Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other
Non-Indexed Citations Database Guide
Menu:

Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (PREM), the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) in-process database for Ovid MEDLINE®, provides basic information and abstracts before a record is indexed with MeSH® heading(s) and added to Ovid MEDLINE. Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, like Ovid MEDLINE® itself, encompasses information from Index Medicus, Index to Dental Literature, and International Nursing, as well as other sources of coverage in the areas of allied health, biological and physical sciences, humanities and information science (as they relate to medicine and health care, communication disorders, population biology, and reproductive biology).

New records are added daily* to Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, appearing when the content of the record meets the scope of the Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations database. After MeSH® terms, publication types, GenBank accession numbers, and other indexing data are incorporated into a Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations record, the completed record is added to Ovid MEDLINE®. Completed Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations records are added as records to Ovid MEDLINE® on a weekly basis.

*Ovid downloads records from NLM daily, but is dependent upon the National Library of Medicine's update schedule.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
PREM   1950-Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 1 segment.

This database is updated online daily.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abbreviated Source (AS) ISSN (IS) Personal Name as Subject (PN)
  Abstract (AB) Issue/Part (IP) Publisher (PB)
  Authors (AU) Journal Name (JN, JT) Publishing Model (PI)
  Authors Full Name (FA) Journal Subset (SB) Publication Type (PT)
  Author Last Name (AX) Journal Word (JW) Record Owner (RO)
  CAS Registry Number/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) Keyword Heading (KW) Revision Date (RD)
  Comments (CM) Keyword Heading Word (KF) Secondary Source ID (MS)
  Country of Publication (CP) Language (LG) Source (SO)
  Date of Publication (DP) Local Messages (LM) Space Flight Mission (SM)
  Electronic Date of Publication (EP) MeSH Subject Heading (SH, DE, CT, SW) Status (ST)
  Entry Date (ED) Name of Substance Word (NM) Text Word (TW)
  General Note (NT) NLM Journal Code (JC) Title (TI)
  Grant Number (NO) NLM Journal Name (NJ) Unique Identifier (UI, AN)
  Institution (IN) NLM Journal Word (NW) Update Date (UP)
  Investigator (IR) Original Title (OT) Volume (VO)
  Investigator Affiliation (IA) Other Abstract (OA) Year of Publication (YR)
  ISSN Electronic (ES) Page (PG)  
Go: Menu or Back 
Default Fields for Unqualified Searches: Searching for a term without specifying a field searches the following fields.
  Abstract (AB) Name of Substance Word (NM)  
  Original Title (OT) Title (TI)  
Go: Menu or Back 

Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Investigator (IR) Record Owner (RO)
  Authors (AU) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Source (SO)
  Authors Full Name (FA) Keyword Heading (KW) Status (ST)
  CAS Registry Number/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) Original Title (OT) Title (TI)
  Comments (CM) Other Abstract (OA) Unique Identifier (UI)
  Institution (IN) Publication Type (PT) Year of Publication (YR)
Go: Menu or Back 

All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abbreviated Source (AS) Investigator (IR) Publishing Model (PI)
  Abstract (AB) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Publication Type (PT)
  Authors (AU) ISSN (IS) Record Owner (RO)
  Authors Full Name (FA) Journal Subset (SB) Revision Date (RD)
  CAS Registry Number/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) NLM Journal Code (JC) Source (SO)
  Comments (CM) Keyword Heading (KW) Space Flight Mission (SM)
  Country of Publication (CP) Language (LG) Status (ST)
  Electronic Date of Publication (EP) Local Messages (LM) Title (TI)
  Entry Date (ED) Molecular Sequence (MS) Update Code (UP)
  General Note (NT) Original Title (OT) Unique Identifier (UI)
  Grant Number (NO) Other Abstract (OA) Year of Publication (YR)
  Institution (IN) Personal Name as Subject (PN)  
Go: Menu or Back 
Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Issue/Part (IP) Publisher (PB) Volume (VO)
  Journal Name (JN) Page (PG) Year of Publication (YR)
Go: Menu or Back 
The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
bone density.ab.
drug abuse.ab.
 

