MEDLINE ® 2017 Database Guide
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Ovid MEDLINE ® covers the international literature on biomedicine, including the allied health fields and the biological and physical sciences, humanities, and information science as they relate to medicine and health care. Information is indexed from approximately 5,600 journals published world-wide. Records start in the early 1800's and go all the way to our daily updates.

Ovid MEDLINE ® is produced by the National Library of Medicine.

Non MEDLINE Status Records

The Ovid MEDLINE® database contains records with the following possible status besides MEDLINE: Publisher, In-Data-Review, In-Process and PubMed-not-MEDLINE records from NLM.

The Publisher records have recently been added to PubMed via electronic submission from a publisher, and are soon to proceed to the next stage, In-Process. This tag is also on citations received before late 2003 if they are from journals not indexed for MEDLINE, or from a journal that was accepted for MEDLINE after the citations' publication date. These citations bibliographic data have not been reviewed.

The In-Data-Review records have been submitted to NLM electronically by the publisher, and the journal title, date of publication and volume/issue (source data) are being checked.

The In-Process records are undergoing a citation level review; i.e., the author names, article title, and pagination are being checked.

The PubMed-not-MEDLINE records have undergone quality review but are not assigned MeSH headings because the cited item is not in scope for MEDLINE either by topic or by date of publication, or is from a non-MEDLINE journal. These records are constantly changing. PubMed-not-MEDLINE records will not be added to the Medline database.

Ovid receives records from NLM on a daily basis, however we are dependent upon NLM's update schedule.

Segments and Years of Coverage

The following Ovid MEDLINE segments are available to online users. Contact your local administrator to add or remove segments.

 

Name   Description   Years of Coverage
MED1 Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to 1979
MED2 Ovid MEDLINE® 1980 to 1987
MED3 Ovid MEDLINE® 1988 to 1995
MED4 Ovid MEDLINE® 1996 to 2003
MED5 Ovid MEDLINE® 2004 to 2007
MED6 Ovid MEDLINE® 2008 to 2010
MED7 Ovid MEDLINE® 2011 to 2012
MED8 Ovid MEDLINE® 2013 to August Week 2 2017
MDFC Ovid MEDLINE® 1996 to Present with Weekly Update
MDXC Ovid MEDLINE® 1996 to Present with Daily & weekly Update
MEDB Ovid MEDLINE® without Revisions 1946 to 1995
MEDC Ovid MEDLINE® All Corrections with Monthly Update
MEDF Ovid MEDLINE® without Revisions 1996 to Present with Weekly Update
MEDL Ovid MEDLINE® August Week 3 2017 to Weekly Update
MEDP Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print Updated Daily
MEDV Ovid MEDLINE® Versions All Versions with Weekly Update
MEDW Ovid MEDLINE® 2013 to Weekly Update
MEDX Ovid MEDLINE® without Revisions 1996 to Present with Daily Update
MESD Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Daily Update
MESX Ovid MEDLINE® Updated Daily
MESZ Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Weekly Update
MEZZ Ovid MEDLINE® without Revisions 1946 to Present with Weekly Update
OMES Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Daily Update
OMME Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Weekly Update
PMED Ovid MEDLINE® Practice Database 2000
PMEZ Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE® Daily and Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Weekly with Daily & Weekly Update
PMFC

Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE®

1996 to Daily Update
PMOZ Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® Daily 1946 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update
POMM Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update
PPEM Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print and In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Ovid MEDLINE® Updated Daily
PPEZ Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update
PPEZV Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE® Daily, Ovid MEDLINE and Versions® 1946 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update
PPFC Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® 1996 to Daily Update
PPFF Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® without Revisions 1996 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update
PPMC Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® 2013 to Daily Update
PPMW Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® without Revisions 2013 to Daily Update
PPMZ Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update
PREM Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Updated Daily
PRMF Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® without Revisions 1996 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update
PRMZ Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE® 1946 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 14 segments.

This database is updated online daily, weekly and monthly.

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
Abbreviated Source (AS) Floating Subheading (FS) Page (PG)
Abstract (AB) Editors Full Name (FE) Personal Name as Subject (PN)
Article Identifier (ID) Gene Symbol (GS) Place of Publication (PL)
Authors (AU) Gene Symbol Word (GW) PMC Identifier (PM)
Authors Full Name (FA) General Note (NT) Primary Author (PA)
Author Last Name (AX) Grant Acronym (GR) Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS)
Author Name ID (AI) Grant Country (GC) Protocol Supplementary Concept Word (PX)
Beginning Date (BD) Grant Information (GI) Publication History Status (PH)
Book Accession (BK) Grant Number (NO) Publication Status (PP)
Book Authors (BA) Grant Organization (GO) Publishing Model (PI)
Book Authors Full Name (BF) Indexing Method (IG) Publication Type (PT)
Book Edition (BN) Institution (IN) Publisher (PB)
Book Editors (BE) Investigator (IR) Publisher Item Identifier (DI)
Book Part (PR) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS)
Book Title (BT) Investigator NameID (IX) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word (RX)
Book Volume (BV) ISBN (IB) Record Owner (RO)
CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) ISO Journal Abbreviation (IO) Report Number (RR)
Citation String (CS) ISSN Electronic (ES) Revision Date (RD)
Collection Title (CL) ISSN Linking (IL) Season (SE)
Comments (CM) ISSN Print (IS) Secondary Source AN (SA)
Conflict of Interest (CI) Issue/Part (IP) Secondary Source ID (SI)
Contribution Date (CB) Journal Name (JN) Secondary Source Link (SL)
Copyright Index (CR) Journal Subset (SB) Section (SN)
Country of Publication (CP) Journal Word (JW) Source (SO)
Create Date (DT) Keyword Heading (KW) Space Flight Mission (SM)
Date Created (DC) Keyword Heading Word (KF) Status (ST)
Date of Publication (DP) Language (LG) Subject Heading Word (HW)
DOI (DO) Media Type (MT) Synonyms (SY)
Editors (EE) MeSH Date (DA) Text Word (TW)
Editor Last Name (EX) MeSH Subject Heading (SH) Title (TI)
Electronic Date of Publication (EP) Name of Substance Word (NM) Title Comment (TC)
Ending Date (ET) NLM Journal Code (JC) Unique Identifier (UI)
Entrez Date (EZ) NLM Journal Name (NJ) Update Date (UP)
Entry Date (ED) NLM Journal Word (NW) Version Date (VD)
Equal Contributor (EC) Object ID (OJ) Version ID (VI)
Exploded MeSH Heading (XM) Original Title (OT) Volume (VO)
Exploded Subheading (XS) Other Abstract (OA) Volume Book Title (VB)
  Other ID (OI) Year of Publication (YR)
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches: Searching for a term without specifying a field searches the following fields.
Abstract (AB) Protocol Supplementary Concept Word (PX) Synonyms (SY)
Keyword Heading Word (KF) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word (RX) Title (TI)
Name of Substance Word (NM) Subject Heading Word (HW) Unique Identifier (UI)
Original Title (OT)    
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

Abstract (AB) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Record Owner (RO)
Authors (AU) Keyword Heading (KW) Source (SO)
Author's Full Name (FA) MeSH Subject Heading (SH) Secondary Source Link (SL)
CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) Original Title (OT) Status (ST)
Date of Publication (DP) Other Abstract (OA) Title (TI)
Institution (IN) Other ID (OI) Unique Identifier (UI)
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

