PsycINFO® (PSYC) Database Guide
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Database guide last
updated June 04, 2019

PsycINFO® is an electronic bibliographic database providing abstracts and citations to the scholarly literature in the psychological, social, behavioral, and health sciences.  The database includes material of relevance to psychologists and professionals in related fields such as psychiatry, management, business, education, social science, neuroscience, law, medicine, and social work. Updated weekly, PsycINFO® provides access to journal articles, books, chapters, and dissertations.

For current information including the number of records in the database, the languages/countries represented, etc., please view the PsycINFO® Fact Sheet.  About 99% of the journals in the database are peer-reviewed, dating from the early 1800s to the present. For a complete list of the journals covered in the database, please view the Journal Coverage List. Nearly 80% of the database contains journal records that are accepted for coverage if archival, scholarly, peer-reviewed, and regularly published with titles, abstracts, and keywords in English. 30% of the database contains material of European origin, while an additional 12% of the database is from US dissertations.

For more information, please contact the PsycINFO® Department at the American Psychological Assocation.  The PsycINFO® Department can be contacted by phone at (800) 374-2744 (in North America).  Phones are answered 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday (Eastern Standard Time).  The PsycINFO® Department can also be contacted by email at psycinfo@apa.org, or visit us at our website, http://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psycinfo/index.aspx.

PsycINFO® is produced and copyrighted (c) by the American Psychological Association, all rights reserved.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
psyc1   1806 - 1966
psyc2  

1967 - 1986

psyc3   1987 - 2001
psyc4   2002 - 2005
psyc5   2006 - 2007
psyc6   2008 - 2009
psyc7   2010
psyc8   2011
psyc9   2012
psyc10   2013
psyc11   2014
psyc12   2015
psyc13   2016
psyc14   2017
psyc15   2018
psyc16   2019 - Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 16 segments.

This database is updated online weekly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.

All Fields in this Database

  Abstract (AB) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Open URL (OU) Reviewed Item Author (RU)
  Accession Number (AN) Dissertation Details (DS) Original Title (OT) Reviewed Item ISBN (RI)
  Age Group (AG) Document Type (DT) Other Publisher (OC) Reviewed Item Other Info (RO)
  Article ID (AR) E-mail Address (MA)

Other Serial Titles (OL)

Reviewed Item Title (RT)
  Author (AU) Format Covered (FO) Page Count (PE) Reviewed Item Translated Title (RL)
  Book Edition (BE) Grant Sponsorship (GS) Pagination (PG) Reviewed Item Year (RR)
  Book Series (ST) Heading Word (HW) Parent Book Author (PA) Special Issue Title (SI)
  Book Volume (BV) Institution (IN) Parent Book Author ID (PD) Special Section Title (SS)
  Cited References (RF) Intended Audience (IA) Parent Book Edition (PN) Source (SO)
  Cited Reference Author (CU) ISBN (IB) Parent Book Institutional Author (PI) Source Title Translation (SL)
  Cited Reference Author Word (CT) ISSN Electronic (IT) Parent Book Title (BT) Subject Headings (SH)
  Cited Reference Date (CB) ISSN Print (IS) Parent Book Volume (PV) Supplemental Material (SV)
  Cited Reference DOI (CD) Issue/Part (IP) PMID (PM) Supplemental Material DOI (SM)
  Cited Reference Publisher (CE) Journal Name (JN) Population Group (PO) Table of Contents (TC)
  Cited Reference Source (CS) Journal Word (JW) PsycINFO Classification Code (CC) Test DOI (TD)
  Cited Reference Title (CV) Key Concepts (ID) PsycINFO Classification Word (CW) Test & Measures (TM)
  Clinical Trial Number (TN) Language (LG) Publication Date (DP) Textword (TW)
  Conference Information (CF) Local Messages (LM) Publication History (PH) Title (TI)
  Copyright (CP) Locally Held (LH) Publication Month/Season (MO) Translated Book Series Title (OS)
  Correction Date (CH) Location (LO) Publication Status (PS) Translated Parent Book Title (OP)
  Corporate/Institutional Author (CA) MeSH (MH) Publication Type (PT) Type of Book (BY)
  Conference Note (CN) Methodology (MD) Publisher Information (PU) Update Code (UP)
  Correspondence Address (CQ) NLM Title Abbreviation (NL) Publisher Location (PL) UMI Order Number (ON)
  Data Set Access (DC) Notes (NT) Reprint Year (RY) Volume (VO)
  Data Set Description (DA) Numeric Month (NM) Reviewed Item (RV) Year of Publication (YR)
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ti,ab,hw,tc,id,ot,tm,mh.
  Abstract (AB) Key Concepts (ID) Original Title (OT) Test & Measures (TM)
  Heading Word (HW) MeSH (MH) Table of Contents (TC) Title (TI)
Go: Menu or Back 

Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Format Covered (FO) Numeric Month (NM) Reviewed Item (RV)
  Accession Number (AN) Grant Sponsorship (GS) Open URL (OU) Subject Headings (SH)
  Article ID (AR) Institution (IN) Other Publisher (OC) Special Issue Title (SI)
  Author (AU) Intended Audience (IA)

Other Serial Titles (OL)

Special Section Title (SS)
  Book Series (ST) ISBN (IB) Original Title (OT) Source (SO)
  Cited References (RF) ISSN Electronic (IT) Page Count (PE) Supplemental Material (SV)
  PsycINFO Classification Code (CC) ISSN Print (IS) Pagination (PG) Supplemental Material DOI (SM)
  Conference Information (CF) Issue/Part (IP) Parent Book Institutional Author (PI) Table of Contents (TC)
  Conference Note (CN) Journal Name (JN) PMID (PM) Test DOI (TD)
  Copyright (CP) Key Concepts (ID) Population Group (PO) Test & Measures (TM)
  Corporate/Institutional Author (CA) Language (LG) Publication Date (DP) Title (TI)
  Correction Date (CH) Local Messages (LM) Publication History (PH) Type of Book (BY)
  Correspondence Address (CQ) Location (LO) Publication Month/Season (MO) UMI Order Number (ON)
  Document Type (DT) Methodology (MD) Publication Status (PS) Update Code (UP)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) Notes (NT) Publication Type (PT) Volume (VO)
  E-mail Address (MA) Number of Cited References (NR) Publisher Information (PU) Year of Publication (YR)
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Digital Object Identifier (DO) Number of Cited References (NR) Publisher Information (PU)
  Accession Number (AN) E-mail Address (MA) Numeric Month (NM) PsycINFO Classification Code (CC)
  Article ID (AR) Format Covered (FO) Open URL (OU) Reviewed Item (RV)
  Author (AU) Grant Sponsorship (GS) Other Publisher (OC) Subject Headings (SH)
  Book Edition (BE) Institution (IN) Other Serial Titles (OL) Special Issue Title (SI)
  Book Series (ST) Intended Audience (IA)

Original Title (OT)

Special Section Title (SS)
  Book Volume (BV) ISBN (IB) Page Count (PE) Source (SO)
  Cited References (RF) ISSN Electronic (IT) Pagination (PG) Source Title Translation (SL)
  Clinical Trial Number (TN) ISSN Print (IS) Parent Book Author ID (PD) Supplemental Material (SV)
  Conference Information (CF) Issue/Part (IP) Parent Book Edition (PN) Supplemental Material DOI (SM)
  Conference Note (CN) Journal Name (JN) Parent Book Institutional Author (PI) Table of Contents (TC)
  Copyright (CP) Key Concepts (ID) Parent Book Volume (PV) Test DOI (TD)
  Corporate/Institutional Author (CA) Language (LG) PMID (PM) Test & Measures (TM)
  Correction Date (CH) Local Messages (LM) Population Group (PO) Title (TI)
  Correspondence Address (CQ) Location (LO) Publication Date (DP) Type of Book (BY)
  Data Set Access (DC) MeSH (MH) Publication History (PH) UMI Order Number (UN)
  Data Set Description (DA) Methodology (MD) Publication Month/Season (MO) Update Code (UP)
  Dissertation Details (DS) NLM Title Abbreviation (NL) Publication Status (PS) Volume (VO)
  Document Type (DT) Notes (NT) Publication Type (PT) Year of Publication (YR)
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.

  Article ID (AR) Parent Book Author (PA) Parent Book Volume (PV) Translated Book Series Title (OS)
  Book Series (ST) Parent Book Author ID (PD) Publisher Information (PU) Translated Parent Book Title (OP)
  Issue/Part (IP) Parent Book Edition (PN) Publisher Location (PL) Volume (VO)
  Journal Name (JN) Parent Book Institutional Author (PI) Reprint Year (RY) Year of Publication (YR)
  Pagination (PG) Parent Book Title (BT)    
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
myers briggs.ab.
clinical trials.ab.