Since 1975, Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations has included author-written abstracts from journals whose publishers gave the NLM permission for their use. These abstracts appear in the Abstract (AB) field. Over 50% of the documents in Ovid MEDLINE® contain abstracts.

The abstract index contains all searchable words from the abstract.

Back
AS Abbreviated Source [Display Only]
  The Abbreviated Source (AS) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Abbreviation (JA) or Monograph Publisher (PB), the Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Page (PG) and Date of Publication (DP).
Back
AU Authors [Phrase Indexed]
rise j.au.
smith $.au.
 

The Authors (AU) field contains the authors of the article. The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

Misspelled and corrected names are also included in the Authors Index to ensure all possible matches. Only correct author names display, while incorrectly spelled names are indexed along with the correct spelling of the name.

Back
AX Author Last Name [Phrase Indexed]
rise.ax.
smith$.ax.
  The Author Last Name (AX) index allows you to search for the authors’ last names. Author names display in Authors (AU) and Authors Full Name (FA) fields.
Back
CM Comments [Word Indexed]
winter.cm.
 

The Comments (CM) field contains an indication that the article either contains a comment on another article or is commented on in another article. The CM field begins with the indication "Comment On" or "Comment In" and then displays the Journal Abbreviation (JA), Date of Publication (DP), the Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), and Page (PG).

Articles that contain a comment display with [comment] appended to the end of the article title. Articles that are commented on in another article display with [see comment] appended to the end of the article title.

Back
CP Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
france.cp.
united states.cp.
  The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the full name of the country in which an article was published. The country name is entered into the index as a phrase.
Back
DP Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2000 sep 7.dp.
  The Date of Publication (DP) field consists of the date of publication for a citation, in the format YYYY MMM DD (1950 dec 3). The Month and day are not always present. This field is also displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.
Back
ED Entry Date [Phrase Indexed]
20061026.ed.
  The Entry Date (ED) field contains the issue (year, month and day) in which the document was indexed as a completed Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations record. This index appears in the format YYYYMMDD.
Back
EP Electronic Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
20050613.ep.
  The Electronic Date of Publication (EP) is the date the record or article was sent to NLM for inclusion in Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations. It displays in the YYYYMMDD format.
Back
ES ISSN Electronic [Phrase Indexed]
1744 7658.es.
 

The Electronic ISSN (ES) field contains the Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. It appears as an 8- digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793.

Both Electronic and Print ISSNs can be searched in the ISSN Print (IS) field.

Back
FA Authors Full Name [Phrase Indexed]
smith a j.fa.
 

The Authors Full Name (FA) field contains the full name of the authors of the article when available.

Back
FS Floating Subheading [Phrase Indexed]
poisoning.fs. 
po.fs.
 

Subheadings are qualifiers added to MeSH subject headings to refine their meaning.  Terms such as "etiology" or "therapy," when combined with a MeSH heading, give a precise idea of what an article covers.

The Floating Subheadings (FS) field contains both the 2-letter codes, such as "po," and the full heading, such as "poisoning." These are displayed following the corresponding MeSH Subject Headings.

Back
IA Investigator Affiliation [Word Indexed]
purdue u.ia
 

The Investigator Affiliation (IA) field contains the affiliation of the investigator of the article, and displays as part of the Institution (IN) field.

Back
IN Institution [Word Indexed]
harvard.in.
case western.in.
 

The Institution (IN) field contains the primary author's affiliation, which is usually the source for a reprint of the article. This index also contains the investigators affiliation. This information can be searched in most documents since 1988, but records from earlier years which were added to the database after 1988 may also contain institution information. Beginning with documents indexed in 1996, the primary author's email address will also be included, if present in the journal.