Abbreviated Source (AS) Entry Date (ED) Other Abstract (OA)
Abstract (AB) Equal Contributor (EC) Personal Name as Subject (PN)
Article Identifier (ID) Editors Full Name (FE) Place of Publication (PL)
Authors (AU) Gene Symbol (GS) PMC Identifier (PM)
Authors Full Name (FA) General Note (NT) Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS)
Author Name ID (AI) Grant Acronym (GR) Publication History Status (PH)
Beginning Date (BD) Grant Country (GC) Publication Status (PP)
Book Accession (BK) Grant Information (GI) Publisher Item Identifier (DI)
Book Authors (BA) Grant Number (NO) Publishing Model (PI)
Book Authors Full Name (BF) Grant Organization (GO) Publication Type (PT)
Book Edition (BN) Indexing Method (IG) Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS)
Book Editors (BE) ISSN Linking (IL) Record Owner (RO)
Book Part (PR) ISSN Electronic (ES) Report Number (RR)
Book Title (BT) Institution (IN) Revision Date (RD)
Book Volume (BV) Investigator (IR) Season (SE)
CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) Investigator Affiliation (IA) Secondary Source AN (SA)
Citation String (CS) Investigator NameID (IX) Secondary Source ID (SI)
Collection Title (CL) ISBN (IB) Secondary Source Link (SL)
Comments (CM) ISO Journal Abbreviation (IO) Section (SN)
Conflict of Interest (CI) ISSN Print (IS) Source (SO)
Contribution Date (CB) Journal Subset (SB) Space Flight Mission (SM)
Copyright Index (CR) Keyword Heading (KW) Status (ST)
Country of Publication (CP) Language (LG) Synonyms (SY)
Create Date (DT) Local Messages (LM) Title (TI)
Date Created (DC) Media Type (MT) Unique Identifier (UI)
Date of Publication (DP) MeSH Date (DA) Update Date (UP)
DOI (DO) MeSH Subject Heading (SH) Version Date (VD)
Editors (EE) NLM Journal Code (JC) Version ID (VI)
Editor Last Name (EX) NLM Journal Name (NJ) Volume Book Title (VB)
Electronic Date of Publication (EP) Object ID (OJ) Year of Publication (YR)
Ending Date (ET) Original Title (OT)  
Entrez Date (EZ) Other ID (OI)  
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
Book Edition (BN) Journal Name (JN) Season (SE)
Book Title (BT) Page (PG) Volume (VO)
Book Volume (BV) Publisher (PB) Year of Publication (YR)
Issue/Part (IP)    
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
f108.ab.

Since 1975, NLM has included author-written abstracts from journals whose publishers gave the NLM permission for their use. These abstracts appear in the Abstract (AB) field. Over 50% of the documents in Ovid MEDLINE (R) contain abstracts. The abstract index contains all searchable words from the abstract.

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AI Author NameID [Word]
5371.ai.
Author NameID (AI) field contains author's full name and its unique identifiers may be supplied by the publisher for records added or updated beginning in January 2013. The identifier may be an Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), an International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI),Ringgold, or from the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF).

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AS Abbreviated Source [Display Only]

The Abbreviated Source (AS) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Abbreviation (JA) or monograph Publisher (PB), the Volume(VO), Issue/Part (IP), Page (PG) and Date of Publication (DP).

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AU Authors [Phrase Indexed]
zzmenoglu m.au.

The Authors (AU) field contains the authors of the article.  The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials:  Smith JC or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

Misspelled and corrected names are now included in the Author Index to ensure all possible matches. Only correct author names display, while incorrectly spelled names are indexed along with the correct spelling of the name.

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AX Author Last Name [Phrase Indexed]
fabiola.ax.
The Author Last Name (AX) index allows you to search for the authors’ last names. Author names display in Authors (AU) and Authors Full Name (FA) fields.
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BA Book Authors [Phrase Indexed]
board on health sciences policy.ba.
The Book Authors (BA) field contains the list of authors associated with the book article. The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial.

This field is displayed in the Authors (AU) field.

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BD Beginning Date

Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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BE Book Editors [Phrase Indexed]
frostig rd.be.
The Book Editors (BE) field contains the list of editors associated with the book article. The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial.

This field is displayed in the Editors (EE) field.

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BF Book Authors Full Name [Phrase Indexed]
coffey.bf.
The Book Authors Full Name (BF) field contains the full name of the book authors of the article when available.

This field is displayed in the Authors Full Name (FA) field.

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BK Book Accession

Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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BN Book Edition [Word Indexed]
2nd.bn.
The Book Edition (BN) field contains the edition information of book citations. This information displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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BT Book Title [Word Indexed]
aerodigestive.bt.
The Book Title (BT) field appears in book citations only, and contains the title of the book in which the chapter appears.

This information displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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BV Book Volume [Word Indexed]
samplevol1.bv.
The Book Volume (BV) field contains the volume information of book citations. This information displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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CB Contribution Date

Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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CI Conflict of Interest [Word Indexed]

The Conflict of Interest (CI) field contains disclosure statements as provided by the publisher. This field was introduced in 2017.
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CL Collection Title [Word Indexed]
frontiers.cl.
The Collection Title (CL) field contains the title of book collection where the book citation belongs to.
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CM Comments [Word Indexed]
e296.cm.
The Comments (CM) field contains an indication that the article either contains a comment on another article or is commented on in another article. The CM field  begins with the indication "Comment On" or "Comment In" and then displays the Journal Abbreviation (JA), Date of Publication (DP), Volume (VO), Issue/Part(IP) and Page (PG).

Articles that contain a comment display with [comment] appended to the end of the article title. Articles that are commented on in another article display with [see comment] appended to the end of the article title.
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CP

Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
new zealand.cp.

The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the full name of the country in which an article was published. The country name is entered into the index as a phrase.
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CR

Copyright Index [Word Indexed]
reserved.cr.

The Copyright Index (CR) index contains published information and it will be display at the end of Abstract (AB) or Other Abstract (OA) field if available. The Copyright Index (CR) is a word indexed.
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CS Citation String

Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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DA

MeSH Date [Phrase Indexed]
2016 03 25 0600.da.

The MeSH Date (DA) field contains the date MeSH terms were added to the citation. The MeSH date is the same as the Entrez date until MeSH are added. This index appears in the format YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM.
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DC Date Created [ Phrase Indexed]
20170126.dc.

Date Created (DC) field contains the date that NLM processing of the record begins, in the format YYYYMMDD (19411201).

This is contrasted with Entry Date (ED), which is the date processing ends. Date Created is not the same as NLM's PubMed Entrez Date (EDAT), which is the date the record entered PubMed.

For citations up to about the year 2000, the Date Created (DC) and Entry Date (ED) data elements are identical. These dates were derived from NLM's legacy ELHILL system.

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DI Publisher Item Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
s1413.di.

The Publisher Item Identifier (DI) field uniquely identifies individual published documents that are provided by the publisher for new citation submitted. The full PII appears as such e.g .S0036-36342008000600005.

Search all PII's by replacing punctuation with spaces such as "S0036 36342008000600005".di. for the displayed PII of S0036-36342008000600005.