 

The Abstracts (AB) field includes abstracts written or edited by the American Psychological Association (APA) for journal articles. APA abstracts contain information specifically targeted to be of use with various forms of literature.

For example, experimental and empirical articles will always contain the purpose of the study, the hypothesis, the subject population, methodology, results and significant conclusions. Names and genres of instruments used are included wherever possible, as well as names, dosage and route of administration of drugs.

The abstract index contains all searchable words from the abstract.

Historical Note: From 1995, dissertation records contain abstracts as well. Journal-provided abstracts have been used with little modification, whenever possible, since 2003. Older PsycINFO records have a higher percentage of staff-written and modified journal abstracts.

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AF All Searchable Fields [Word and Phrase Indexed]
drug abuse.af.
 

Use All searchable Fields (AF) to simultaneously search in all searchable fields in the database.

The fields excluded from an All Fields search are fields such as Heading Word (HW) which are created by the loading process and do not actually appear in the record, and Cited References (RF), which allows searching in all fields comprising the Cited References field.

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AG Age Group [Phrase Indexed]
adulthood 18 yrs older.ag.
100.ag.

 

The Age Group (AG) field contains a standardized description of specific population age groups related to the content of the document. A record may contain multiple Age Groups:

  Search for   or search for   to find
  100.ag.   childhood birth 12 yrs.ag.   Childhood, from birth to 12 yrs
  120.ag.   neonatal birth 1 mo.ag.   Neonatal, from birth to 1 mo
  140.ag.   infancy 2 23 mo.ag.   Infancy (2 to 23 mo)
  160.ag.   preschool age 2 5 yrs.ag.   Preschool Age (2 to 5 yrs)
  180.ag.   school age 6 12 yrs.ag.   School Age (6 to 12 yrs)
  200.ag.   adolescence 13 17 yrs.ag.   Adolescence (13 to 17 yrs)
  300.ag.   adulthood 18 yrs older.ag.   Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
  320.ag.   young adulthood 18 29 yrs.ag.   Young Adulthood (18 to 29 yrs)
  340.ag.   thirties 30 39 yrs.ag.   Thirties (30 to 39 yrs)
  360.ag.   middle age 40 64 yrs.ag.   Middle Age (40 to 64 yrs)
  380.ag.   aged 65 yrs older.ag.   Aged (65 yrs & older)
  390.ag.   very old 85 yrs older.ag.   Very Old (85 yrs & older)

Both the code and the term are searchable. The results are displayed as part of the Population Group (PO) field. Age Groups are also available as a limit.

Historical Note: The present list of Age Groups has existed from 1996 to present. The three broad Age Groups (Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood) have been assigned by indexers since 1984 and are also applied to all records in which a narrower Age Group appears. However, Age Group values have been mapped back in the database to 1967, based on the records’ indexing. Most of the records from the earliest to 1966 do not have Age Groups.

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AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
2003 99942 034.an.
 

The Accession Number (AN) field appears in every record, and uniquely identifies the record. You can retrieve any specific record in the database with its accession number. It contains 12 numeric characters with hyphens in the YYYY-NNNNN-LLL format, structured as follows:

  YYYY   =   year record was processed
  NNNNN   =   sequence of processing within a particular year; includes leading zeros
  LLL   =   sequence of record within a book; will consist of zeros for Book records

Examples:

  Book record:   2001-07000-000
  Chapter from above book:   2001-07000-001
  Peer-Reviewed Journal:   2007-02456-008 (Journal Article)
  Dissertation Abstract:   2007-99004-354 (Dissertation Abstract)
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AR Article ID [Phrase Indexed]
article 8.ar.

 

The Article ID (AR) field contains a fixed identifier that uniquely identifies an article-by-article published record. The Article ID is a simple string, optional, non-repeating field. If present, it appears only in Journal records. This field may contains up to 30 alphanumeric characters including hyphens, parenthesis, periods and forward slashes.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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AU Author [Phrase Indexed]
smith george davey.au.
smith-$.au.
smith$.au.

 

The Author (AU) field contains the names of individual persons responsible for creation of the work represented by the record.

If all authors are not included, the last name listed is followed by "et al."

The author names are entered into the index as they appeared in the original document, in the format of last name followed by first and middle names or up to two initials. Thus, a person named "James C. Smith" may appear as "Smith James C," "Smith J Charles," "Smith, JC" or "Smith J" Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name, a space, and the first initial.

If you are unsure of the spelling, view the index to see all versions and spellings of the name. See "Display and Browse Field Indexes" in the Ovid Help for details on viewing and using a field index.

Patronymic suffixes, such as Jr., Sr., III, and so on, are included for display, but are not indexed, as are non-author roles, which include:

  Anon:   Anonymous       Illus:   Illustrator
  Col:   Collaborator       Photo:   Photographer
  Dir:   Director       Pres:   Presenter
  Ed:   Editor       Prod:   Producer
  Comp:   Compiler       Revwr:   Reviewer
  Cont:   Contributor       Trans:   Translator

If no role is present, the role may be assumed to be "author".

Data in the author field may also compr ise one or more of the following special cases:

  et al:   subsequent authors were not captured, although they exist
  No authorship indicated:   the document lists no author
  Numerous contributors:   the record represents a cluster of chapters, the authors of which are identified in the Abstract (AB) field

Historical Note: The number of authors cited varies by entry year.
1996-present: All author names.
1987-1995: First four authors, followed by et al. if there were more than four authors. In 2009 et al. was replaced with the actual authors’ names.
1967-1986: Up to four authors entered; but for publications with more than four authors, the first author ONLY was entered followed by et al. (See note above regarding et al.)
Earliest-1966: Variable due to editorial differences among the printed source material.

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BE Book Edition [Phrase Indexed]

 

The Book Edition (BE) field contains the edition information of book records. This information displays as part of the Title (TI) field.

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BT Parent Book Title [Word Indexed]
therapy.bt.

 

The Parent Book Title (BT) field appears in chapter records only, and contains the title of the parent book in which the chapter appears.

The parent book information, combined with the Publisher Information (PU) and ISBN (IB) fields, enables users to obtain complete book bibliographic data from chapter records.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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BV Book Volume [Phrase Indexed]

 

The Book Volume (BV) field contains the volume information of book records. This information displays as part of the Title (TI) field.

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BY Type of Book [Phrase Indexed]
classic book.by.

 

The Type of Book (BY) field identifies the description or type of book.

Types of Books include:

  Classic Book       Reference Book
  Conference Proceeding   Textbook/Study Guide
  Handbook Manual        

The Type of Book is also available as a limit.

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CA Corporate/Institutional Author [Word Indexed]
task force on community preventive services.ca.

 

The Corporate/Institutional Author (CA) field contains the corporation or institution of the authors or editors as well as the department, sub-departments, and location. Enter the most significant words from a corporate author name to search this field.

If all corporate authors are not included, "et al" will appear after the last one.

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CB Cited Reference Date [Word Indexed]
2009.cb.

 

The Cited Reference Date field contains at least the publication year for the respective reference. This field may contain month, day and/or time of publication or release, and will be present only in journal, book and book chapter references.

This field displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CC PsycINFO Classification Code [Phrase Indexed]
"2223".cc.
"222".cc.
"22".cc.

 

"The PsycINFO Classification Code (CC) field includes 4-digit numbers representing broad subject categories, such as ""Learning and Motivation"" or ""Linguistics, Language and Speech."" Searching with PsycINFO Classification Code is a convenient way to limit an existing subject search to a particular setting (e.g., treatment, education, etc.) or area.

The numerical Classification Codes are stored in the index. To view and select from the hierarchical list of codes and their scope notes, use the option in "Search Tools".

Historical Note: Classification System History
1992: The system expanded from 17 to 22 categories. All categories and subcategories are searchable for records entered and were mapped back to relevant records. The classification codes were mapped back to all records.
1989: Classifications corresponding to the current changes were mapped back to relevant records.
1976: Four-digit subcategories were used for the first time. Before 1976, the classification system consisted of broad, two-digit codes only. For records entered prior to 1976, concepts represented by subcategories in the current system can be searched at the broad level only.

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CD Cited Reference DOI [Phrase Indexed]
http dx doi org 10 1016 j paid 2007 04 023.cd

 

The Cited Reference DOI (CD) field contains the Digital Object Identifier of the electronic document cited in a record. These DOIs may contain full text access. The Cited Reference DOI displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CE Cited Reference Publisher [Word Indexed]
gaithersburg.ce.

