Food Science Technology Abstracts Database Guide
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For more than 30 years FSTA has been the essential source of information on food science, food technology, and human nutrition for anyone working in the food sector, whether in industry, government or academia.

FSTA specialist scientists monitor approximately 1800 journals and many other types of literature (books, conference proceedings, theses, patents, standards, legislation, etc.), published in over 40 languages, and select the items relevant to the food sector. They then condense each one into a short, highly informative abstract giving the key points and conclusions, and assign index terms.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
fsta1   1969 – 1989
fsta2   1990 – Present
fsta   1969 – Present

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 2 segments.

This database is updated online weekly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) Issue Name (IX) Publisher Address (PI)
  Accession Number (AN) Issue Part (IP) Reference Information (RF)
  Additional Authors (AA) Journal Name (JN) Section (SS)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Journal Word (JX) Subsection (TS)
  Author's Address (AD) Language (LG) Source (SO)
  Author Roles (AR) Language Description (LD) Source Description (SD)
  Authors (AU) Language Summary (LS) Standard Number (SN)
  Commercial Names (CN) Order Number (OR) Subject Code (CS)
  Corporate Authors (CA) Original Title (OT) Subject Headings (SH)
  Data Object Identifier (DO) Pagination (PG) Subsection Code (TD)
  Date of Publication (DP) Patent Assignees (PA) Title (TI)
  Entry Date (ED) Patent Number (PN) Update Code (UP)
  Heading Words (HW) Patent Priority (PP) Volume (VO)
  ISBN (IB) Publication Type (PT) Year of Publication (YR)
  ISSN (IS)    
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ti,ab,hw.
  Abstract (AB) Heading Words (HW) Title (TI)
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) ISSN (IS) Reference Information (RF)
  Accession Number (AN) Language (LG) Section (SS)
  Additional Authors (AA) Language Description (LD) Subsection (TS)
  Author's Address (AD) Language of Summary (LS) Source (SO)
  Author Roles (AR) Order Number (OR) Source Description (SD)
  Authors (AU) Patent Assignees (PA) Standard Number (SN)
  Commercial Names (CN) Patent Number (PN) Subject Heading (SH)
  Corporate Authors (CA) Patent Priority (PP) Title (TI)
  Data Object Identifier (DO) Publication Type (PT) Update Code (UP)
  Heading Words (HW) Publisher Address (PI) Year of Publication (YR)
  ISBN (IB) Original Title (OT)  
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Language (LG) Section (SS)
  Accession Number (AN) Language Description (LD) Subsection (TS)
  Additional Authors (AA) Language of Summary (LS) Source (SO)
  Author's Address (AD) Order Number (OR) Source Description (SD)
  Author Roles (AR) Patent Assignees (PA) Standard Number (SN)
  Authors (AU) Patent Number (PN) Subject Heading (SH)
  Commercial Names (CN) Patent Priority (PP) Title (TI)
  Corporate Authors (CA) Publication Type (PT) Update Code (UP)
  Data Object Identifier (DO) Publisher Address (PI) Year of Publication (YR)
  ISBN (IB) Original Title (OT)  
  ISSN (IS) Reference Information (RF)  
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Date of Publication (DP) Journal Title (JN) Volume (VO)
  Issue Part (IP) Pagination (PG)      
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AA Additional Authors [Phrase Indexed]
ellinger w.aa.
  The Additional Authors (AA) field contains names of authors in addition to those referred to in the Author (AU) field.
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AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
microorganisms.ab.
 

Around 90% of FSTA records contain abstracts. The index contains all searchable words from the abstract.

The Abstract (AB) field is word indexed.

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AD Author's Address [Word Indexed]
small.ad.
 

The Author's Address (AD) field contains contact information for the primary author. The address refers to where the work was carried out.

The Author's Address (AD) field is word indexed.
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AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
meat.af.
 

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Abstract (AB).

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AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
 1969-01-D-0008.an.
 