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DO DOI [Phrase Indexed]
pi 2013 662065.do.
The DOI (DO) field contains the Digital Object Identifier - a unique and persistent digital identification code for any object of intellectual property. The DOI itself consists of two parts: a prefix which is assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency, e.g., "10.1097", and a suffix which is assigned by the publisher and can be any code that the publisher chooses, e.g., "00045415-200111000-00002". The full DOI appears as such: "10.1097/00045415-200111000-00002". Search all DOI's by replacing punctuation with spaces such as "10 1016 j adnc 2003 08 001".do. for the displayed DOI of 10.1016/j.adnc.2003.08.001. (all DOI information provided to Ovid is loaded as it becomes available from NLM).
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DP Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
summer 2016.dp.
The Date of Publication (DP) field consists of the date of publication for a citation, in the format YYYY MMM DD (1950 dec 3). The Month and day are not always present. This field is also displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.
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DT Create Date [Phrase Indexed]
2016 03 25 0600.dt.
The Create Date (DT) field contains the date when it was added to PubMed. It was implemented with all PubMed records when the 2009 system became available on December 15, 2008. All records added to PubMed prior to implementation received a Create Date equal to Entrez Date (EZ). This index appears in the format YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM.
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EC Equal Contributor

Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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ED Entry Date [Phrase Indexed]
20130215.ed.
The Entry Date (ED) field contains the date processing of the record ends; i.e., MeSH Headings have been added, quality assurance validations are completed, and the completed record subsequently is distributed to PubMed. This is contrasted with Date Created (DC) that is the date processing begins.
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EE Editors [Phrase Indexed]
sankaranarayanan r.ee.
The Editors (EE) field contains the list of editors associated with the book article. The format for editors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial.

The Editor (EE) field is phrase indexed.

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EP Electronic Date of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
20091023.ep.

The Electronic Date of Publication (EP) is the date the record was sent to NLM for inclusion in MEDLINE (R). This index appears in the format YYYYMMDD.

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ES ISSN Electronic [Phrase Indexed]
0003 3898.is.

The ISSN Electronic (ES) field contains the Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. It appears as an 8 digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793. To retrieve all of the articles for a journal, search by the Journal Name (JN).

Both Electronic and Print ISSNs can be searched in the ISSN Print (IS) field.

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ET Ending Date
2016.et.
Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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EX Editor Last Name [Phrase Indexed]
gelband.ex.
The Editor Last Name (EX) index allows you to search for the Editor's last names. Editor names display in Editors (EE) and Editors Full Name (FE) fields.
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EZ Entrez Date [Phrase Indexed]
2016 02 26 0600.ez.
The Entrez Date (EZ) is the date the citation was added to PubMed. However, prior to October 9, 2008, the Entrez Date was set equal to the Publication Date (DP) on records with publication dates before September 1997. Beginning on October 9, 2008, the Entrez Date is set equal to the Publication Date (DP) when the record enters PubMed more than twelve months after the date of publication. This index appears in the format YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM.
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FA Authors Full Name [Word Indexed]
gaaied.fa.

The Authors Full Name (FA) field contains the full name of the authors of the article when available.

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FE Editors Full Name [Word Indexed]
hellen.fe.

The Editors Full Name (FE) field contains the full name of the editors of the article when available.

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FS Floating Subheadings [Phrase Indexed]
legislation jurisprudence.fs.

Subheadings are qualifiers added to MeSH subject headings to refine their meaning. Terms such as "etiology" or "therapy," when combined with a MeSH heading, give a precise idea of what an article covers.

The Floating Subheadings (FS) field contains both the 2-letter codes, such as "po," and the full heading, such as "poisoning." These are displayed following the corresponding MeSH Subject Headings.

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GC Grant Country [Phrase Indexed]
united states.gc.
The Grant Country (GC) field contains the country of the organization that awarded the grant.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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GI Grant Information [Phrase Indexed]
hhsn263201200074i.gi.
The Grant Information (GI) field displays information about awarded grants, may contain Grant Number (NO), Grant Acronym (GR), Grant Organization (GO) and Grant Country (GC).
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GO Grant Organization [Word Indexed]
nih.go.
The Grant Organization (GO) field contains the full name of the organization that has awarded the grant.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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GR Grant Acronym [Phrase Indexed]
od.gr.
The Grant Acronym (GR) field contains the acronym of the organization that has awarded the grant.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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GS Gene Symbol [Phrase Indexed]
16s rrna.gs.

The Gene Symbol (GS) field contains Gene Symbols as they are entered into Ovid MEDLINE (R) in the original document. They often, but not always, conform to standardized human gene nomenclature.  Ignore super or sub-scripts in entry of a gene symbol:  psub 1450 would be entered p1450. Enter hyphens as in the original symbol.

The Gene Symbol field was added to Ovid MEDLINE (R) in 1991.  Beginning in 1996, data will no longer be added to this field.

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GW Gene Symbol Word [Word Indexed]
0602.gw.
The Gene Symbol Word (GW) index contains individual words from the Gene Symbol (GS) field.  The Gene Symbol field was added to Ovid MEDLINE (R) in 1991.  Beginning in 1996, data will no longer be added to this field.
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HW Subject Heading Word [Word Indexed]
EMPLOYMENT.hw.

The Subject Heading Word (HW) index allows you to retrieve every MeSH subject heading and Publication Type that include a particular word. Do this by searching a single word in the Subject Heading Word (HW) field.

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IA Investigator Affiliation [Word Indexed]
e15782.in.

The Investigator Affiliation (IA) field contains author's full name and its affiliation to the investigator of the article.

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IB ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
9781464803697.ib.
The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and is found only on citations for book and book chapters from the NCBI Books Database.

The ISBN (IB) field appears as a 10-digit number and may contain 13-digit number if available.

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ID Article Identifier [Word Indexed]
26389234.id.
The Article Identifier (ID) field may contain an identifier that links with records in the publisher's system. The Article Identifier values may include the controlled publisher identifier (PII) or the digital object identifier (DOI). It is most often used for LinkOut, and is not considered part of the citation source information.
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IG Indexing Method

Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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IL

ISSN Linking [Phrase Indexed]
0003 2670.il.

The ISSN Linking (IL) index contains an identifier intended to provide a mechanism to group the various medium versions of a continuing resource. The purpose of the ISSN-L is to provide a mechanism for grouping, or collocating, the various medium versions of a resource, for instance, the print and online versions of a journal per ISO 3297 standards. "The first ISSN assigned, in the ISSN Register, to any medium version of a continuing resource shall be designated by default to function also as the ISSN-L and shall apply to all other media versions of that resource identified in the ISSN Register.

The ISSN Linking field will be used only for new records added during the 2008 production year (although NLM still does not know the timing when all will be in place to start to appear on records).

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IN Institution [Word Indexed]
lzy.in.

The Institution (IN) field contains the primary author's full name and its affiliation, which is usually the source for a reprint of the article. This information can be searched in most documents since 1988, but records from earlier years which were added to the database after 1988 may also contain institution information. Beginning with documents indexed in 1996, the primary author's email address will also be included, if present in the journal.

The information is taken from the source document and is not standardized. Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution (harvard, not university). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

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IO ISO Journal Abbreviation [Phrase Indexed]

The ISO Journal Abbreviation (IO) field contains journal abbreviations. Those created prior to 2007 did not necessarily conform to the ISO standard. ISO Journal Abbreviations created after this date are identical to the Journal Abbreviation (JA) field. In November 2009 ISO abbreviations were retrospectively assigned for every record from a journal that was currently indexed for MEDLINE at that time.
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IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
1808.ip.
supplement.ip.
The Issue/Part (IP) field contains the Issue and/or part for a particular volume of a journal. This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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IR Investigator [Phrase Indexed]
barrowman n.ir.

The Investigator (IR) field contains personal names of individuals (e.g., collaborators and investigators) who are not authors of a paper but rather are listed in the paper as members of a collective/corporate group that is an author of the paper. The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith JC or Smith J.

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IS ISSN Print [Phrase Indexed]
8756 971x.is.

The ISSN Print (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the journal in which an article was published. It appears as an 8 digit number, separated by a hyphen: 0028-4793. To retrieve all of the articles for a journal, search by the Journal Name (JN). Both Electronic and Print ISSNs can be searched in the IS index.