The information is taken from the source document and is not standardized. Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution (harvard, not university). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

Back
IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
"3".ip.
"45".ip.
  The Issue/Part (IP) field contains the Issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal. This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
Back
IR Investigator [Phrase Indexed]
young lr.ir.
zile mr.ir.
 

The Investigator (IR) field contains the NASA-funded principal investigator(s) who conducted the research. The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J.

Back
IS ISSN Print [Phrase Indexed]
1699 3993.is.
 

The ISSN Print (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. It appears as an 8 digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793.

Both Electronic and Print ISSNs can be searched in the IS field.

Back
JA Journal Abbreviation [Display Only]
 

The Journal Abbreviation (JA) is the journal title abbreviation that is displayed in the Abbreviated Source (AS) field and cannot be searched.

Back
JC NLM Journal Code [Phrase Indexed]
9888878.jc.
  The NLM Journal Code (JC) is an alpha-numeric code established by NLM which uniquely identifies every journal indexed in the NLM databases. Only the 7 digit code is searchable, in some cases the 3 digit alpha-numeric code will display as well.
Back
JN, JT Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
value in health.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published. Journal names are indexed as phrases, so enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index, as in: new engl (for New England Journal of Medicine). This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

If the first word of a Journal Name is “The”, it has been removed.

Back
JW Journal Word [Word Indexed]
obstetrics.jw.
psychology.jw.
  The Journal Word (JW) field contains individual words from every journal name in Ovid MEDLINE ® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
Back
KF Keyword Heading Word [Word Indexed]
nature.kf.
  The Keyword Heading Word (KF) field allows you to retrieve every Keyword Heading that includes a particular word.
Back
KW Keyword Heading [Phrase Indexed]
risk factors men.kw.
  The Keyword Heading (KW) field contains the Keyword Headings assigned by indexers at NLM to describe the content of an article. To retrieve every Keyword Heading that includes a particular word, search for the word in the Keyword Heading Word (KF) field.
Back
LG, LA Language [Phrase Indexed]
fre.lg.
german.lg
  The Language (LG) field contains the language(s) of publication of an article. The language name will appear in the index as a 3-letter code (such as fre for French) and as the full name (French). The codes are usually, but not always, the first three letters of the language name. The language index is quickly scrollable to determine all languages which appear in Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations.
Back
MS Secondary Source ID [Phrase Indexed]
swissprot-s33667.ms.
 

The Secondary Source ID (MS) field contains a secondary source databank organizational acronym and unique identifier pertaining to an outside resource discussed in Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations articles. The field is composed of the source acronym followed by a hyphen and the unique identifier: genbank-x55010.

The Secondary Source ID (MS) formerly known as the Molecular Sequence field was added to Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations in 1988.

Back
NJ NLM Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
ultrasonics sonochemistry.nj.
  The NLM Journal Name (NJ) field contains the full name of the journal in which an article was published.
Back
NM, RW Name of Substance Word [Word Indexed]
binding.nm.
enzyme$.nm.
 

The Name of Substance (NM) field contains single words from the CAS Registry Number/EC Number (RN) field and is used to search portions of chemical names. This field displays as part of the CAS Registry Number/EC Number (RN) field.

The Name of Substance (NM) field was added to Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations in 1980.

Back
NO Grant Number [Phrase Indexed]
rr00954.no.
  The Grant Numbers (NO) field was created by NLM in 1981 to specify documents reporting on federally-funded research. Grant or contract numbers are displayed in full, but special characters except hyphens have been removed from the index.
Back
NT General Note [Display Only]
  The General Note (NT) field contains either a series name and number or general supplementary information about an item. The notes may include information on the availability of a bibliography, ordering information for dissertations or hearings, or general summaries of materials such as manuals or scripts. A series title may appear for a book or for audiovisual materials.
Back
NW NLM Journal Word [Word Indexed]
labor.nw.
safety.nw.
  The NLM Journal Word (NW) field contains individual words from every journal name in the NLM Journal Names (NJ) field.
Back
OA Other Abstract [Word Indexed]
crime.oa.
 