The Accession Number (AN) field contains a unique alpha-numeric identifier assigned by IFIS publishing.

The Accession Number (AN) field is phrase indexed.

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AR Author Roles [Display Only]
 

The Author Roles (AR) field contains the special roles of Authors appearing in the Authors field.

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AU Authors [Phrase Indexed]
Schubert K.au.
  The Author (AU) field contains the author(s) of the article. The format is last name followed by one or more initials.
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CA Corporate Authors [Phrase Indexed]
United States of America, Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.ca.
 

The Corporate Authors (CA) field contains the issuing organization, agency, or company, and sometimes a personal name.

The Corporate Authors (CA) field is phrase indexed.

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CN Commercial Names [Word Indexed]
ransom.cn.
 

The Commercial Names (CN) field contains the name of the company associated in the record.

The Commercial Names (CN) field is word indexed.

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CS Subject Code [Word Indexed]
toxicology.cs.
 

The Subject Code (CS) field contains individual words from every general subject area given in the Section (SS) field.

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DO Data Object Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
10 1002 bit 260160510.do.
 

The DOI (DO) field contains the Digital Object Identifier number of the article.

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DP Date of Publication [Display Only]
 

The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the date(s) in which the document was published. The Date of Publication (DP) may also include other relevant dates pertaining to the document, e.i., "1996, thesis publ. 1992".

The Date of Publication (DP) field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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ED Entry Date [Phrase Indexed]
19721001.ed.
 

The Entry Date(ED) field contains the Year, Month and Day (i.e. 20130313) in which the document appeared in FSTA.

The Entry Date (ED) field is phrase indexed.

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HW Heading Words [Word Indexed]
folates.hw.
  The Heading Word (HW) field allows you to retrieve individual words within the Subject Heading (SH) field.

The Heading Word (HW) field is word indexed.

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IB  ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
91 576 2736 3.ib.
 

The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number. ISBN's should be searched using numeric characters only.

The ISBN (IB) field is phrase indexed.

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IP Issue Part [Word Indexed]
international.ip
 

The Issue Part (IP) contains the issue number for a particular record. The Issue Part (IP) field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

The Issue Part (IP) field is word indexed.

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IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
0027 769X.is.
 

The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serials Number.

The ISSN (IS) field is phrase indexed.

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IX Issue Name [Phrase Indexed]
ism.ix.
 

The Issue Name (IX) field contains the special issue name given to the publication in which the source material has been published.

This field is displayed in the Source (SO) field.

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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
Nahrung.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published. The Journal Name is displayed as a part of the Source field.

The Journal Name (JN) field is phrase indexed.

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JX Journal Word [Word Indexed]
england.jx.
 

Journal Word (JX) field contains individual words from every journal name.

This field is used to retrieve every occurrence of a journal which includes a particular word, such as "Food."

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LD Language Description [Word Indexed]
chinese.ld.
  The Language Description (LD) field contains the main language of the original document and the language of any accompanying summary.
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LG Language [Word Indexed]
german.lg.
  The Language (LG) field contains the main language of the original document.
Back 
LS Language Summary [Word Indexed]
french.ls.
 

The Language of Summary (LS) field contains the languages in which the summary is written.

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OR Order Number [Phrase Indexed]
DA9806587.or.
 

The Order Number (OR) field contains The Document Ordering Number, usually associated with Dissertation Abstracts.

The Order Number (OR) field is phrase indexed.

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OT Original Title [Word Indexed]
Das Boeckser-aroma in Wein.ot.
 

The Original Title (OT) field contains the foreign language title of the record.

The Original Title (OT) field is word indexed.

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PA Patent Assignees [Phrase Indexed]
Agropur Cooperative Agro-Alimentaire.pa.
  The Patent Assignees (PA) field contains a person, a group of persons, or an organization that receives ownership rights of the intellectual property.
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PG Pagination [Word Indexed]
"4".pg.
 

The Pagination (PG) index contains the first page on which an article appears. The Pagination (PG) field is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

The Pagination (PG) field is word indexed.