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IX Investigator NameID [Phrase Indexed]

The Investigator NameID (IX) field is defined to contain a unique identifier associated with the name. The values in the Identifier attribute Source will designate the organizational authority that established the unique identifier.

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JA Journal Abbreviation [Display Only]

The Journal Abbreviation (JA) field contains the abbreviation of the journal in which the article was published.

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JC NLM Journal Code [Phrase Indexed]
9891704.jc.
The NLM Journal Code (JC) is an alpha-numeric code established by NLM which uniquely identifies every journal indexed in the NLM databases. Only the 7 digit code is searchable, in some cases the 3 digit alpha-numeric code will display as well.
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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
aesthetic surgery journal.jn.

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published. Journal names are indexed as phrases, so enter enough letters of the journal name to locate the name in the index:  new engl (for New England Journal of Medicine). This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

If the first word of a Journal Name is "The", it has been stripped off.

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JW Journal Word [Word Indexed]
chemosphere.jw.
The Journal Word (JW) index contains individual words from every journal name in Ovid MEDLINE (R). This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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KF Keyword Heading Word [Word Indexed]
q13.kf.

The Keyword Heading Word (KF) field allows you to retrieve every Keyword Heading that includes a particular word field.

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KW Keyword Heading [Phrase Indexed]
dacryocystitis differential diagnosis.kw.

The Keyword Heading (KW) field contains the Keyword Headings assigned by authors. Keyword Headings are the author keywords. To retrieve every Keyword Heading that includes a particular word, search for the word in the Keyword Heading Word (KF) field.

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LG Language [Phrase Indexed]
greek.lg.
The Language (LG) field contains the language(s) of publication of an article. The language name will appear in the index as the full form and a 3-letter code (such as fre for French) and as the full name French. The codes are usually, but not always, the first three letters of the language name.

The language index is quickly scrollable to determine all languages which appear in Ovid MEDLINE (R).

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LH Locally Held [Display Only]
The Locally Held (LH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") if a journal is held locally.
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LM Local Messages [Display Only]
The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by the System Administrator to indicate information about journals held in your local library system.
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MT Media Type [Word Indexed]
internet.mt.
The Media Type (MT) field identifies the physical medium of the book citation(s) that are available.
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NJ NLM Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
zygote cambridge england.nj.
The NLM Journal Name (NJ) field contains the full name of the journal in which an article was published.
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NM Name of Substance Word [Word Indexed]
zucchini.nm.

The Name of Substance (NM) index contains single words from the CAS Registry/EC Number/Name (RN) field and is used to search portions of chemical names. This field displays as part of the CAS Registry/EC Number/Name (RN) field.

The Name of Substance (NM) field was added to Ovid MEDLINE (R) in 1980.

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NO Grant Number [Phrase Indexed]
hhsn276201400262u.no.
The Grant Number (NO) field contains the original identification number of the grant that is awarded to the work as described in the content. The identification number is assigned by the grant agency.

This field displays as part of the Grant Information (GI) field.

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NT General Note [Display Only]

The General Note (NT) field contains general supplementary information about an item. The notes may include information on the availability of a bibliography, ordering information for dissertations or hearings, or general summaries of materials such as manuals or scripts. A series title may appear for a book or for audiovisual materials.

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NW NLM Journal Word [Word Indexed]
laboratory.nw.
medicinal.nw.

The NLM Journal Word (NW) index contains individual words from every journal name in the NLM Journal Name (NJ) field.

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OA

Other Abstract [Word Indexed]
sabemos.oa.

The Other Abstract (OA) field can include the Collaborating Partner, a brief abstract, Copyright and Language of the Other Abstract. The OA field is indexed in the Abstract (AB) field, and contains all searchable words from the Other Abstract.

Collaborating Partners include:

AAMC

American Association of Medical Colleges; not currently used

AIDS

Special HIV/AIDS publications with abstracts written by someone other than the author

KIE

Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University; not currently used

PIP

Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health; not currently used

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration; not currently used

Publisher

journal editorial staff, typically for citations to older articles that did not contain abstracts when originally published
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OI Other ID [Phrase Indexed]
vapa676772.oi.

The Other ID (OI) is a unique alpha-numeric code. In particular, it will contain the PubMed Central Identifier (PMCID), where the alphabetical prefix 'PMC' precedes the identifier. If the publisher has embargoed access to the full text, the date of availability in PubMed Central will be noted. When the embargo is lifted, a revised record with the date of availability removed will be released.

Other ID's are entered into the index as phrases. In particular, PMC ID's should be searched as how the alpha-numeric code appears in PubMed Central (PMC).

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OJ Object ID

Waiting for NLM's feedback.
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OT Original Title [Word Indexed]
nachbarschaft.ot.
The Original Title (OT) includes any non-English titles in the original language. If the original title was in a non-Roman alphabet, then the OT is transliterated.
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PA

Primary Author [Phrase Indexed]
zywocinski a.pa.

The Primary Author (PA) index contains the first author listed for the article. This allows users to search for articles by any primary author. Author names display in Authors (AU) and Authors Full Name (FA) fields. Searching for smith rh.pa. will return results where Smith RH was listed as the main author of the article.

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PB

Publisher [Word Indexed]
personal.pb.

The Publisher (PB) index contains publisher information for books, monographs or any non-journal publications.  This information is taken from the source document as it appears, so variant forms of a publisher are possible. This field is usually displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

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PG Page [Phrase Indexed]
e012.pg.

The Page (PG) field consists of the inclusive pagination of a journal article. Often a journal title combined with the beginning page number is enough to locate a citation. You can search for pages with alphanumeric characters, such as "a1.pg." This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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PI Publishing Model [Display Only]

The Publishing Model (PI) field provides the model of publishing of the original document described in the record. The field indicates if the article cited is available in Print or Electronic format. It also indicates if the citation was converted from a Print or Internet source. This field is display only; you cannot search this field.       

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PH Publication History Status [Word Indexed]

The Publication History Status (PH) field contains information from the publisher regarding important events in the publishing process. It contains a date, and one of the following values for each date in the publication history:

[received] - date manuscript received for review
[accepted] - accepted for publication
[revised] - article revised by publisher or author
[aheadofprint] - published electronically, to be followed by the print

The Publication History Status (PH) field is word-indexed.
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PL Place of Publication [Word Indexed]
southampton.pl.
The Place of Publication (PL) field contains the name of the town or city where the book was published.
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PM PMC Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
The PMC Identifier (PM) is a unique alpha-numeric code. In particular, it will contain the PubMed Central Identifier (PMCID), where the alphabetical prefix 'PMC' precedes the identifier. If the publisher has embargoed access to the full text, the date of availability in PubMed Central will be noted. When the embargo is lifted, a revised record with the date of availability removed will be released.

Other ID's are entered into the index as phrases. In particular, PMC ID's should be searched as how the alpha-numeric code appears in PubMed Central (PMC).

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PN Personal Name as Subject [Phrase Indexed]
sacks ow.pn.
The Personal Name as Subject (PN) index includes the name of a well-known person if they are discussed in an article, such as an interview or obituary.

The format for Personal Name is the same as for Author -- last name and initials:  Bach JS.  Enter a last name and one initial if known.
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PP Publication Status [Word Indexed]
ppublish.pp.
The Publication Status (PP) field contains the current status of the publication, as submitted by the publisher. Possible values are:

ppublish - published in print (default value)
epublish - electronically published only, never published in print
aheadofprint - electronically published, but followed by print
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PR Book Part [Word Indexed]
chapter.pr.
The Book Part (PR) field contains the chapter number where the book title appears in the citation.
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PS Protocol Supplementary Concept [Phrase Indexed]
gemcitabine oxaliplatin regimen.ps.

The Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS) field contains the Protocol Class 2 SCR terms. These terms were previously exported in CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) in MEDLINE/PubMed. The PS terms are phrase indexed.

With the 2011 reload, Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS) will be loaded separately only for new records added during 2011 production year.

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PX Protocol Supplementary Concept Word [Word Indexed]
anavacym.px

The Protocol Supplementary Concept Word (PX) index allows the users to retrieve single terms from the Protocol Supplementary Concept (PS) field.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
journal article.pt.
published erratum.pt.

In addition to indexing documents with Medical Subject Headings, the indexers at the National Library of Medicine assign terms to describe the article type. Publication Types include such classifications as reviews, clinical trials, directories and letters. These terms appear in the Publication Type (PT) field.

To view the index, enter enough letters to distinguish a publication type (jour for "journal article"); the entire index is quickly scrollable to determine all possible publication types.

With the 2005 reload, Publication Types are also loaded into the MeSH. Because some Publication Types are also MeSH terms, the syntax to enter the Tree is "Randomized controlled trial [publication type]". To post the results from the Tree without entering the Tree, the syntax is: "Randomized controlled trial [publication type]"/ or Randomized controlled trial.pt.

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RD Revision Date [Phrase Indexed]
20031107.rd.
The Revision Date (RD) field contains the issue (year, month and day) in which a document was revised in Ovid MEDLINE. The RD field appears in the format YYYYMMDD. Previously, the RD field was indexed with the Entry Date (ED) field. Now, it is a separate index.
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RN CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) [Phrase Indexed]
zzt404xd09 tipranavir.rn.

The CAS Registry/EC Number/Name of Substance (RN) field can contain the following:
- The number assigned by the Enzyme Commission (EC) to designate a particular enzyme
- The 5- to 9-digit Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) for Registry Numbers
- The unique 10-digit Unique Ingredient Identifiers (UNIIs) assigned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Substance Registration System (SRS)

Search for EC numbers in the format "ec 1 14 14 1 aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases.rn." (EC 1-14-14-1 (Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases)) without hyphens. Search CAS numbers without hyphens as well "103628 46 2 sumatriptan.rn." (103628-46-2 (Sumatriptan)).

A zero (0) is a valid value when an actual number cannot be located or is not yet available.

Note: NLM has not added Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry numbers to MeSH since 1998, therefore only registry numbers that were previously available are displayed in the MEDLINE record. At this time, UNIIs are used only in Registry Number of Supplementary Concept Records.

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RO Record Owner [Phrase Indexed]
hsr.ro.

The Record Owner (RO) field contains the owner of the record.

HMD

History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine

HSR

Health Services Research

KIE

Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NLM

National Library of Medicine

PIP

Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs
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RR Report Number [Word Indexed]
sma.rr.

The Report Number (RR) field contains the primary identification number of a report. This is normally the number given to the report by the issuing organization (not the US Government Clearing House Number). Inspec treats IEEE Standards as reports.

The Report Number (RR) field is word indexed so any part of the report number can be searched separately, if desired.
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RS Rare Disease Supplementary Concept [Phrase Indexed]
17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.rs.

The Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS) field contains the Protocol Class 3 SCR terms. The RS terms are phrase indexed.

Beginning with 2011 MEDLINE/PubMed data, Rare Disease Class 3 SCRs are also going to be exported.

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RX Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word [Word Indexed]
leukoencephalopathy.rx

The Rare Disease Supplementary Concept Word (RX) index allows the users to retrieve single terms from the Rare Disease Supplementary Concept (RS) field.

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SA Secondary Source AN [Word Indexed]
ddt.sa.

The Secondary Source AN (SA) index contains the unique identifiers of outside resources discussed in MEDLINE articles. The display will include the Secondary Source ID (SI) and the unique identifier seperated by a forward slash (RefSeq/NM_020533). If you wish to search all works from a particular databank use the Secondary Source ID (SI) index: refseq.si.

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SB Journal Subset [Phrase Indexed]
aim.sb.

This field identifies the subset for MEDLINE records from certain journal lists or records on specialized topics. Some of these values are found on extremely small numbers of records. Citations may contain more than one occurrence of this field. The value is true at the time the record was created. If the status of a journal changes, the value on the record does not change.

Subset field values and their definitions are as follows. Note that several are closed subsets no longer being assigned.

AIM citations from Abridged Index Medicus journals, a list of about 120 core clinical, English language journals.
B citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of biotechnology (not currently used).
C citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of communication disorders (not currently used).
D citations from dental journals. See the current list under Dentistry and Orthodontics.
E citations in the field of bioethics. (includes records from the former BIOETHICSLINE database)
F older citations from one journal prior to its selection for Index Medicus. Used to augment the database for NLM's International MEDLARS Centers (not currently used).
H citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of health administration. (includes records from the former HealthSTAR database)
IM citations from Index Medicus journals.
J citations in the field of population information. (not currently used; on records from the former POPLINE® database)
K citations from non-Index Medicus journals relating to consumer health.
N citations from nursing journals. See the current list under Nursing.
Q citations in the field of the history of medicine. (includes records from the former HISTLINE® database)
QIS citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of the history of medicine. (For NLM use effective as of late 2006 because they require special handling at NLM; not a subset of Q; some journals previously designated as Q are now QIS.)
QO is subset of Q - indicates older history of medicine journal citations that were created before the former HISTLINE file was converted to a MEDLINE-like format. (For NLM use because they require special handling at NLM).
R citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of population and reproduction (not currently used).
S citations in the field of space life sciences. (includes records from the former SPACELINE™ database)
T citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of health technology assessment. (includes records from the former HealthSTAR database)
X citations in the field of AIDS/HIV. (includes records from the former AIDSLINE® database)

Do not confuse these journal/citation subsets with the Topics subsets available on PubMed's Limits screen, which are search strategies.

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SE Season [Word Indexed]

The Season (SE) field contains the month or season that the citation article was published.

The field usually consists of a three-character alphabetic abbreviation of the month or season.

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SH MeSH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
hierarchy social.sh.
randomized controlled trial.sh.

The MeSH Subject Headings (SH) field contains the Medical Subject Headings used by indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to describe the content of an article. NLM's MeSH terms are organized in a hierarchy, or "tree" structure.

MeSH headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched as they appear in the NLM MeSH books or in our Tree display.

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SI Secondary Source ID [Phrase Indexed]
clinicaltrials.si.

The Secondary Source ID (SI) identifies secondary source databanks with unique identifiers of outside resources discussed in MEDLINE articles. The field is composed of the source acronym: GENBANK.

The Secondary Source ID (SI) formerly known as the Molecular Sequence (MS) field was added to Ovid MEDLINE (R) in 1988.

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SL Secondary Source Link [Phrase Indexed]
https www controlled trials com isrctn97412358.sl.
The Secondary Source Link (SL) index contains the URL to the outside resources discussed in MEDLINE articles when the Secondary Source ID is either ClinicalTrials.gov or ISRCTN. The index contains the the URL, for searching ease use the Secondary Source AN (SA) index: nct00000150.sa.
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SM Space Flight Mission [Phrase Indexed]
Aerobee 150A Project.sm.
The Space Flight Mission (SM) field provides descriptive values for each Space Flight Mission.
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SN Section [Word Indexed]
managing.sn.
The Section (SN) field contains the title of a certain section or part of a book citation. It may also contain subsections.
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SO

Source (BN, BT, BV, DP, IP, JN, PB, PG, SE, VO, YR)
accounts of chemical research.jn.
a39.pg.