The Other Abstract (OA) field includes a brief abstract written by collaborating partners. The OA field is indexed in Abstract (AB) field, and contains all searchable words from the other abstract. Collaborating partners include:

 

AIDS

  Special HIV/AIDS publications with abstracts written by someone other than the author
 

KIE

  Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University
 

NASA

  National Aeronautics and Space Administration
 

PIP

  Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs
Back
OT Original Title [Word Indexed]
zytokinen.ot.
  The Original Title (OT) includes any non-English titles in the original language. If the original title was in a non-Roman alphabet, then the OT is transliterated.
Back
PA

Primary Author [Phrase Indexed]
smith rh.pa.
smith$.pa.

 

The Primary Author (PA) field contains the first author listed for the article.  This allows users to search for articles by any primary author. Author names display in Authors (AU) and Authors Full Name (FA) fields.

Searching for smith rh.pa. will return results where Smith RH was listed as the main author of the article.

Back
PB Publisher [Word Indexed]
Law.pb.
  The Publisher (PB) field contains publisher information for books, monographs or any non-journal publications. This information is taken from the source document as it appears, so variant forms of a publisher are possible. This field is usually displayed as part of the Source (S0) field.
Back
PG Page [Phrase Indexed]
"44".pg.
a1.pg.
x.pg.
 

The Page (PG) field consists of the inclusive pagination of a journal article. Often a journal title combined with the beginning page number is enough to locate a citation. You can search for pages with alphanumeric characters, such as "a1.pg."

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Back
PI Publishing Model [Display Only]
  The Publishing Model (PI) field provides the model of publishing of the original document described in the record. The field indicates if the article cited is available in Print or Electronic format. It also indicates if the citation was converted from a Print or Internet source. This field is display only; you cannot search in this field.
Back
PN Personal Name as Subject [Phrase Indexed]
monet c$.pn.
adams s$.pn.
 

The Personal Name As Subject (PN) field displays the name of a well-known person if they are discussed in an article, such as an interview or obituary.

The format for Personal Name is the same as for Author -- last name and initials: Bach JS. Enter a last name and one initial if known.

Back
PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
retracted publication.pt.
 

In addition to indexing documents with Medical Subject Headings, the indexers at the National Library of Medicine assign terms to describe the article type. Publication Types include such classifications as reviews, clinical trials, directories and letters. These terms appear in the Publication Type (PT) field.

To view the index, enter enough letters to distinguish a publication type (jour for "journal article"); the entire index is quickly scrollable to determine all possible publication types.

Back
RD Revision Date [Phrase Indexed]
20011219.rd.
  The Revision Date (RD) field contains the issue (year, month and day) in which the document was revised in Index Medicus. The RD field appears in the format YYYYMMDD. Previously, the RD field was indexed with the Entry Date (ED) field. Now, it is a separate index.
Back
RN CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance [Phrase Indexed]
38404-93-2-5.rn.
ec 1-1-1-101.rn.
 

The CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) field contains the Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number or Enzyme Commission number for a compound mentioned in an article. If the generic compound name can be determined, it is included. This field was added to Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations in 1980.

Registry numbers appear with hyphens (50-00-0). EC numbers appear in the format ec 1-1-1-3. Chemical names appear with all special characters except hyphens removed.

Back
RO Record Owner [Phrase Indexed]
nlm.ro.
 

The Record Owner (RO) field contains the owner of the record.

 

HMD

  History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine
 

HSR

  Health Services Research
 

KIE

  Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University
 

NASA

  National Aeronautics and Space Administration
 

NLM

  National Library of Medicine
 

PIP

  Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs
Back
SB Journal Subset [Phrase Indexed]
b.sb.
aim.sb.
 

The Journal Subset (SB) field identifies the subset for MEDLINE records from certain journal lists or records on specialized topics. Some of these values are found on extremely small numbers of records. Citations may contain more than one occurrence of this field. The value is true at the time the record was created. If the status of a journal changes, the value on the record does not change.