 

The Cited Reference Publisher (CE) field contains the publisher of the referenced publication. The Cited Reference Publisher displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CF Conference Information [Word Indexed]
psychoanalytic.cf.

 

The Conference Information (CF) field contains the name, number, date and location of a conference at which the content of the document was presented.

Individual words are posted in the Conference Information index. Standard abbreviations are used for the institutional and geographical portions of the field, such as:

  Co:   Company       Hosp(s):   Hospital(s)
  Coll:   College       Inc:   Incorporated
  Dept:   Department       Lab(s):   Laboratory(ies)
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CH Correction Date [Phrase Indexed]
20080929.ch.

 

The Correction Date (CH) field appears in corrected records and contains the date the record was revised. When available, it displays in the Update Code (UP) field.

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CN Conference Note [Display only]

 

The Conference Note (CN) field contains information about additional conferences at which the content of a document was presented, or information about a conference from which the content of the document was derived.

This field is indexed and displayed as part of the Conference Information (CF) field.

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CP Copyright [Word Indexed]
biomed.cp.

 

The Copyright Field (CP) will capture the copyright of an article or chapter record at the time it was published. This field will help users know how owns the copyright when an article or chapter is first published. The Copyright Data will not be applied to either Journal-level or Book-level information. If present, it may appear only in Article or Chapter records.

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CQ Correspondence Address [Word Indexed]
New York.cq.

 

The Correspondence Address (CQ) field contains the contact information for correspondence in regards to the document. This field will also contain the author e-mail address when available.

Historical Note: From 2002 forward, the correspondence author’s name and address have been displayed in a separate field. Beginning in 2006, the correspondence address can be for an organization as well as an individual.

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CS Cited Reference Source [Word Indexed]
psychiatry.cs.

 

The Cited Reference Source (CS) field contains the title of the publication. For book references, title information will be found in the Cited Reference Title (CV) field.

The Cited Reference Source displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CT Cited Reference Author Word [Word Indexed]
eaglemont.ct.

 

The Cited Reference Author Last Name (CT) field contains the last name of the author for the source document. Authors may be Anonymous, Individual Authors, or Institutional Authors. The Cited Reference Author displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CU Cited Reference Author [Phrase Indexed]
xenakis s n.cu

 

The Cited Reference Author (CU) field contains the author for the source document. Authors may be Anonymous, Individual Authors, or Institutional Authors.

The Cited Reference Author displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CV Cited Reference Title [Word Indexed]
stress.cv.

 

The Cited Reference Title (CV) field contains the title of the source document. The field may contain additional information but not limited to the following:

  edition number
  volume number or revision number
  special issue title or designation
  technical report number or government document number
  an online document designation.

The Cited Reference Title displays in the Cited References (RF) field.

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CW PsycINFO Classification Word [Word Indexed]
vocational.cw.

 

If you want to retrieve every PsycINFO Classification Code (CC) that includes a particular word or words, search for the desired word(s) in the PsycINFO Classification Word (CW) field.

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DA Data Set Description [Phrase Indexed]
the data set contains multiple characteristics for 697 major us national brands both corporate and product from 16 broad product categories since the data set was originally used in the context of word of mouth the brands are selected to have large volumes of word of mouth mentions off line and over the internet however this list of brands is consistent with other lists used by brand research agencies such as young and rubicam or interbrand.da.

 

The Data Set Description (DA) field provides information on the given data set. Only one description is allowed per data set, but there can be any number of DOIs or links for a data set.

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DC Data Set Access [Word Indexed]
wwwicpsrumichedu.dc.

 

The Data Set Access (DC) field contains the access points for a certain data set. There can be any number of DOIs or links for a data set.

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DO Digital Object Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
10 1046 j 1360 0443 2001 9634055 x.do.

 

The Digital Object Identifier (DO) field contains the registered DOI for electronic documents. These DOIs may contain full text access.

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DP Publication Date [Word Indexed]
2012.dp.

 

The Publication Date (DP) may be a month and year; a season and year; a month, day, and year; or just a year.

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DS Dissertation Details [Word Indexed]
crossen.ds.

 

The Dissertation Details (DS) field contains the additional publisher information such as UMI Order Number, OpenURL, Advisor(s), degree and institution and department for dissertation records.

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DT Document Type [Phrase Indexed]
bibliography.dt.

 

The Document Type (DT) field identifies the specific kind of document, and explains what a document is as opposed to what it is about.

  Code Document Types
  2000 Abstract Collection
  2200 Bibliographies
  2200 Bibliography
  2400 Chapter
  2500 Clarification
  2600 Column/Opinion
  2800 Comment/Reply
  2800 Comment
  2900 Dissertation
  3000 Editorial
  3200 Encyclopedia Entry
  3400 Errata or Retractions <1989 forward>
  3400 Errata/Retraction
  3400 Errata/Retractions
  3400 Erratum/Correction
  3400 Erratum/Retraction
  3400 Erratum/Retractions
  3400 Erratum
  3500 Interview
  2000 Journal Abstract
  2000 Journal Abstracts
  3600 Journal Article
  3600 Journal Articles
  2600 Journal Column/Opinion
  2600 Journal Column
  3000 Journal Editorial
  3000 Journal Editorials
  4200 Journal Information
  3800 Journal Letter
  3800 Journal Letters
  4000 Journal Obituaries
  4000 Journal Obituary
  4600 Journal Review-Book
  4600 Journal Review-Books
  5000 Journal Review-Other
  5000 Journal Review-Software/Video/Other
  5000 Journal Review-Software
  4800 Journal Review-Video
  3800 Letter
  4000 Obituary
  4100 Poetry
  4200 Publication Information
  4400 Reprint
  4400 Reprints
  4500 Retraction
  4600 Review-Book
  4800 Review-Media
  5000 Review-Software & Other
  4600 or 4800 or 5000 Review
  4600 or 4800 or 5000 Reviews

Document Types are also available as Limits.

Historical Note: In 2009, the value Dissertation [2900] was added to the Document Type list. This change enables users to quickly either search for only dissertations or to quickly exclude them from a search strategy.

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FO

Format Covered [Phrase Indexed]
electronic.fo.
print.fo.

 

The Format Covered (FO) field identifies the broad, physical medium of the item covered by the record.

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GS

Grant/Sponsorship [Word Indexed]
NSERC.gs.

 

The Grant/Scholarship (GS) field identifies the sponsor names, grant/contract/award information, funding amounts, funding dates, and other details about the sponsorship for the record.

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HW Heading Word [Word Indexed]
counseling.hw.
academic achievement.hw

 

The Heading Word (HW) index allows you to retrieve every subject heading that includes a particular word by searching a single word in the Subject Heading (SH) field.

You can also view Subject Headings by using the Permuted Index in the Tools menu.

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IA Intended Audience [Phrase Indexed]
general public.ia.
psychology professional research.ia.

 

Book and Chapters record added since 1987 are indexed with the work's intended general audience, something which is often explicitly stated by authors or publishers. The American Psychological Association (APA) selects audience types from a standard list which can be quickly browsed in the Intended Audience (IA) index.

Intended Audience terms include:

  General Public
  Juvenile
  Psychology: Professional & Research

Intended Audience is also available as a limit.

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IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
"978 0 275 99615 4".ib.
"1 4338 0342 9".ib.

 

The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN), and any qualifying text in parentheses. The qualifying text denotes binding type, volume number(s), publisher and/or the publisher location for which the ISBN was assigned. ISBNs have been included in PsycINFO since 1987.

The ISBN appears as a number separated by hyphens. Its purpose is to identify uniquely a book title, an edition of a book, or a monograph produced by a specific publisher. Each ISBN number contains the following parts:

  group identifier (national, geographic, language, or other type of group)
  publisher or producer identifier
  title identifier
  check digit

However, despite this standard format, ISBNs vary enormously on the source documents. Consequently, they have also been put into the index without spaces or dashes.

  Originals examples
with hyphens
  Indexed with
hyphens removed
  972-95460-0-2   9729546002
  92-9078-023-1   9290780231
  4-13-067101-4   4130671014
  1-4020-7012-8   1402070128
  3-85630-552-1   3856305521

You may search the ISBN with or without hyphens.

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ID Key Concepts [Word Indexed]
bipolar.id.
psychosis.id.

 

The Key Concepts (ID) field concisely summarizes a document's subject content. Indexers use the Key Concepts to supplement Subject Headings (SH).

For experimental literature, Key Concepts typically contain the independent variable, the dependent variable, and the subject population.