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PI Publisher Address [Word Indexed]
magazine.pi.
 

Publisher Address (PI) field contains the name and address of the book's publisher and sometimes includes the subscription price.

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PN Patent Number [Phrase Indexed]
EP 0 855 141 A1.pn.
 

The Patent Number (PN) field contains a character string indicating the country which granted the patent followed by a unique number.

The Patent Number (PN) field is phrase indexed.

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PP Patent Priority [Word Indexed]
811948.pp.
 

The Patent Priority (PP) field contains the priority data of the source patent document.

The Patent Priority (PP) field is word indexed.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
patent.pt.
 

The Publication Type (PT) field contains one or more terms used to describe the source document being cited.

The Publication Type (PT) field is phrase indexed.

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RF Reference Information [Word Indexed]
55.rf.
 

The Reference Information (RF) field contains either total number of references or the particular document referenced.

The Reference Information (RF) field is word indexed.

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SD Source Description [Word Indexed]
square.sd.
  The Source Description (SD) field extra information pertaining to the source document. This may include but is not limited to total page information.

The Source Description (SD) field is word indexed.

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SH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
gene expression.sh.
 

The Subject Headings (SH) field contains indexing terms assigned from the FSTA Thesaurus used to describe key points of the document.

The Subject Headings (SH) field is phrase indexed.

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SN Standard Number [Phrase Indexed]
ag 81 1.sn.
 

The Standard Number (SN) field contains the associated number for the standard referred to in the record.

The Standard Number (SN) field is phrase indexed.

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SO Source [Word Indexed]
food processing.so.
  The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the full Journal Name or Monograph Publisher, the Vol/Issue, pagination and date of publication.
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SS Section [Phrase Indexed]
Food Sciences.ss.
 

The Section (SS) field contains the general subject area the record is associated with.

The Section (SS) field is phrase indexed.

Additives, Spices and Condiments       Food Sciences
Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages       Fruits, Vegetables and Nuts
Biotechnology       Hygiene and Toxicology
Catering, Specialty and Multi-Component Foods       Meat, Poultry and Game
Cereals and Bakery Products   Milk and Dairy Products
Cocoa, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery Products   Packaging
Economics   Patents
Eggs and Egg Products   Pet Foods
Engineering   Standards, Laws and Regulations
Fats, Oils and Margarine   Sugars, Syrups and Starches
Fish and Marine Products        
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TD Subsection Code [Word Indexed]
chemistry.td.
 

The Subsection Code (TD) field contains the individual words from the given specific subject area (Subsection (TS) field) within the general subject area given in the Section (SS) field.

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TI Title [Word Indexed]
Food processing machinery.ti.
 

The Title (TI) field contains the Title of the book, article, conference proceeding, thesis, etc...

The Title (TI) field is word indexed.

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TS Subsection [Phrase Indexed]
dog foods.ts.
 

The Section/ Subsection (TS) field contains more specific subject area within the general subject area given in the Section (SS) field.

The Subsection (TS) field is phrase indexed.

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UP Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
2013015.up.
 

The Update Code (UP) field displays in all records and contains the date the record was released into the database. It consists of seven digits, in YYYYMMW format, where YYYY is the release year, MM is the release month and W is the Week.

The UP field is Phrase indexed.

Back 
VO Volume [Word Indexed]
96pp.vo.
 

The Volume (VO) field contains the volume of a serial publication. This field is displayed as a part of the Source (SO) field.

The Volume (VO) field is word indexed.

Back 
YR Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2010.yr.
 

The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year(s) in which the document was published. The year may be searched using four digits, e.g., "2004."

The Year of Publication (YR) field is phrase indexed.