Subset field values and their definitions are as follows. Note that several are closed subsets no longer being assigned.

  AIM   citations from Abridged Index Medicus journals, a list of about 120 core clinical, English language journals.
  B   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of biotechnology (not currently used).
  C   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of communication disorders (not currently used).
  D   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of dentistry; earlier citations appeared in Index to Dental Literature. See the current List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE (LJI) under Dentistry and Orthodontics.
  E   citations in the field of bioethics. (Includes records from the former BIOETHICSLINE database)
  F   older citations from one journal prior to its selection for Index Medicus. Used to augment the database for NLM's International MEDLARS Centers (not currently used).
  H   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of health administration. (Includes records from the former HealthSTAR database)
  IM   citations from Index Medicus journals.
  J   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of population information. (Not currently used; on records from the former POPLINE® database)
  K   citations from non-Index Medicus journals relating to consumer health.
  N   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of nursing; these citations appeared in the International Nursing Index. See the current List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE (LJI) under Nursing.
  OM   pre-1966 citations (including records from the former OLDMEDLINE database).
  Q   citations in the field of the history of medicine. (Includes records from the former HISTLINE® database)
  QIS   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of the history of medicine. (For NLM use effective as of late 2006 because they require special handling at NLM. QIS is not a subset of Q but some journals previously designated as Q are now designated as QIS.)
  QO   is subset of Q - indicates older history of medicine journal citations that were created before the former HISTLINE file was converted to a MEDLINE-like format. (For NLM use because they require special handling at NLM).
  R   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of population and reproduction; these citations appeared in Population Sciences (not currently used).
  S   citations in the field of space life sciences. (Includes records from the former SPACELINE™ database)
  T   citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of health technology assessment. (Includes records from the former HealthSTAR database)
  X   citations in the field of AIDS/HIV. (Includes records from the former AIDSLINE® database)
Back
SH MeSH Subject Heading [Phrase Indexed]
English abstract publication type.sh.
 

The MeSH Subject Headings (SH) field contains the Medical Subject Headings used by indexers at NLM to describe the content of an article. NLM's MeSH terms are organized in a hierarchy, or "tree" structure.

MeSH headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched as they appear in the NLM MeSH books or in our Tree display.

Back
SM Space Flight Mission [Phrase Indexed]
flight experiment.sm.
galileo project.sm.
  The Space Flight Mission (SM) field provides descriptive values for each Space Flight Mission.
Back
SO Source (JN, PB, PG, YR, VO, IP)
xxxviii.pg
  The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a record, including the full Journal Name (JN), Publisher (PB), the Issue/Part (IP), Page (PG), Volume (VO), and Date of Publication (DP).
Back
ST Status [Phrase Indexed]
"pubmed not medline".st
 

The Status (ST) field contains the status of the record.

 

PubMed-not-MEDLINE

  Records that have gone through the second record-level review, but are from non-Medline journals or precede the date a journal was selected for MEDLINE indexing but are now being submitted for inclusion.
 

In-Data-Review

  Records that have passed the first step in quality control and will either be reissued as In-process records or go directly to PubMed-not-MEDLINE as the final record status.
 

In-Process

  Records that are electronically submitted and have gone through the second record-level review.

Use the Status limits, available on the Main Search Page, to differentiate between In-Data-Review, In-Process and PubMed-not-MEDLINE records.

Back
TI Title [Word Indexed]
bone.ti.
nursing care.ti.
  The Title (TI) field contains the English language version of a title. For documents which were not written in English, the original or transliterated title appears in a separate field, Original Title (OT).
Back
TW Text Word (AB, TI)
diazepam.tw.
squibb.tw.
 

The Text Word (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in a database which contain text words and which are appropriate for a subject search.

The Text Word field in Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations includes Title (TI) and Abstract (AB).