For non-experimental literature, Key Concepts consist of major concepts, time lines, populations, implications, or genre -- whatever information the indexer thinks will supplement other indexing information.

Individual words from the Key Concepts may be searched in this field.

Historical Note: For records processed from 1967-1995, the field for experimental records contains the independent variable, the dependent variable, and the population. These data are generally presented in this order in a structured phrase format.

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IN Institution [Word Indexed]
harvard.in.
tufts.in.

 

The Institution (IN) field contains the author's name along with their affiliation, if indicated in the source document.

Although Author names display in this field, only the institution can be searched. Search for the most descriptive word in the institution's name, such as "harvard,"rather than "university."

Standard abbreviations are used in this field; the most critical ones include:

  Co:   Company       Hosp(s):   Hospital(s)
  Coll:   College       Inc:   Incorporated
  Dept:   Department       Lab(s):   Laboratory(ies)

Institutions which are commonly known by initials (IBM, NIMH, WHO, INSERM) may be listed in initialed form in some records and are spelled out in others.

State and Province names must be searched by both spelled-out name and postal abbreviation. Country names (except USA ) are spelled out.

Historical Note: Up to 2002, only the first author’s affiliation was entered into the document. Since then, affiliations are entered and displayed for all authors.

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IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
"26".ip.

 

The Issue/Part (IP) field contains the issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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IS ISSN Print [Phrase Indexed]
1011 288x.is.
0065-1400.is.

 

The ISSN Print (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the print journal in which an article was published. It appears as a number separated by a hyphen. ISSNs have been included in PsycINFO since 1979.

To search the index, include hyphens, such as 1000-958X.

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IT ISSN Electronic [Phrase Indexed]
1600 0447.it.
1600 0803.it.

 

The ISSN Electronic (IT) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the electronic journal in which an article was published. It appears as a number separated by a hyphen. ISSNs have been included in PsycINFO since 1979.

To search the index, include hyphens, such as 1000-958X.

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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
psychoanalytic review.jn.

 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which an article was published.

Enter as many of the words or letters in a journal name as are needed to distinguish it from other journals, for example, "cognitive sci$" for "Cognitive Science." To search by a journal word, use the Journal Word (JW) field.

This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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JW Journal Word [Word Indexed]
occupational.jw.
brain.jw.

 

The Journal Word (JW) field contains individual words from every journal name in the database. This field is used to retrieve every occurrence of a journal which includes a particular word, such as "psychological."

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LG Language [Phrase Indexed]
english.lg.

 

The Language (LG) field contains the document's language(s) of publication.

Historical Note: For records prior to 1967, the language choices were English or NonEnglish. However, an ongoing project is retrospectively replacing the NonEnglish entry with the appropriate language.

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LH Locally Held [Display only]

 

The Locally Held (LH) field indicates (with a "Y" for "Yes" or an "N" for "No") if a journal is held at your library or institution. This information is designated by your OVID System Administrator.

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LM Local Messages [Display only]

 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by your Ovid System administrator to indicate holdings information about journals held in your library or institution.

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LO Location [Word Indexed]
austria.lo.
us.lo.

 

The Location (LO) field contains a standardized description of population locations, specifically country names, related to the content of the document. The field may contain multiple Population Locations.

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MA E-Mail Address [Display only]

 

The E-Mail Address (MA) field contains the email addresses of the persons responsible for the work represented by the record.

Historical Note: From 2001 to present, author email became a standard field for all authors and all author emails in the source document are entered. Before that, the author email was only input for the first or corresponding author.

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MD Methodology [Phrase Indexed]
meta analysis.md.

 

The Methodology (MD) field contains the specific kind of methodology used in a research study. Both the code and the term are searchable.

Methodology terms include:

  Code   Methodology
  0100   Brain Imaging
  0200   Clinical Case Study
  0300   Clinical Trial
  0400   Empirical Study
    0410   Experimental Replication
    0430   Followup Study
    0450   Longitudinal Study
    0451   Prospective Study
    0452   Retrospective Study
  0600   Field Study
  0700   Interview
    0750   Focus Group
  0800   Literature Review
    0830   Systematic Review
  1000   Mathematical Model
  1200   Meta Analysis
  1300   Metasynthesis
  1400   Nonclinical Case Study
  1600   Qualitative Study
  1800   Quantitative Study
  1900   Scientific Simulation
  2100   Treatment Outcome
  2200   Twin Study

Methodology terms are also available as limits.

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MH Mesh [Phrase Indexed]
adaptation psychological.mh.

 

The Mesh (MH) field contains the Medical Subject Headings as assigned by PubMed. The MeSH headings that appear in Medline database records are also provided in the PsycINFO records.

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MO Publication Month/Season [Word Indexed]
jul.mo.
fal.mo.
aut.mo.
sep-oct.mo.

 

The Publication Month/Season (MO) field may appear in Journal Article, Dissertation, or Report records only, and contains the month or season that the journal issue, Dissertation Abstracts International issue, or report was published.

The field usually consists of a three-character alphabetic abbreviation of the month or season.

Example: Win

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NL NLM Title Abbreviation [Word Indexed]
arch.nl.

 

The NLM Title Abbreviation (NL) field contains the official PubMed abbreviation for a journal title.

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NM Numeric Month [Word Indexed]
"01".nm.

 

The Numeric Month (NM) field may appear in Journal Article, Dissertation, or Report records only, and contains the numerical value of the month. This field will only be use in the metadata of the field Publication Month/Season (MO).

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NT Notes [Word Indexed]
originally.nt.

 

The Notes (NT) field contains various types of descriptive information, such as the relationship of the present work to a previous work. This is a free-text field used most frequently to capture complex publication histories. It contains miscellaneous information about the document, including reprint citations or information about forms of other previous publications of the content.

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NR Number of Cited References [Display Only]

 

The Number of Cited References (NR) field contains the total number of references in the given article and the number of references displayed in the respective PsycINFO record. This field is found in Peer Reviewed Journal, Book, and Chapter records only.

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OC Other Publisher [Word Indexed]

 

The Other Publishers (OC) field contains variations of the publisher name, resulting from publisher or publisher name changes.

Historical Note: This field was added in 2007 to reflect variations in the publisher name resulting from publisher changes or publisher name changes occurring over the course of a publication’s history.

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OL Other Serial Titles [Word Indexed]

 

The Other Serial Titles (OL) field contains variations of the serial title name, resulting from serial title changes.

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ON UMI Order Number [Phrase Indexed]
aai9949128.on.
aamnq22464.on.

 

The UMI Order Number (ON) contains the number assigned by University Microfilms International for ordering full text dissertations represented in Dissertation Abstracts International.  It usually consists of a 9- or 10-character alphanumeric sequence.

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OP Translated Parent Book Title [Word Indexed]
ensenanza.op.

 

The Translated Parent Book Title (OP) appears for chapter records only, and contains the English-language translation of the non-English title of the parent book in which the chapter appears.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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OS Translated Book Series Title [Word Indexed]
culture.os.

 

The Translated Book Series Title (OS) appears in Book or Chapter records only. It contains the English-language translation of the series title of a document written in a non-English language.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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OT Original Title [Word Indexed]
Evidencias.ot.

 

The Original Title (OT) field contains non-English titles in the original document language. If the original title was in a non-Roman alphabet, the Original Title is transliterated or is not present.

When searching for French titles, omit article prefixes. For example, search for "heure" rather than "l'heure."

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OU Open URL [Word Indexed]
gatewayproquestcom.ou.

 

The Open URL (OU) is a web-based URL to access the full text of dissertations. This field specifies that the method of access is http:// (i.e., World Wide Web HTML protocol).  It may contain up to 199 alphanumeric characters including hypens, ampersands, periods, and forward slashes.

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PA Parent Book Author [Phrase Indexed]
abbot francis ellingwood.pa.
cederborg ann christin.pa.
 

The Parent Book Author (PA) field appears in Chapter records only. It contains up to the first two authors of the "parent" book in which the chapter appears. If a third or subsequent author exists for the parent book, "et al." appears.

The author names are entered into the index as they appeared in the original document, in the format of last name followed by first and middle names or up to two initials. Thus, a person named "James C. Smith" may appear as "Smith James C," "Smith J Charles," "Smith, JC" or "Smith J" Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name, a space, and the first initial.

Patronymic suffixes, such as Jr., Sr., III, and so on, are included for display, but are not indexed, as are non-author roles, which include:

  Comp:   Compiler       Photo:   Photographer
  Cont:   Contributor       Revwr:   Reviewer
  Ed:   Editor       Trans:   Translator
  Illus:   Illustrator            

If no role is present, the role may be assumed to be "author". 