The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a record, including the full Book Edition (BN), Book Title (BT), Book Volume (BV), Journal Name (JN), Publisher (PB), the Issue/Part (IP), Page (PG), Season (SE), Volume (VO), Year (YR), and Date of Publication (DP).
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ST Status [Text Indexed]
pubmed not medline.st.

The Status (ST) field contains the status of the citation.

In-Data-Review records have passed the first step in quality control and will either be reissued as In-process records or go directly to PubMed-not-MEDLINE as the final record status.

In-Process records are electronically submitted and have gone through the second citation-level review.

Medline records have passed all steps in quality control and have been indexed.

Publisher - Citations recently added to PubMed via electronic submission from a publisher, and are soon to proceed to the next stage, PubMed - in process. This tag is also on citations received before late 2003 if they are from journals not indexed for MEDLINE, or from a journal that was accepted for MEDLINE after the citations' publication date. These citations bibliographic data have not been reviewed.

PubMed-not-MEDLINE records have gone through the second citation-level review, but are from non-Medline journals or precede the date a journal was selected for MEDLINE indexing but are now being submitted for inclusion.

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SY Synonyms [Word Indexed]
recessive.sy.

The Synonyms (SY) field contains a synonymous name for generic drug names that are not actual trade names.

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TC Title Comment [Word Indexed]
zou.tc.

Display only in the Title (TI) field

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TI Title [Word Indexed]
zzf51.ti.
The Title (TI) field contains the English language version of a title. For documents which were not written in English, the original or transliterated title appears in a separate field, Original Title (OT).  

The title sometimes includes notes, in brackets, about the article, such as an indication that it is a letter, editorial, or comment.
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TW Text Word (AB, TI)
000013.ab.
f127.ti.

The Text Word (TW) index is an alias for all of the fields in a database which contain text words and which are appropriate for a subject search.

The Textword index in Ovid MEDLINE (R) includes Title (TI) and Abstract (AB).

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UI Unique Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
10339538.ui.
9990101.ui.

The Unique Identifier (UI) field contains the PMID (PubMed identifier or PubMed unique identifier) that is the unique number assigned to each PubMed record.

PMIDs do not change over time or during processing and are never reused.

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UP Update Date [Phrase Indexed]
20170127.up.
The Update Date (UP) field contains the date the record was added to MEDLINE since the yearly reload completion. The Update Date for existing records changes with each global reload to reflect the date Ovid starts processing the reload data. The UP field appears in the format YYYYMMDD.
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VB Volume Book Title [Word Indexed]
sample.vb.
The Volume Book Title (VB) field contains the volume title information of a book citation. This information displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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VD Version Date [Phrase Indexed]
2016 04 20.vd.
The Version Date (VD) field is a new model of publishing referred to as "versioning" whereby multiple versions of the same online article are released, sometimes in quick succession and sometimes almost as soon as the original article has been published. Although the Version Date value may be different from the Date of Publication, it might be the same as Date of Publication if the new version was released later the same day. Version Date is phrase indexed.

NLM does not expect many journals will publish versions, thus the incidence of versioned citations will be small.

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VI Version ID [Phrased Indexed]
"5".vi.
Version ID (VI) field is a new model of publishing referred to as "versioning" whereby multiple versions of the same online article are released. A version is a subsequent publication of a previously published article that incorporates new data or findings using a publishing practice designed specifically for rapidly communicating scientific results. Though NLM does not expect many journals will publish versions, thus the incidence of versioned citations will be small. A version is NOT a re-publication of a previously published article that incorporates editorial changes, it is not an erratum notice, it is not a manuscript, it is not publish ahead of print, and it is not an updated article appearing years after the original. Version ID is phrase indexed.
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VO Volume [Word Indexed]
suppl.vo.
insider.vo.
The Volume (VO) field consists of the volume and issue of a serial publication. This field is usually displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.
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XM Exploded MeSH Heading [Phrase Indexed]
whales.xm.
The Exploded MeSH Heading (XM) field displays pre-exploded MeSH Headings. MeSH Subject Headings are hierarchical, with up to twelve levels of narrower terms from the top of a hierarchy. In order to retrieve a term and all of its narrower terms, a subject heading must be "exploded", that is, the subject heading and all narrower terms are "OR'd" together. OVID pre-explodes highly-posted broader terms with their narrower terms during loading. These pre-exploded MeSH Headings are displayed in the MeSH Subject Headings (SH) field.
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XS Exploded Subheading [Phrase Indexed]
tu.xs.
pd.xs.

The Exploded Subheadings (XS) field displays the two-letter codes for the pre-exploded subheadings.

Sometimes multiple MeSH Subheadings can be logically grouped together. Such related groups of subheadings are "pre-exploded" under one broad subheading. This means that all the grouped subheadings can be retrieved together by searching on the "pre-exploded" version of the broad subheading. These pre-exploded MeSH Headings are displayed in the MeSH Subject Headings (SH) field. Their complete list can be found in https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/subhierarchy.html. The CAPITAL two letter codes in the left column are the Exploded Subheadings. Terms under the exploded subheading are also searched when you use the exploded subheading.

For example, the Ovid search: an.xs retrieves any records that contain the subheadings, Analysis, Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Isolation and Purification or Urine.

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YR Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2016.yr.
The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which an article or monograph was published. Only the four digit year is contained in the index.
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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y heart attack or myocardial infarction "Role of adjunctive thrombectomy and embolic protection devices in acute myocardial infarction: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized trials."

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y blood pressure and stroke "Alcohol intake, circadian blood pressure variation, and stroke"

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y health reform not health maintenance organizations "Financial crisis threatens US health reform."

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y blood adj pressure "Blood pressure and mortality risk on peritoneal"

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other.You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
CheckTags

CheckTags are frequently searched terms that have been identified to bypass the mapping screen to help the searcher get to the results faster. Medline checktags terms includes the following:

Animals Humans
Comparative Study In Vitro
English Abstract Male
Female  
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y physician adj5 relationship "Changes in physician-patient relationship"

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n) of words from each other in any order. To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99. For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship within five words of each other in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship of the physician to the patient.
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab./freq=5 "Is the accuracy of blood pressure measuring devices underestimated at increasing blood pressure levels?"

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ disease$ "identify genes responsible for diseases and traits"

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1 "renal function in healthy dogs"

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n "serum homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women"

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r "Hair changes. Age has effect on color, thickness."

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y"

"go/no-go"

"Single trial-based prediction of a go/no-go decision in monkey superior colliculus"

"n"

"3".vo

"Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine. 3(12):689-92, 2006 Dec."

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords
The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/ ab=y
A limit to Abstracts restricts retrieval to documents which include an abstract. Over 50% of Ovid MEDLINE (R) records after 1975 contain abstracts. All abstracts included in Ovid MEDLINE (R) are in English and were written by the author(s) of the original article.
Age Groups Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to infant
limit 1 to adult
limit 1 to middle aged
A limit by Age Group restricts retrieval by any of the age groups indexed by NLM. Since only human age groups are indexed, this limit will also restrict retrieval to human subjects. If you choose this option you will be presented with a list of age groups from which to select.
Animals Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to animals

A limit to Animals restricts retrieval to documents which are primarily about animal subjects. It will retain articles about both human and animal subjects. Consider also the Limit to Animal Type, which will allow you to select from a list of common experimental research animals.

Animal Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to cats
limit 1 to rabbits
A limit by Animal Type restricts retrieval to any of the basic animal types indexed by NLM. If you choose this option you will be presented with a short alphabetical list of some common research animal types from which to select. Consider also the Limit to Animal, which restricts retrieval to documents which are about any animal subject.
CheckTags Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "male"

Indexers apply check tags to articles to identify research categories. Categories include research subjects (such as female or adult). If you choose this option you will be presented with a list of categories from which to select.

