy number and Ho, He and F. The copy number of PERV among different pig breeds was estimated to range between three (CCP1) and 43 copies 
  (Iberian Pig). Statistical differences were found among the studied populations concerning PERV copy number. No correlation was found between the PERV copy number and the 
  heterozygosity (calculated at an individual level or at a population level) or the inbreeding coefficient of each population. Our data suggest that pigs inbreeding does not 
  increase PERV copy number and support the idea that careful selection of pigs for organ donation with reduced PERV copy number will minimize the risk of retrovirus transmission to 
  the human receptor.
Subject Headings:
  correlation. farms. genetic background. genetic variation. heterozygosity. humans. inbreeding. inbreeding coefficient. microsatellite repeats. polymerase chain reaction. 
  receptors. risk. swine. swine breeds. wild boars. xenotransplantation. zoonoses.
Publication Type:
  Journal Article. Government Publication.
Electronic Location: 
Update Code: 202100.
Sample 2
Accession Number
  Nono, Y.J. Reynes, M. Zakhia, N. Raoult-Wack, A.L. Giroux, F.
  Fine-tuning a combined process of dehydration-impregnation by
  immersion and drying of bananas (Musa acuminata group Cavendish).
Original Title
  Mise au point d'un procede combine de deshydratation impregnation par
  immersion et sechage de bananes (Musa acuminata groupe Cavendish).
  Journal of food engineering. 2002 Dec. v. 55 (3) p. 231-236.
  Includes references Summary in English.
  Banana (Musa acuminata group Cavendish) treatment by the combined
  process of dewatering-impregnation soaking process (DISP) and drying
  was studied in the present work. Experiments were carried out in a
  laterally agitated vat. Bananas were cut into slices of 10 mm thickness
  before soaking and drying. A method of banana treatment was determined
  and consisted of soaking products in two successive sucrose baths with
  respective concentrations of 35degreesBrix and 70degreesBrix, acidified
  at 3.5 pH with ascorbic acid. The first bath, which contained 1% calcium
  chloride to ensure the firmness of the fruit, served also in blanching
  the fruit. This consisted of soaking the fruit in the solution initially
  heated at 85degreesC and leaving them to dehydrate while cooling slowly
  to room temperature over a period of 24 h. The mass ratio of fruit to
  solution for this bath was 1:6. Dehydration in the second bath at
  70degreesBrix was conducted with a fruit to solution ratio of 1:4 and at
  room temperature, for economic reasons and for the quality of final
  product. This second treatment was doubly important: there was an
  increase in the sugar content of the fruit and further water loss
  maintaining the banana slice shape during the final drying. It also
  conferred on final product a good mouth-texture (the final product was
  softer), a pleasant sweet taste and spread the banana aroma more widely.
  Treatment in two successive baths led to a weight reduction of 60.2% and
  a solute gain of 2%. Bananas then underwent a moderate drying at
  40degreesC for 72 h with an air relative humidity of less than 60%. The
  water content of the final product was 16.5% and its average water
  activity was 0.54 +/- 0.02 at 25degreesC. The final product had an
  attractive colour and did not show any brown pigmentation.
Subject Heading
  bananas. air drying. soaking. dewatering. food processing. brix.
  sugar content. drying quality. sensory properties. moisture content.
  water activity. texture. color.
Publication Type
  Journal Article.
Language French Summary Language English. NAL Location TP368.J68. Update Code 200501 Revision: 040325.
Go: Menu or Back 


Producer Information
National Agricultural Library
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Information Systems Division
10301 Baltimore Ave.
Beltsville, MD 20705
Phone: 301-504-5755
Fax: 301-504-7042

Compiled and distributed by the National Agriculture Library of the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America. It contains copyrighted material. All rights reserved. 2006.

Go: Menu or Back