Data in the Parent Book Author field may also comprise one or more of the following special cases:

  et al:   subsequent authors were not captured, although they exist
  No authorship indicated:   the document lists no author
  Numerous contributors:   the record represents a cluster of chapters, the authors of which are identified in the Abstract (AB) field
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PD Parent Book Author ID [Phrase Indexed]

 

The Parent Book Author ID (PD) contains unique identifiers which may be supplied by the publisher for records added or updated. The most common is Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID).

The Parent Book Author ID (PD) displays in the Source (SO) field following its associated Book Author.

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PE Page Count [Word Indexed]
"9".pe.

 

The Page Count (PE) contains the page length, or total number of pages for a journal article. This is a separate and distinct field from the Pagination field. Page Count is a simple string, optional, non-repeating field. If Present, it appears only in Journal Records. This Field may contain up to 7 alphanumeric characters.

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PG Pagination [Word Indexed]
"402".pg.

 

The Pagination (PG) field consists of the inclusive pagination of a document. You can only search for the initial page, but the full page range displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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PH Publication History [Phrase Indexed]
apr 2011.ph.

 

The Publication History Field will capture multiple dates for the publishing history of an article. This element will be used only for Journal records, Publication History will appear only in records for "Fully published" article.

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PI Parent Book Institutional Author [Word Indexed]
Imperial Coll of Science.pi.
American Association of Psychiatric Workers.pi.

 

The Parent Book Institutional Author (PI) appears in Chapter records only, and contains up to the first two institutional authors of the book in which the chapter appears. If a third or subsequent institutional author exists for the parent book, "et al" appears.

Only the first component of the institution name is included in the field; other name components and geographic information do not appear.

Standard abbreviations are used in this field; the most critical ones include:

  Co:   Company       Hosp(s):   Hospital(s)
  Coll:   College       Inc:   Incorporated
  Dept:   Department       Lab(s):   Laboratory(ies)

Institutions which are commonly known by initials (IBM, NIMH, WHO, INSERM) may be listed in initialed form in some records and are spelled out in others.

State and Province names must be searched by both spelled-out name and postal abbreviation. Country names (except USA and USSR) are spelled out.

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PL Publisher Location [Word Indexed]
ireland.pl.
australia.pl.

 

The Publisher Location (PL) field appears in Book and Chapter records only. It contains the location (city, state, country) of up to two publishers of the book, or of the chapter's parent book.

This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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PM PMID [Phrase Indexed]
18308763.pm.
5045246.pm.

 

The PMID (PM) field contains the PubMed unique identifier.

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PN Parent Book Edition [Phrase Indexed]

 

The Parent Book Edition (PN) field contains the edition information of book chapter records. This information displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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PO Population Group [Word Indexed]
human.po.

 

The Population Group (PO) field contains terms describing the subject population of the document. Population codes include:

  10   Human       40   Female
  20   Animal       50   Inpatient
  30   Male       60   Outpatient
  35   Transgender        

Both the code and the term are searchable. Population groups are also available as a limit.

For records added to the database prior to 1997, a document which includes both animal and human subjects are specified as "animal." From 1997 on, both "animal" and "human" is specified when both subjects are included.

See the Age Groups (AG) field for a list of age groups, which also display in this field.

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PS Publication Status [Phrase Indexed]
first posting.ps.

 

The Publication Status (PS) field is intended to capture the publication status of an article. Currently, there is only one value that will be used: First Posting.

Records that have the status “First Posting” are in the process of being indexed and may not yet have subject headings applied. First Posting records can be retrieved by unqualified free text searching (.mp.) or title/abstract/keyword (.ti,ab,kw) searching.

First Posting records for APA-published content (e.g. PsycARTICLES) are provided with full indexing as they are added to PsycINFO.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
edited book.pt.

 

The Publication Type (PT) field identifies the general type of document.

  Code   Publication Types
  0100   Journal
  0110   Peer-Reviewed Journal
  0120   Non-Peer-Reviewed Journal
  0130   Peer-Reviewed Status Unknown
  0200   Book
  0240   Authored Book
  0280   Edited Book
  0300   Encyclopedia
  0400   Dissertation Abstract
  0500   Electronic Collection

Publication Types are also available as limits.

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PU Publisher Information [Word Indexed]
harpercollins.pu.

 

The Publisher Information (PU) field contains the publisher name and its location.

Book and Encyclopedia records displays as part of the Source (SO) field and Publisher Information (PU) field. While Journals, Electronic Collection and Dissertation Abstract records displays in Publisher Information (PU) field only.

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PV Parent Book Volume [Word Indexed]
students.pv.

 

The Parent Book Volume (PV) field contains the edition information of book chapter records. This information displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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RF Cited References [Display Only]
Smith.rf

 

The Cited References (RF) field contains a complete or partial reference list to the source document. Partial reference lists are found when references are in non-Roman alphabets, do not refer to a published document, or exceed the number of occurrences allowed in a PsycINFO record. The Cited References field may appear in journal, book, and book chapter records if present, and may repeat up to 999 occurrences.

Use RF to simultaneously search in all searchable parts of the Cited References field, including Cited Reference Date (CB), Cited Reference Author Last Name (CT), Cited Reference Publisher (CE), Cited Reference Source (CS) and Cited Reference Title (CV).

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RI Reviewed Item ISBN [Word Indexed]
1-59385-207-X.ri.

 

The Reviewed Item ISBN (RI) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and binding type for the material being reviewed. ISBNs have been included in PsycINFO since 1987.

The ISBN appears as a number separated by hyphens. Its purpose is to identify uniquely a book title, an edition of a book, or a monograph produced by a specific publisher. Each ISBN number contains the following parts:

  group identifier (national, geographic, language, or other type of group)
  publisher or producer identifier
  title identifier
  check digit

However, despite this standard format, ISBNs vary enormously on the source documents. Consequently, they have also been put into the index without spaces or dashes.

  Originals examples
with hyphens
  Indexed with
hyphens removed
  972-95460-0-2   9729546002
  92-9078-023-1   9290780231
  4-13-067101-4   4130671014
  1-4020-7012-8   1402070128
  3-85630-552-1   3856305521

You may search the ISBN with or without hyphens. You may search the Reviewed Item ISBN field on its own, or use the Reviewed Item (RV) field.

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RL Reviewed Item Translated Title [Word Indexed]
"Cognitive Analysis".rl.

 

The Reviewed Item Translated Title (RL) index contains non-English titles in the original document language. If the original title was in a non-Roman alphabet, the original title is transliterated or it is not present.

You may search the Reviewed Item Translated Title field on its own, or use the Reviewed Item (RV) field.

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RO Reviewed Item Other Info [Word Indexed]
york.ro.

 

The Reviewed Item Other Info (RO) index contains other relevant information about the item being reviewed, such as publisher information and price.

You may search the Reviewed Item Other Info index on its own, or use the Reviewed Item (RV) field.

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RR Reviewed Item Year [Word Indexed]
2012.rr.

 

The Reviewed Item Year (RR) field contains the year in which the item being reviewed was published. The year may be searched using four digits, such as "2010."

You may search the Reviewed Item Year (RR) or Reviewed Item (RV) indexes and is displayed in the Reviewed Item (RV) field.

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RT Reviewed Item Title [Word Indexed]
york.rt.

 

The Reviewed Item Title (RT) field contains the English language version of a title.

The following abbreviations are used in titles: Vol, Vols, No, Nos, Ed, Rev (revised), Exp (expanded) and Enl (enlarged).

For documents which were not written in English, the original or transliterated title appears in a separate field, Original Title (OT).

You may search the Reviewed Item Title (RT) or Reviewed Item (RV) indexes and is displayed in the Reviewed Item (RV) field.

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RU Reviewed Item Author [Phrase Indexed]
gabbard glen o.ru.

 

The Reviewed Item Author (RU) field contains the names of individual persons responsible for creation of the work being reviewed.  If all authors are not included, the last name listed is followed by "et al."

 The author names are entered into the index as they appeared in the original document, in the format of last name followed by first and middle names or up to two initials.  Thus, a person named "James C. Smith" may appear as "Smith James C," "Smith J Charles," "Smith, JC" or "Smith J" Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name, a space, and the first initial.  If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name, enter one version and you will be able to scroll through the list of names to find other versions.

You may search the Reviewed Item Author (RU) or Reviewed Item (RV) indexes and is displayed in the Reviewed Item (RV) field.