Back
UI, AN Unique Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
"9925632".ui.
 

The Unique Identifier (UI) field contains an 8-digit number assigned by NLM to uniquely identify a particular record. This number is also the one used to locate the document through NLM's document delivery service. This number was formerly the PubMed Identifier (PMID).

PubMed no longer supplies PMID numbers with the input data. You can search for PMID and UI pairs using NLM's Matcher tool, located on NLM's website at http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/publisher/uidpmid.cgi/.

You can also download a full table of PMID numbers and their related Unique Identifiers can be found at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/. This location includes 6 .zip files that comprise the full table of pairs:

  MuId-PmId-1.zip       MuId-PmId-4.zip
 

MuId-PmId-2.zip

 

MuId-PmId-5.zip

 

MuId-PmId-3.zip

 

MuId-PmId-6.zip

Back
UP Update Date [Phrase Indexed]
"20061211".up.
  The Update Date (UP) field contains the date the record was added to Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations since the yearly reload completion. The Update Date for existing records changes with each global reload to reflect the date Ovid starts processing the reload data. The UP field appears in the format YYYYMMDD.
Back
VO Volume [Word Indexed]
"49".vo.
"13".vo.
  The Volume (VO) field consists of the volume and issue of a serial publication. This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
Back
YR Year of Publication
"2000".yr.
  The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which an article or monograph was published. Only the four digit years appear in the index.
Go: Menu or Back 

 

Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y heart attack or myocardial infarction "Chronic traumatic aneurysm of the left main coronary artery causing myocardial infarction."

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y blood pressure and stroke "Treatment of high blood pressure in acute stroke"

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y health reform not health maintenance organizations "the rhetoric and reality of health reform in New Zealand"

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y blood adj pressure "Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring"

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other.You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y physician adj5 relationship "Changes in physician-patient relationship"

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n) of words from each other in any order. To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99. For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship within five words of each other in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship of the physician to the patient.
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab./freq=5 "Is the accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices underestimated at increasing blood pressure levels?"

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ disease$ "identify genes responsible for diseases and traits"

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1 "renal function in healthy dogs"

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n "serum homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women"

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r "Hair changes. Age has effect on color, thickness."

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y"

"anterior/posterior"

"anterior/posterior (A/P) functional cerebral asymmetry"

"n"

"3".vo

"Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery. 3(3):185-92, 1999 Sep."

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

Go: Menu or Back 

 

Stopwords

At customer request, Stopwords have been eliminated from this database. You can now search for words or phrases like is there hope.tw.  Previously such searches would have returned an error because they included stopwords.

Go: Menu or Back 

 

Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the OvidSP Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax

Abstracts

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to abstracts

Command Syntax: ..l/ ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract. Over 50% of Ovid MEDLINE (R) records after 1975 contain abstracts. All abstracts included in Ovid MEDLINE (R) are in English and were written by the author(s) of the original article.

English Language

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to english

Command Syntax: ..l/1 en=y
  A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles which are written in the English language. Foreign language articles with English abstracts will be eliminated by a limit to English.

Full Text

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to full text

  A limit to Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.

In Data Review

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "in data review"

  Limiting to In Data Review records will restrict retrieval to records that have passed the first step in quality control and will either be reissued as In-process records or go directly to PubMed-not-MEDLINE as the final record status.

In Process

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to in process

  Limiting to In Process records will restrict retrieval to records which are electronically submitted and have gone through the second citation-level review.

Journal Subsets

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "core clinical journals (aim)"

Command Syntax: ..l/1 sb=aim
  NLM databases contain several subsets of broad journal categories such as "AIM Journals" or "Dentistry Journals". You can restrict your retrieval to any of these subsets by a limit to journal subset. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of Journal Subsets from which to select.

Languages

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to french

Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=fre
  A limit to Language will restrict retrieval to any of the languages indexed by NLM. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of languages from which to select.

Ovid Full Text Available

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to Ovid Full Text Available

  A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available. When viewing a citation with full text available use the LINK button to display the full text.