Clinical Queries Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "Therapy (sensitivity)"
   

Limiting to Clinical Queries will restrict retrieval clinically sound studies. There are nine categories provided, and the emphasis may be Sensitive (i.e., most relevant articles but probably some less relevant ones), Specific (i.e., mostly relevant articles but probably omitting a few), or Optimized (i.e., the combination of terms that optimizes the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity).

These filters, based on the work of R. Brian Haynes MD, PhD et al. of the Health Information Research Unit (HIRU) at McMaster University, are intended for clinicians. A detailed explanation of the strategies behind these limits can be found at http://hiru.mcmaster.ca/hiru/HIRU_Hedges_MEDLINE_Strategies.aspx.

Core Clinical
Journals (AIM)
Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "core clinical journals (aim)"
A limit to Core Clinical Journals will restrict retrieval to the 119 core clinical journals which comprise the Abridged Index Medicus collection.

This is a good way to limit your retrieval to journals more commonly found in hospital and medical library collections.

Dietary Supplements Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to dietary Supplements
A limit to Dietary Supplements is designed to limit search results to citations from a broad spectrum of dietary supplement literature. This strategy was based on PubMed's Dietary Supplements subset limit.
English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english
Command Syntax: ..l/1 en=y
A limit to English restricts retrieval to articles which are written in the English language. Foreign language articles with English abstracts will be eliminated by a limit to English.
Female Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to female
A limit to Female restricts retrieval to documents which are about females, either human or animal.
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text
A limit to Full Text restricts retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.
Humans Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to humans
Command Syntax: ..l/1 hu=y

A limit to Humans restricts retrieval to articles which are about human subjects. If you limit by Age Group you do not need to use this limit.

Journal Subsets Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "core clinical journals (aim)"
Command Syntax: ..l/1 sb=aim
NLM databases contain several subsets of broad journal categories such as "AIM Journals" or "Dentistry Journals." You can restrict your retrieval to any of these subsets by a limit to journal subset. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of Journal Subsets from which to select.

Population Information Citations
Languages Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to french
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=fre
A limit to Language restricts retrieval to any of the languages indexed by NLM. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of languages from which to select.
Latest Update Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to latest update
New documents are added to the Ovid MEDLINE (R) database at regular intervals. A limit to latest update restricts retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.

Local Holdings

Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
  A limit to local holdings will restrict retrieval to documents from journals held in your local library or library system.

If your System Administrator has created any special messages about a journal's availability, this message will display with the document in the Local Holdings (LH) field.

Male Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to male
A limit to Male restricts retrieval to documents which are about males, either human or animal.
Ovid Full Text
Available
Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Ovid Full Text Available
A limit to Ovid Full Text Available restricts retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available. When viewing a citation with full text available use the LINK button to display the full text.
Pharmacologic Actions Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to pharmacologic actions
A limit to Pharmacologic Actions will restrict your retrieval to a broad category of chemical actions and uses that result in the prevention, treatment, cure or diagnosis of disease. Included here are drugs and chemicals that act by altering normal body functions, such as the REPRODUCTIVE CONTROL AGENTS and ANESTHETICS. Effects of chemicals on the environment are also included.
Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to clinical trial
limit 1 to clinical trial, all
limit 1 to dataset
limit 1 to journal article
limit 1 to observational study
limit 1 to pragmatic clinical trial
limit 1 to review
limit 1 to systematic reviews
A limit by Publication Type restricts retrieval by any of the over forty publication types indexed by NLM, including classifications such as "bibliography," "classical article," "clinical trial," etc.
Publication Year Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=2006
Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=2006
You can restrict retrieval to any of the years which this Ovid MEDLINE (R) segment covers. If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits: "1989" or a range: "1994-1995."
Review Articles Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "review articles"
A limit to Review Articles restricts retrieval to articles which are reviews of a subject. For NLM databases this includes all review types: Review Literature; Review of Reported Cases; Review, Academic; Review, Multicase; and Review, Tutorial.
Status Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to MEDLINE
Limiting to one of the five Status availble will restrict your results to those records containing that status according to the quality control step assigned by NLM.

In Data Review Publisher
In Process PubMed Not MEDLINE
MEDLINE  
Subject Subsets Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Dietary Supplements
limit 1 to Veterinary Science
limit 1 to toxicology

Limiting to Subject Subsets will restrict retrieval to the specific subject chosen. These Subject Subset limits are based on the Subset limits in PubMed. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetical list of Subject Subsets to choose from.

Structured Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Structured Abstracts

A limit to Structured Abstracts will restrict retrieval to citations with distinct labelled sections in the abstract (e.g., Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) for rapid comprehension.

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Subject Subset
Ovid MEDLINE includes the following limits based on PubMed's subject subsets. For a detailed explanation of the differences between these limits and the PubMed strategies, see Ovid MEDLINE Subject Limits Overview.
AIDS Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to AIDS
A limit to AIDS restricts retrieval to the area of AIDS. This strategy was based on PubMed's AIDS subset limit, PubMed AIDS.
Bioethics Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to bioethics
A limit to Bioethics restricts retrieval to the area of bioethics. This strategy was based on PubMed's Bioethics subset limit, PubMed Bioethics.
Cancer Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to cancer
A limit to Cancer restricts retrieval to the area of cancer. This strategy was based on PubMed's Cancer subset limit, PubMed Cancer.
Complementary
Medicine
Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to complementary medicine
A limit to Complementary Medicine restricts retrieval to the area of complementary and alternative medicine. This strategy was based on PubMed's Complementary Medicine subset limit, PubMed Complementary Medicine.
Dietary Supplements Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to dietary supplements
A limit to Dietary Supplements restricts retrieval to documents on the area of dietary supplements. This strategy was based on PubMed's Dietary Supplements subset limit, PubMed Dietary Supplements.
History of Medicine Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to history of medicine
A limit to History of Medicine restricts retrieval to documents on the history of medicine. This strategy was based on PubMed's History of Medicine subset limit, PubMed History of Medicine.
Space Life Sciences Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to space life sciences
A limit to Space Life Sciences restricts retrieval to citations of interest to those working in the field of space life sciences research. This strategy was based on PubMed's Space Life Sciences subset limit, PubMed Space Life Sciences.
Systematic Reviews Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to systematic reviews
A limit to Systematic Reviews restricts retrieval to citations in the area of systematic reviews. This strategy was based on PubMed's Systematic Reviews subset limit, PubMed Systematic Reviews.
Toxicology Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to toxicology
A limit to Toxicology restricts retrieval to the area of toxicology. This strategy was based on PubMed's Toxicology subset limit, PubMed Toxicology.
Veterinary Science Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to veterinary science
A limit to Veterinary Science restricts retrieval to documents on the area of Veterinary Science. This strategy was based on PubMed's Veterinary Science subset limit, PubMed Veterinary Science.
There are range limits for both the RD and ED fields. These limits are not listed in the drop-down menu, however they can be used from the command line. To run the limits use the following syntax from the command line.
limit 1 to ed=20021001-20021115
limit 1 to rd=20021001-20021115
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Clinical Query Limits

Ovid MEDLINE also offers limits to Clinical Queries. These limits restrict retrieval to clinically sound studies. There are nine categories provided, and the emphasis may be Sensitive (as in most relevant articles but probably some less relevant ones), Specific (as in mostly relevant articles but probably omitting a few), or Optimized (as in the combination of terms that optimizes the trade-off between sensitivity and specificity). A detailed explanation of the strategies behind these limits can be found at http://hiru.mcmaster.ca/hiru/HIRU_Hedges_MEDLINE_Strategies.aspx.