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RV Reviewed Item [Display Only]

 

The Reviewed Item (RV) field contains information about a book review found in the source document. This field appears most commonly in Peer-Reviewed Journal and Electronic Collection publication types.

This field is made up of the Reviewed Item Author (RU), Reviewed Item Title (RT), Reviewed Item Translated Title (RL), Reviewed Item Year (RR), Reviewed Item ISBN (RI), and Reviewed Item Other Info (RO) fields. Each of these fields can be searched individually, or the RV field can be searched with any term.

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RY Reprint Year [Phrase Indexed]
"2012".ry.
"2011".ry.

 

The Reprint Year (RY) field contains the year in which a book or chapter was reprinted, and is available for book and chapter records added since 1987.

The Reprint Year (RY) field must be searched as four digits, for example, "1994." Years must be searched individually; do not enter a range of years.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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SH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
imagery.sh.
childhood development.de.

 

The Subject Headings (SH) field contains the Subject Headings (also known as "descriptors" or "index terms") from the American Psychological Association's Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms. Indexers at the APA use the terms to describe the topic or content of a document.

Subject headings which describe the major point (focus) of a document will be preceded with an asterisk (*).

You can look up any of these terms by using Search tool tab. Subject Headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched exactly as they appear in the thesaurus

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SI Special Issue Title [Word Indexed]
zytkow.si

 

The Special Issue Title (SI) field may appear in Journal Article records only, and contains the special issue title of the journal in which the article appears.

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SL Source Title Translation [Word Indexed]
colombian.sl.

 

The Source Title Translation (SL) field contains the English translation of a non-English journal title. The Source Title Translation (SL) is word-indexed. Both English and non-English language titles are indexable in the Journal Name (JN) field.

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SM Supplemental Material DOI [Phrase Indexed]
"10 1037 0012 1649 44 1 139 supp".sm.

 

The Supplemental Material DOI (SM) for supplemental material in the PsycINFO record can be used to link to the full text of the supplemental material associated with an article, book, or chapter.  The DOI may contain up to 128 alphanumeric characters including hyphens, parentheses, periods, and forward slashes.

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SO Source [JN, VO, IP, PG, PU, PL, YR, RY, BT, PA, PI, OP, OS, ST, PD, PN, PV]
american psychologist.so.

 

The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Name (JN) or monograph publisher, the Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pagination (PG), Publisher Information (PU), Publisher Location (PL) and Year of Publication (YR).

Other fields that make up the Source field include Reprint Year (RY), Parent Book Title (BT), Parent Book Author (PA), Parent Book Institutional Author (PI), Translated Parent Book Title (OP), Translated Book Series Title (OS), Book Series (ST), Parent Book Author ID (PD), Parent Book Edition (PN) and Parent Book Volume (PV).

Historical Note: Beginning in 2000, publisher name and country were added and mapped back for all records on the current coverage list.

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SS Special Section Title [Word Indexed]
theoritical.ss.

 

The Special Section Title (SS) field contains the thematic sections within a journal that may include several articles but not all of the articles in a particular issue, as in a Special Issue.

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ST Book Series [Word Indexed]
adult.st.

 

If present, the Book Series (ST) field appears in the source description of Book records only. It contains the series title, volume and issue number of the book or of the chapter's parent book.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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SV Supplemental Material [Word Indexed]
appendixes.sv.
internet.sv.

 

The Supplemental Material (SV) field contains additional information not found in the print version of the source document, such as 3-D modeling images, video clips, and data sets.

Supplemental Material types include:

  3D Modeling Images       Appendixes       Audio
  Computer Software       Data Sets       DVD/CD
  Experimental Materials       Tables and Figures       Tests - Internet
  Web Sites       Video       Text
  Other             Workbook/Study Guide

Supplemental Materials are also available as limits.

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TC Table of Contents [Word Indexed]
glossary.tc.

 

The Table of Contents (TC) field exists in book records added since 1987, and includes "front matter" such as preface, foreword and introduction, section headings and subheadings, chapter titles, substantive headings and subheadings of sections within chapters, page numbers, and "back matter" such as appendices, conclusions, afterwords, glossaries, indexes, etc. If a Table of Contents is abbreviated, it contains the indication "abbreviated". The author names follow the chapter titles. The Table of Contents (TC) field exists in book records added since 1987, and includes "front matter" such as preface, foreword and introduction, section headings and subheadings, chapter titles, substantive headings and subheadings of sections within chapters, page numbers, and "back matter" such as appendices, conclusions, afterwords, glossaries, indexes, etc. If a Table of Contents is abbreviated, it contains the indication "abbreviated". The author names follow the chapter titles. And "Created by PsycINFO" will be display indicated with parentheses before the table of contents begin.

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TD Test DOI [Phrase Indexed]
alcohol use disorders identification test.td.
implicit association test.td.

 

The Test DOI (TD) field contains the active link from PsycINFO to PsycTESTS. The link will only work with access to the PsycTESTS database.

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TI Title [Word Indexed]
cognition.ti.

 

The Title (TI) field contains the Title of a document in English.

The following abbreviations are used in titles:

  Vol   (volume)       Ed   (editor)
  Vols   (volumes)       Rev   (revised)
  No   (number)       Exp   (expanded)
  Nos   (numbers)       Enl   (enlarged)

If the language of the document is not English, language of the document appears in square brackets after the title, such as Hermina Sinclair-De Zwart's Bibliography. [French]. The original or transliterated title appears in a separate field, Original Title (OT).

Historical Note: For non-Roman-alphabet titles, and for many non-English records added to the database during the 1970s, the original title field is left blank and only the English translation is provided.
From 1967-1977, records with non-Roman alphabet titles will only display the English translated title:[The egocentrism of children.]

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TM Test & Measures [Word Indexed]
interview .tm.

 

The Test & Measures (TM) field identifies the names of tests and measures mentioned in the source document.

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TN Cilnical Trial Number [Word Indexed]
chictrior15006058.tn.

 

The Clinical Trial Number (TN) field contains the clinical trial number associated with the PsycINFO record. The majority of it is assigned by NIH.

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TW Textword (TI, AB, ID, TY)
defense mechanism$.tw.

 

The Textword (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in the database that contain text and are appropriate for a free-text subject search. The Text word fields in PsycINFO include Table of Contents (TC), Title (TI), Abstract (AB), and Key Concepts (ID).

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UP Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
"20000719".up.

 

The Update Code (UP) field appears in all records and contains the date the record was released into the database. It is sometimes referred to as "Entry Month."

It consists of eight digits, in YYYYMMDD format, where YYYY is the release year, MM is the release month, and DD is the release day.

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VO Volume [Word Indexed]
"2".vo.

 

The Volume (VO) field contains the volume number of a journal issue.

This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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YR Year of Publication [Word Indexed]
"2016".yr.

 

The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which a document was published. The year must be searched using four digits, for example, "1994."

Only individual years may be searched. Use the "Limit to Publication Year" to restrict sets to range of years.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Historical Note: With the 2009 PsycINFO Reload, Publication Year was replaced with the new field Publication Date, which includes the day, month, season, and year of publication.

Go: Menu or Back 

 

Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y bipolar or psychosis

"Development and assessment issues in the diagnosis of early-onset bipolar disorder"

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y depression and personality

"Typus melancholicus: Personality structure and the characteristics of major unipolar depressive episode"

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y depression not bipolar

"Tertiary intervention for depression and prevention of relapse"

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y autism adj spectrum

"Contextual fit and problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders"

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
CheckTags
 

CheckTags are frequently searched terms that have been identified to bypass the mapping screen to help the searcher get to the results faster. PsycINFO checktags terms includes the following:

Neonates Adolescents
Infants Adolescence
Children Adulthood
Childhood Aged
Preschool Age Children  
School Age Children  
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y depression adj3 suicide

"The close link between suicide attempts and mixed (bipolar) depression: Implications for suicide prevention"

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n diet.ab. /freq=5

"The effects of diet and weaning method on the behaviour of young horses"

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ rat$

"Behavioral Limits of Auditory Temporal Resolution in the Rat: Amplitude Modulation and Duration Discrimination"

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1

"Do Dogs (Canis familiaris) Seek Help in an Emergency?"

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n

"Placing women in the history of psychology"

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r

"HIV transmission among women of color"

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "right / left"

"Gender effect on the right-left discrimination task in a sample of heroin-dependent patients. "

  "n" "3".vo

"Japanese Psychological Review. Vol 37(3) 1994, 333-334. "

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.
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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/1 ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts restricts retrieval to documents which include abstracts. Nearly all records include abstracts.
Age Groups Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to adult
 

A limit by Age Groups restricts retrieval to any of the broad age groups or to specific childhood and adolescent years.