Publication Types

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to journal article
limit 1 to clinical trial
limit 1 to clinical trial, all
limit 1 to journal article

  A limit by Publication Type will restrict retrieval by any of the over forty publication types indexed by NLM, including classifications such as "bibliography", "classical article", "clinical trial", and so on.

Publication Year

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to yr=1996

Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=1996
  You can restrict retrieval to any of the years which this Ovid MEDLINE (R) segment covers. If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits: "1989" or a range: "1994-1995".

PubMed Not MEDLINE

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "pubmed not medline"

  Limiting to PubMed not MEDLINE records will restrict retrieval to records that have gone through the second citation-level review, but are from non-Medline journals or precede the date a journal was selected for MEDLINE indexing but are now being submitted for inclusion.

Review Articles

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to "review articles"

  A limit to Review Articles will restrict retrieval to articles which are reviews of a subject. For NLM databases this includes all review types: Review Literature; Review of Reported Cases; Review, Academic; Review, Multicase; and Review, Tutorial.
Go: Menu or Back 

 

Tools

Currently no tools are available for this database.

Go: Menu or Back 

 

Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the change database icon on the Main Search Page.
Go: Menu or Back 

 

Sample Documents
Sample 1
Unique Identifier
15073816
Record Owner
NLM
Status
PubMed-not-MEDLINE
Authors
Wallstrom P. Elmstahl S. Johansson U. Ostergren PO. Hanson BS.
Authors Full Name
Wallstrom, P. Elmstahl, S. Johansson, U. Ostergren, P O. Hanson, B S.
Institution
Department of Medicine, University of Lund, S-205 02 Malmo, Sweden.
Title
Usage and users of natural remedies in a middle-aged population: demographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study.
Source
Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety. 5(5):303-14, 1996 Sep.
Abbreviated Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 5(5):303-14, 1996 Sep.
NLM Journal Name
Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety
Publishing Model
Journal available in: Print
Citation processed from: Print
NLM Journal Code
d0r, 9208369
Country of Publication
England
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In Sweden, large amounts of money are spent annually on natural remedies (NRs), in spite of the fact that most products in this category lack scientific documentation of their efficacy and side-effects. The usage and users of natural remedies are not well defined. This paper describes NR use and NR users in a city in southern Sweden, and tests the hypothesis that the use of natural remedies is a strategy for coping with psychosocial stressors. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 6545 men and women, aged 45-65 years, who during 1991 and 1992 participated in the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study, a large-scale prospective cohort study. Data on consumption of natural remedies were recorded during seven consecutive days, as part of a dietary assessment. Each participant also completed a questionnaire, covering education, work history, alcohol and smoking habits, perceived health, and psychosocial factors such as social network, social support, job strain and global control. Body composition was also measured. RESULTS: The prevalence of NR consumption was 26% among women and 17% among men. NR use was most common during winter and spring. The most popular products were ginseng, garlic, and various herb and plant extracts. Important determinants of NR usage were higher education, Swedish origin, and lifestyle factors like low body weight fat percentage and high alcohol consumption among women. Other determinants were higher age and non-smoking among men. None of the psychosocial factors appeared to influence the prevalence of NR consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NR consumption is influenced by sex, demographic factors, season of the year, and lifestyle. Use of NRs does not appear to be a common strategy for coping with psychosocial stress.
ISSN Print
1053-8569
Publication Type
Journal Article.
Language
English
Date of Publication
1996 Sep
Entry Date
20040630
Update Date
20061211
Sample 2
Unique Identifier
16588265
Record Owner
NLM
Status
PubMed-not-MEDLINE
Authors
Burks, BS.
Authors Full Name
Burks, B S.
Institution
Carnegie Institution of Washington, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island.
Title
Autosomal Linkage in Man-The Recombination Ratio between Congenital Tooth Deficiency and Hair Color.
Source
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 24(11):512-9, 1938 Nov.
Abbreviated Source Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 24(11):512-9, 1938 Nov.
NLM Journal Name
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Publishing Model
Journal available in: Print
Citation processed from: Print
NLM Journal Code

pv3, 7505876 Country of Publication
United States
ISSN Print
0027-8424
Publication Type
Journal Article.
Language
English
Date of Publication
1938 Nov
Entry Date
20060601
Update Date
20061211
Go: Menu or Back 