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y

vitamin c or ascorbic acid

ascorbic acid and colour
titratable acidity and vitamin C contents

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y

aspartame and diet

aspartame and its hydrolysis products in diet soft drinks

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y

aspartame not diet

aspartame, sucralose and acesulfame or its salt

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y

aspartame sweetener

solid-state aspartame sweetener

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y

mycoprotein adj3 Quorn

mycoprotein: the Quorn Foods story

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n

Quorn.ab. /freq=5

mycoprotein (Quorn) is discussed. Quorn was introduced

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$

disease$

chronic neurodegenerative diseases
showing no signs of disease

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n

dog$1

a pet treat for dogs is described
dog foods, dog biscuits

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y

wom#n

single case of botulism in a woman
women with low milk zinc concentration

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y

colo?r

color, firmness, and marbling scores
beverage that changes colour

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y"

"hot/cold"

a hot/cold water atomizer above the water-holding area

"n"

"3".vo

Kids Nutrition Report. 3, (2): 15-16, 2006

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Full Text Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to full text
 

A limit to Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text links are included in this limit.

Languages Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english
 

A limit to Language will restrict retrieval to any of the languages indexed by IFIS Publishing. If you choose this option you will be presented with an alphabetic list of languages from which to select.

Latest Update Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to latest update
 

A limit to latest update will restrict retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.

Local Holdings Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to local holdings
 

A limit to Local Holdings restricts retrieval to documents from journals held in your local library or library system. If your System Administrator created any special messages about a journal's availability, this message displays with the document.

Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ovid full text available
 

A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available.

Publication Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to thesis
 

A limit by Publication Type will restrict retrieval by any of the publication types indexed by IFIS Publishing. If you choose this option you will be presented with a list of publication types, with a definition for each, from which to select.

Publication Year

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to yr=1989

Command Syntax: limit 1 to yr=1998-2001
 

You can restrict retrieval to any of the years which Food Science and Technology Abstracts covers. If you choose this option you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits: "1989" or a range: "1998-2001".

Topical Section Sentence Syntax:
Command Syntax:
limit 1 to economics
 

Records for FSTA are classified into sections and subsections. If you choose this option you will be presented with a list of Topical sections.

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Tools
The following Search Tool is available for this database. For specific information on using this tool, refer to the Ovid Gateway Help linked below.
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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/fsta
  Sentence Syntax: use fsta
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number 
  2010-12-Jl6038 
Authors 
  Atkinson, D., Thornton, M. K., Miller, J. S.
Author's Address 
  Correspondence address, M. K. Thornton, Department of Plant, 
  Soils and Entomological Sciences, Parma Research and Extension Center, 
  University of Idaho, Parma, ID, 83660, USA. 
  Tel. +1-208-722-6701. Fax +1-208-7226708. 
  E-mail miket@uidaho.edu
Title 
  Development of Rhizoctonia solani on stems, stolons and tubers of potatoes I. Effect of inoculum source. 
Source 
  American Journal of Potato Research. 87, (4): 374-381, 2010.
Publication Type 
  Journal Article
Subject Headings 
  FUNGI
  POTATOES
  RHIZOCTONIA
  SOILS
Section 
  Fruits, vegetables and nuts
Subsection 
  Potatoes
Abstract 
  Rhizoctonia solani may affect potato growth, yield and grade through lesions on stems and stolons and through development of black scurf on 
  daughter tubers. R. solani inoculum can be found on seed potatoes and in the soil, although the relative importance of each inoculum source is 
  unknown. Field studies at Parma and Aberdeen, Idaho, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the importance of each source of inoculum on 
  the subsequent development of this disease. Seed of cultivars Ranger Russet (2004) and Russet Burbank (2005) was washed and sorted into three 
  (2004) and two (2005) levels of black scurf. Prior to planting, the plots were inoculated with R. solani cultures mixed with vermiculite at low,
  medium and high rates. Each level of seed inoculum was planted at each level of soil inoculum. Significantly greater levels of disease on stems
  and stolons was consistently found on plants grown from high inoculum seed compared to low inoculum seed. However, significant effects of soil 
  inoculum level on stem and stolon disease were rarely seen. In contrast, both seed and soil inoculum level influenced the development of black 
  scurf on daughter tubers. The largest response to soil inoculum level was seen when seed inoculum was low. copyright Potato Association of America 2010.
ISSN 
  1099-209x
DOI
  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12230...
Language 
  English  
Language of Summary 
  Spanish
Language Description 
  English with Spanish Summary
Year of Publication 
  2010
Entry Date 
  20100913