The Clinical Queries are based on the work of R. Brian Haynes MD, PhD et al. of the Health Information Research Unit (HIRU) at McMaster University, are intended for clinicians.

Sentence syntax for the limits is as follows.

  • limit 1 to "Therapy (sensitivity)"
  • limit 1 to "Therapy (specificity)"
  • limit 1 to "Therapy (optimized)"

A complete list of queries is available from within the Ovid interface.

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Tools

The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.

  • Tree

    Note: Because MEDLINE includes Check Tags as limits, if you search for any of these terms in Basic Search as an unqualified search in the command line, the results will open a Search History page, rather than the MeSH Tree unlike in Advanced Search. The Check Tag terms are listed in the Limit section under Check Tags.

  • Permuted Index
  • Scope Notes
  • Explode
  • Subheadings
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Changing to this Database

To change a search session to an Ovid MEDLINE segment from another database or Ovid MEDLINE segment, use the change database icon on the Main Search Page or use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:

  Search Label:

Ovid MEDLINE® ALL 1946 to September 11, 2017:

MEDALL
        Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print Updated Daily: MEDP
        Ovid MEDLINE® 2013 to Weekly Update : MEDW
        Ovid MEDLINE® Updated Daily : MESX
        Ovid MEDLINE® Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE® Daily, Ovid MEDLINE and Versions® 1946 to Present with Daily & Weekly Update: PPEZV
        Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Updated Daily: PREM
  Command Syntax: ..c/medw
  Sentence Syntax: use medp

Click on this link to see other Advanced Search Techniques

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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Unique Identifier:
	26389359
Book Accession:
	https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
Version ID:
	5
Record Owner:
	From MEDLINE, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Authors:
	PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board.
Authors Full Name:
	PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board.
Title:
	Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention (PDQ): Health Professional Version. 
   	[Review]
Source:
	National Cancer Institute (US). PDQ Cancer Information Summaries, 2002.
Abbreviated Source:
	National Cancer Institute (US). PDQ Cancer Information Summaries, 2002.
Place of Publication:
	Bethesda (MD)
Keyword Heading:
	cancer prevention
	fallopian tube cancer
	ovarian epithelial cancer
	primary peritoneal cavity cancer
Abstract:
	This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, 
   	evidence-based information about ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer prevention. It is 
   	intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal 
   	guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. This summary is reviewed regularly and 
   	updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of 
   	the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not 
   	represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Section:
	Who Is at Risk?
	https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...

Overview https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
Description of the Evidence https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
Changes to This Summary (02/04/2016) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
About This PDQ Summary https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo... Publication Type: Review. Media Type: Internet Article Identifier: 26389359 [pubmed] Publication Status: ppublish Language: English Date of Publication: 2002 Entrez Date: 2016/02/12 06:00 MeSH Date: 2016/02/12 06:00 Create Date: 2016/02/12 06:00 Beginning Date: 2002 Contribution Date: 20160204 Year of Publication: 2002 Update Date: 20161216
Sample 2
Unique Identifier:
	26866207
Book Accession:
	https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
Version ID:
	1
Record Owner:
	From MEDLINE, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Authors:
	Melnikow J; Fenton JJ; Miglioretti D; Whitlock EP; Weyrich MS.
Authors Full Name:
	Melnikow, Joy; Fenton, Joshua J; Miglioretti, Diana; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Weyrich, Meghan S.
Source:
	Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Screening for Breast Cancer With Digital Breast 
   	Tomosynthesis U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Evidence Syntheses, formerly Systematic Evidence 
   	Reviews, Report No.: 14-05201-EF-2., 2016 01.
Abbreviated Source:
	Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Screening for Breast Cancer With Digital Breast 
   	Tomosynthesis U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Evidence Syntheses, formerly Systematic Evidence 
   	Reviews, Report No.: 14-05201-EF-2., 2016 01.
Place of Publication:
	Rockville (MD)
Abstract:
	Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has rapidly been adopted by many providers of mammography screening in 
   	the United States. This report summarizes the evidence published through October 2015 regarding the 
   	diagnostic test characteristics of tomosynthesis in screening populations.
Section:
	1. Introduction
	https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...

2. Methods https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
3. Results https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
4. Discussion https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
References https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
Appendix A Detailed Methods https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo...
Appendix B Ongoing Studies and Trials Pending Assessment https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/boo... Publication Type: Review. Media Type: Internet Article Identifier: 26866207 [pubmed] Publication Status: ppublish Language: English Date of Publication: 2016 01 Entrez Date: 2016/02/12 06:00 MeSH Date: 2016/02/12 06:00 Create Date: 2016/02/12 06:00 Year of Publication: 2016 Update Date: 20161216
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MEDLARS Management Section
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Website: https://www.nlm.nih.gov
Copyright

NLM represents that the data provided within MEDLINE® is formulated with a reasonable standard of care. Except for this representation, and as otherwise specifically provided herein, NLM makes no representations or warranties, expressed or implied. This includes but is not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the NLM databases, and NLM specifically disclaims any such warranties and representations. Downloading data is permitted for personal use only. Some material in the NLM databases is from copyrighted publications of the respective copyright claimants. Users of the NLM databases are solely responsible for compliance with any copyright restrictions and are referred to the publication data appearing in the bibliographic citations, as well as to the copyright notices appearing in the original publications, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

The following use of data from MEDLINE, Ovid AIDSLINE, Ovid BIOETHICSLINE and Ovid HEALTHSTAR requires no written permission from or signed licence agreement with NLM:

Users may download small amounts of data, e.g., the bibliographic citation and MeSH® terms, for a small number of citations from the databases listed above for redistribution either via a printed publication or in electronic form using the Internet, World Wide Web, etc. Downloading from a MEDLARS licensee, such as OVID is subject to the licensee's approval.

Definitions:

  1. Download includes ftping results of an online search, arranging for the results of an automatic stored search to be available for ftp, ftping MEDLARS data from the NLM server (nlmpubs.nlm.nih.gov), or a traditional download using a modem.
  2. Small is defined as approximately 1,000 records per month from MEDLINE; 12,000 per year. Retrospective pulls of MEDLINE may include up to approximately 12,000 records for each year covered. For other MEDLARS databases, fewer than 25% of records in the file may be downloaded. For larger portions of a MEDLARS database, contact Janer@nlm.nih.gov or 301-496-7706 for licensing information.
  3. Data is defined as bibliographic citations and MeSH terms. This document grants permission to download only the bibliographic citations and MeSH terms, it does not cover author abstracts from the journals which are included in MEDLINE and other MEDLARS databases. Users should obtain an opinion from their legal counsel for any use they plan for the author-generated abstracts in the MEDLARS database.

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Users must ensure that all downloaded publicly accessible data stored in electronic form for over one year must be in compliance with the following provisions of the NLM license agreement:

  1. Users of this data must be provided a clear description of how the product/service was derived, indicating the currency and the source database.
  2. At least annually, the data downloaded must be corrected to incorporate the corrections NLM has made to these records during the year and in year end maintenance. MEDLARS data in any subsequently produced product/service must be carefully checked with that maintained on NLM's version of the database at the end of each calendar year and corrections made.
  3. Users are advised to consult legal counsel to ensure compliance with intellectual property laws. NLM cannot provide advice about copyright issues.
  4. Since NLM goes to considerable efforts to assign MeSH terms, it prefers that these be retained as assigned by the indexers.
  5. All downloaded NLM records (or portions thereof) must be labeled so as to identify NLM as the source.
  6. Trademark symbols must properly be used when referring to the NLM databases, system and products. A product/service using downloaded data must be named in a fashion that clearly distinguishes it from NLM-produced databases accessible at NLM.
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