 

Producer Information
Producer
  National Library of Medicine
MEDLARS Management Section
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20894
Phone: (888) FIND-NLM (888.346.3656)
Website: http://www.nlm.nih.gov
Jane Rosov
8600 Rockville Pike
Building 38A, Mr 4N421
Bethesda, MD 20894
Telephone: (301) 496-7706
Fax: (301) 496-0822
janer@nlm.nih.gov
Copyright

LM represents that the data provided within Ovid MEDLINE® is formulated with a reasonable standard of care. Except for this representation, and as otherwise specifically provided herein, NLM makes no representations or warranties, expressed or implied. This includes but is not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the NLM databases, and NLM specifically disclaims any such warranties and representations. Downloading data is permitted for personal use only. Some material in the NLM databases is from copyrighted publications of the respective copyright claimants. Users of the NLM databases are solely responsible for compliance with any copyright restrictions and are referred to the publication data appearing in the bibliographic records, as well as to the copyright notices appearing in the original publications, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

The following use of data from Ovid MEDLINE, AIDSLINE, BIOETHICSLINE, Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and HEALTHSTAR requires no written permission from or signed licence agreement with NLM:

Users may download small amounts of data, e.g., the bibliographic record and MeSH® terms, for a small number of records from the databases listed above for redistribution either via a printed publication or in electronic form using the Internet, World Wide Web, etc. Downloading from a MEDLARS licensee, such as OVID, is subject to the licensee's approval.

Definitions:

  1. Download includes ftping results of an online search, arranging for the results of an automatic stored search to be available for ftp, ftping MEDLARS data from the NLM server (nlmpubs.nlm.nih.gov), or a traditional download using a modem.
  2. Small is defined as approximately 1,000 records per month from Ovid MEDLINE® 12,000 per year. Retrospective pulls of Ovid MEDLINE® may include up to approximately 12,000 records for each year covered. For other MEDLARS databases, fewer than 25% of records in the file may be downloaded. For larger portions of a MEDLARS database, contact Janer@nlm.nuh.gov or 301-496-7706 for licensing information.
  3. Data is defined as bibliographic records and MeSH® terms. This document grants permission to download only the bibliographic records and MeSH® terms, it does not cover author abstracts from the journals which are included in Ovid MEDLINE® and other MEDLARS databases. Users should obtain an opinion from their legal counsel for any use they plan for the author-generated abstracts in the MEDLARS database.

Terms and Conditions:

Users must ensure that all downloaded publicly accessible data stored in electronic form for over one year must be in compliance with the following provisions of the NLM license agreement:

  1. Users of this data must be provided a clear description of how the product/service was derived, indicating the currency and the source database.
  2. At least annually, the data downloaded must be corrected to incorporate the corrections NLM has made to these records during the year in and year end maintenance. MEDLARS data in any subsequently produced product/service must be carefully checked with that maintained on NLM's version of the database at the end of each calendar year and corrections made.
  3. Users are advised to consult legal counsel to ensure compliance with intellectual property laws. NLM cannot provide advice about copyright issues.
  4. Since NLM goes to considerable efforts to assign MeSH® terms, it prefers that these be retained as assigned by the indexers.
  5. All downloaded NLM records (or portions thereof) must be labeled so as to identify NLM as the source.
  6. Trademark symbols must properly be used when referring to the NLM databases, system and products. A product/service using downloaded data must be named in a fashion that clearly distinguishes it from NLM-produced databases accessible at NLM.
Go: Menu or Back