If you choose this option, you will be presented with a list of ages from which to select:

  Childhood, from birth to 12 yrs       School Age (6 to 12 yrs)       Thirties (30 to 39 yrs)
  Neonatal, from birth to 1 mo       Adolescence (13 to 17 yrs)       Middle Age (40 to 64 yrs)
  Infancy (2 to 23 mo)       Adulthood (18 yrs & older)       Aged (65 yrs & older)
  Preschool Age (2 to 5 yrs)       Young Adulthood (18 to 29 yrs)       Very Old (85 yrs & older)

See the Age Groups (AG) field for more information.

If you want to capture all records that deal with "Childhood" (birth to age 12 years), you should choose Childhood through School Age.

To restrict retrieval to experimental studies in which specific human age ranges were explicitly studied, use the Empirical Human Populations limit.

All Journals Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to all journals
  A limit to All Journals restricts retrieval to all journal records regardless of their peer review status.
Animal Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to animal
 

A limit to Animal restricts retrieval to documents which are primarily about animal subjects. It will retain articles about both human and animal subjects.

For individual animal species, search the animal name in the Subject Headings (SH) field, such as, "mice.sh."

Authored Book Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to authored book
  A limit to Authored Book restricts retrieval to monograph publications created entirely by the same person or persons.
Book Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to books
  A limit to Book restricts retrieval to monograph publications and encapsulates limits to Book, Edited Book and Authored Book.
Disordered Populations Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to disordered
  A limit to Disordered Populations restricts retrieval to documents about psychological and physical disorders in humans, studied in the contexts of diagnosis, disorder characteristics, patient characteristics, or treatments.
Dissertation Abstract Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to dissertation abstract
  A limit to Dissertation Abstract restricts retrieval to theses written as part of the requirement for a graduate degree and registered with Dissertation Abstracts International.
Document Type Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to obituary
 

A limit by Document Type restricts retrieval by any of the document types indexed by the American Psychological Association (APA).

If you choose this limit, you will be presented with a list of document types from which to select:

  Code Document Types
  2000 Abstract Collection
  2200 Bibliographies
  2200 Bibliography
  2400 Chapter
  2500 Clarification
  2600 Column/Opinion
  2800 Comment/Reply
  2800 Comment
  2900 Dissertation
  3000 Editorial
  3200 Encyclopedia Entry
  3400 Errata or Retractions <1989 forward>
  3400 Errata/Retraction
  3400 Errata/Retractions
  3400 Erratum/Correction
  3400 Erratum/Retraction
  3400 Erratum/Retractions
  3400 Erratum
  3500 Interview
  2000 Journal Abstract
  2000 Journal Abstracts
  3600 Journal Article
  3600 Journal Articles
  2600 Journal Column/Opinion
  2600 Journal Column
  3000 Journal Editorial
  3000 Journal Editorials
  4200 Journal Information
  3800 Journal Letter
  3800 Journal Letters
  4000 Journal Obituaries
  4000 Journal Obituary
  4600 Journal Review-Book
  4600 Journal Review-Books
  5000 Journal Review-Other
  5000 Journal Review-Software/Video/Other
  5000 Journal Review-Software
  4800 Journal Review-Video
  3800 Letter
  4000 Obituary
  4100 Poetry
  4200 Publication Information
  4400 Reprint
  4400 Reprints
  4500 Retraction
  4600 Review-Book
  4800 Review-Media
  5000 Review-Software & Other
  4600 or 4800 or 5000 Review
  4600 or 4800 or 5000 Reviews

See the Document Type (DT) field for more information.

Edited Book Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to edited book
  A limit to Edited Book restricts retrieval to monograph publications where each chapter is created by a different person or persons.
Empirical Human Populations Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Childhood
limit 1 to Adolescence
limit 1 to Adulthood
 

A limit by Empirical Human Populations restricts retrieval to articles in which humans were specifically cited as the subject of a study or experiment.

To restrict retrieval by age in a more general way rather than by restricting to empirical studies specifically citing age, use the Age Groups limit.

Encyclopedia Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to encyclopedia
  A limit to Encyclopedia restricts retrieval to encyclopedia records.
Encyclopedia Entry Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to encyclopedia entry
  A limit to Encyclopedia Entry restricts retrieval to encyclopedia entry publications.
English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english language
limit 1 to english
Command Syntax: ..l/1 en=y
  A limit to English Language restricts retrieval to documents which are written in the English language. Non-English language documents include English abstracts, but these will be eliminated by a limit to English.
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text
limit 1 to full text available
 

A limit to Full Text restricts retrieval to those citations for which a full text link is available. Both Ovid full text links and external full text links are included in this limit.

Human Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to human
Command Syntax: ..l/1 hu=y
  A limit to Human restricts retrieval to documents which are primarily about human subjects.
Impact Statement Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to impact statement
 

Limiting to Impact Statement records will restrict retrieval to journals or articles with impact statement abstracts.

Intended Audience Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to general public
 

Book and chapter records added since 1987 are indexed with the work's intended general audience, something which is often explicitly stated by authors or publishers. The American Psychological Association (APA) selects audience types from a standard list which can be quickly browsed in the Intended Audience (IA) index.

Intended Audience terms include:

  Fringe to Psychology: Questionable
  General Public
  Juvenile
  Psychology: Professional & Research

See the Intended Audience (IA) field for more information.

Journal Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to journal
 

A limit to Journal restricts retrieval to documents that are indexed from journals which have not been reviewed or which review status has not been known.

Languages Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to french
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=french
  A limit to Language restricts retrieval to any of the languages indexed by the American Psychological Association (APA). If you choose this option, you will be presented with an alphabetic list of languages from which to select.
Latest Update Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to latest update
limit 1 to update
limit 1 to up="20070507"
limit 1 to up="20070507-20070514"
Command Syntax: ..l/1 up=y
  A limit to Latest Update restricts retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.
Test DOI Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to test doi
 

The Test DOI will restrict retrieval to a DOI that will link from PsycINFO to PsycTESTS database.

Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
 

A limit to Local Holdings restricts retrieval to documents from journals held in your library or institution.

If your OVID System Administrator has created any special messages about a journal's availability, this message will display with the document in the Local Holdings (LH) field.

Methodology Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to 0600 field study
 

A limit to Methodology restricts retrieval to those records which contain the selected Methodology Types which identify the specific kind of methodology used in a research study.

If you choose this option, you will be presented with a list of options from which to choose:

  0100 Brain Imaging       0452 Retrospective Study       1300 Metasynthesis
  0200 Clinical Case Study       0600 Field Study       1400 Nonclinical Case Study
  0300 Clinical Trial       0700 Interview            1600 Qualitative Study
  0400 Empirical Study       0750 Focus Group       1800 Quantitative Study
  0410 Experimental Replication       0800 Literature Review       1900 Scientific Simulation
  0430 Followup Study       0830 Systematic Review       2100 Treatment Outcome
  0450 Longitudinal Study       1000 Mathematical Model       2200 Twin Study   
  0451 Prospective Study       1200 Meta Analysis        

See the Methodology (MD) field for more information.

Non-Disordered Populations Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to non disordered
  A limit to Non Disordered Populations restricts retrieval to documents about normal human populations.
Online First Publication Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to first posting
  A limit to Online First Publication will restrict retrieval to the publication status of an article. Currently, there is only one value that is being used: First Posting.
Open Access Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ovid full text available
 

Limiting to Open Access records will restrict retrieval to open access journals or articles.

Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ovid full text available
 

A limit to Ovid Full Text Available restricts retrieval to those citations for which a full text link is available.

When viewing a citation with full text available use the LINK button to display full text.

Peer Reviewed Journal Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to peer reviewed journal
  A limit to Peer Reviewed Journal restricts retrieval to documents which are indexed from published professional journals. Books, chapters, reports and dissertations are eliminated by a limit to Peer Reviewed Journal.
Population Groups Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to human
limit 1 to animal
limit 1 to female
 

A limit to Population Groups restricts retrieval to the subject population of the document. If you choose this option, you will be presented with the following options from which to select:

  Human       Male       Inpatient
  Animal       Female       Outpatient
  Transgender            

See the Population Groups (PO) field for more information.

PsycARTICLES Journals Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to PsycARTICLES journals
  A limit to PsycARTICLES Journals restricts retrieval to those journals that compose the PsycARTICLES set. Although this limit will come close to replicating the PsycARTICLES set it will not include full text for every record that is retrieved.
PsycINFO Classification Code Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to 2100 General Psychology
 

A limit by PsycINFO Classification Code restricts retrieval to those records which contain the selected Classifications representing broad subject categories, such as "Learning and Motivation" or "Linguistics, Language and Speech."

Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to book
limit 1 to authored book
 

A limit by Publication Type restricts retrieval by any of the publication types indexed by the American Psychological Association (APA).

If you choose this limit, you will be presented with a list of publication types from which to select.

  Code   Publication Types
  0100   Journal
  0110   Peer-Reviewed Journal
  0120   Non-Peer-Reviewed Journal
  0130   Peer-Reviewed Status Unknown
  0200   Book
  0240   Authored Book
  0280   Edited Book
  0300   Encyclopedia
  0400   Dissertation Abstract
  0500   Electronic Collection

See the Publication Type (PT) field for more information.

Publication Year Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=2010
Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=2010
  A limit to Publication Year restricts retrieval to the specified years covered. If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year or year range. The format is 4 digits, such as "1989" or "1992-1995."
Review Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to review
  A limit to Review restricts retrieval to review records.
Supplemental Material Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to appendixes
 

A limit by Supplemental Material contains additional information not found in the print version of the source document.

Supplemental Material types include:

  3D Modeling Images       Appendixes       Audio
  Computer Software       Data Sets       DVD/CD
  Experimental Materials       Tables and Figures       Tests - Internet
  Web Sites       Video       Text
  Other             Workbook/Study Guide

See the Supplemental Material (SV) field for more information.

Test DOI Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to test doi
 

The Test DOI will restrict retrieval to a DOI that will link from PsycINFO to PsycTESTS database.

 
Tests & Measures Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to tests
limit 1 to tests & measures
  A limit to Tests & Measures restricts retrieval to documents that are specifically about a particular test or measurement instrument. This is a good way to eliminate studies that used a specific test or measurement as methodology, but which are actually about another topic.
Treatment & Prevention Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to treatment
  A limit to Treatment & Prevention restricts retrieval to documents about all aspects of medical, behavioral and psychological treatment, including all modes of psychotherapeutic intervention and rehabilitation.
Types of Book Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to reference book
 

A limit by Type of Book restricts retrieval by any of the book types indexed by the American Psychological Association (APA). If you choose this limit, you will be presented with a list of book types from which to select.

  Classic Book       Handbook Manual       Textbook/Study Guide
  Conference Proceeding       Reference Book            

See the Type of Book (BY) field for more information.

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Tools
The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database

To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:

  Search Label:

PsycINFO 2002-present only:

PSYA
        PsycINFO frontfile: PSYF
        PsycINFO backfile: PSYB
        PsycINFO historic: PSYH
        PsycINFO historic only: PSY1
  Command Syntax: ..c/psyf
  Sentence Syntax: use psyf
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number
  2015-99010-593
Title
  The importance of second-language competence in the 21st-century workplace: Perceptions of 
  professors, teachers, college students, employment agents, and administrators.  
Publication Date
  2015
Year of Publication
  2015
Language
  English
Author
  Mbumina, Elie B.
Institution
  Mbumina, Elie B.: Capella U., US
Source
  Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.75(7-
  A(E)),2015, pp. No Pagination Specified.  
ISSN Print
  0419-4209
ISBN
  978-1-303-77428-7
Other Serial Titles
  Dissertation Abstracts International
Publisher Information
  ProQuest Information & Learning; US
UMI Order Number
  AAI3613784
Open URL
  http://gateway.proquest.com/open...
Format Covered
  Electronic
Publication Type
  Dissertation Abstract
Document Type
  Dissertation
Abstract
  Despite growing awareness of the effects of second-language competency on employability, the 
  road to a total embracement and promotion of second languages in U.S. schools is paved with 
  challenges. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine the perceptions of 
  college professors, secondary school teachers, college students, employment agency 
  representatives, and school administrators about foreign language competence and its impact on 
  employment opportunity in the 21stcentury workplace. Interview questionnaires were designed and 
  distributed to 5 groups of participants who would have an interest in the study. The groups 
  included 3 college professors, 3 secondary school teachers, 3 college students, 3 employment 
  agency representatives, and 3 school administrators. The summary of the findings indicated there 
  may be a direct correlation between foreign-language competence and employability. The study 
  also confirmed that people have very positive perceptions of foreign-language competence. The 
  recurring themes were leadership and the impact of the United States as a world leader, more 
  marketability of job seekers, and increased literacy and learning. Based on these findings, 
  learning institutions could create more opportunities for students to be exposed to foreign 
  languages at an early age to promote foreign-language competence, educate students about the 
  urgency and need for foreign-language competence, as well as emphasize the immediate and 
  future benefits of foreign-language competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all 
  rights reserved)
Key Concepts
  foreign-language competence, college students, employment agency representatives, secondary 
  school teachers
Subject Headings
  *College Students
  *College Teachers
  *Colleges
  *Competence
  Employability
  Employment Status
  High School Teachers
PsycINFO Classification Code
  Industrial & Organizational Psychology [3600]
Population Group
  Human.
  Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Location
  US
Methodology
  Empirical Study; Interview; Qualitative Study; Quantitative Study
Update Code
  20150112 (PsycINFO) 
            
Sample 2
Accession Number
  2015-99010-583
Title
  A proactive approach to reducing errors in healthcare: Healthcare providers' perception of group 
  discussion instructional delivery method. 
Publication Date
  2015
Year of Publication
  2015
Language
  English
Author
  Touze, Emmanuel.
Institution
  Touze, Emmanuel: Keiser U., US
Source
  Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.75(7-
  A(E)),2015, pp. No Pagination Specified.  
ISSN Print
  0419-4209
ISBN
  978-1-303-77448-5
Other Serial Titles
  Dissertation Abstracts International
Publisher Information  
  ProQuest Information & Learning; US
UMI Order Number
  AAI3613797
Open URL
  http://gateway.proquest.com/open...
Format Covered
  Electronic
Publication Type
  Dissertation Abstract
Document Type
  Dissertation
Abstract
  In 1999, a shocking medical report revealed that more than 99,000 deaths occur in our healthcare 
  facilities due to preventable medical errors. The report, "To Err is Human," also indicated that 
  more than 1 million medically adverse events result in major disabilities that could have easily 
  prevented through appropriate communication among healthcare professionals. Educational 
  researchers have acknowledged the importance of professional development leading to better 
  patient quality care for years; however, medically adverse events have remained prevalent. This 
  study served to explore how group discussion as a more appropriate teaching method that can help 
  make a difference in promoting quality patient care, given the fact that lecture has been the most 
  common method used without satisfying results. Bandura's social learning theory was the 
  theoretical framework for this qualitative research. The data collection process included 
  semi-structured and group interviews. The data analysis included triangulation, member checking, 
  inductive and open-coding analysis to promote the emergence of themes and sub-themes. The 
  results from this study indicated that there is an association between group discussion as a 
  training method that furthers quality patient care. The findings suggest that healthcare 
  administrators to use group discussion, rather than lecture, as a means to teach healthcare 
  professionals how to actively and effectively engage in communicating with each other during a 
  training session in order to enhance quality patient care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 
  APA, all rights reserved)
Key Concepts
  quality patient care, healthcare professionals, group discussion, adverse events
Subject Headings
  *Facilities
  *Group Discussion
  *Professional Development
  Qualitative Research
PsycINFO Classification Code
  Educational Psychology [3500]
Population Group
  Human.
  Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
Methodology
  Empirical Study; Interview; Qualitative Study; Quantitative Study
Update Code
  20150112 (PsycINFO)  
    
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Producer Information
Producer
American Psychological Association
750 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002
Phone: 800-374-2722 or 202-336-5650
Fax: 202-336-5633
Email: psycinfo@apa.org
Website: http://www.apa.org/pubs/databases/psycinfo/index.aspx
Copyright

The PsycINFO® database is produced, trademarked, and copyrighted by the American Psychological Association (APA).  Search results received by the user in machine-readable form remain the property of the American Psychological Association. No part of the database may be duplicated in hard-copy or machine-readable form without written authorization from APA. APA permits reproduction of up to 25 print copies of search output for use within the customer's organization; in addition, that search output may be stored temporarily in electronic media for editing or reformatting for the user's internal use or for one-time delivery to a single client for the client's own internal use.

APA takes care to provide accurate representation of the behavioral literature, but assumes no liability for errors or omissions and makes no warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.  APA assumes no responsibility for the customer's use of the information.

Under no circumstances can any files be electronically stored, altered, or distributed further without the explicit permission of the American Psychological Association.  To request permission for use other than authorized by this statement, please see APA Copyright and Permissions.  For more information about educational use, please see the APA Policy on Coursepacks and Electronic Reserve.

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