  * Copyright 2013 International Food Information Service (IFIS Publishing). All Rights Reserved. *
Sample 2
Accession Number 
  2010-12-Jl6035 
Authors 
  Miles, G. P., Samuel, M. A., Jianchi Chen, Civerolo, E. L., Munyaneza, J. E.
Author's Address 
  Correspondence address, J. E. Munyaneza, Yakima Agricultural Research 
  Laboratory, USDA-ARS, 5230 Konnowac Pass Road, Wapato, WA, 98951, USA. 
  Tel. +1-509-4546564. Fax +1-509-4545646.
  E-mail Joseph.Munyaneza@ars.usda.gov
Title 
  Evidence that cell death is associated with zebra chip disease in potato tubers.
Source 
  American Journal of Potato Research. 87, (4): 337-349, 2010.
Publication Type 
  Journal Article
Subject Headings 
  CELLS
  DISEASES PLANT
  FRYING
  FRYING PROPERTIES
  PHYSIOLOGY
  PLANT DISEASES
  POTATOES
Section 
  Fruits, vegetables and nuts
Subsection 
  Potatoes
Abstract 
  Zebra chip (ZC) is an established and highly destructive disease of potato (Solanum 
  tuberosum L.) that occurs in several southwestern states of the United States, Mexico, 
  Central America, and New Zealand. The causal agent for this disease has not been identified. 
  However, the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" and the potato psyllid, 
  Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), its insect vector, are associated with the disease. Tubers 
  from ZC-affected potato plants exhibit dramatic browning of vascular tissue concomitant with 
  "necrotic flecking" both of which can affect the entire tuber. Upon frying, these tubers 
  develop a characteristic striped pattern of discoloration rendering them unmarketable. These 
  characteristic ZC symptoms in the tubers have been suggested to be associated with general 
  cell death, though no evidence to confirm this hypothesis has been shown. In order to 
  determine if cell death is associated with ZC disease, a series of experiments were 
  undertaken. Cell death was initially quantified by comparing cellular ion leakage from 
  ZC-affected and ZC-free tubers. Levels of ion leakage were found to be significantly higher 
  in ZC-affected tubers compared to ZC-free tubers. To examine further the association of cell 
  death with ZC disease, ZC-affected and ZC-free tubers were compared using classical 
  histochemical staining methods in conjunction with optical microscopy, which revealed layers 
  of dead cells surrounding numerous, small, irregularly-shaped lesions throughout the 
  parenchymatic medullary region, vascular ring and cortex of ZC-affected tubers. This cell 
  death was confirmed using high-resolution, field-emission scanning electron microscopy 
  (FE-SEM) of fresh-cut tuber tissue. copyright Potato Association of America 2010.
ISSN 
  1099-209x
DOI
  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12230...
Language 
  English
Language of Summary 
  Spanish
Language Description 
  English with Spanish summary
Year of Publication 
  2010
Entry Date 
  20100913
Update Code 
  2012112

  * Copyright 2013 International Food Information Service (IFIS Publishing). All Rights Reserved. *

Sample 3
Accession Number 
  1999-08-Nv0440 
Author 
  Stewart, P.
Patent Assignees 
  1129143 Ontario Inc.
Patent Priority 
  US 792646 (19970131)
Title 
  Fat imitator and process for its production. 
Source 
  United States Patent. 1999.
Publication Type 
  Patent
Subject Headings 
  FAT SUBSTITUTES
  FOODS
  PATENTS
Section 
  Fats, oils and margarine
Subsection 
  Patents
Patent Number 
  US 5 876 778
Abstract 
  A process for producing a fat imitator (substitute) by combining a complex and 
  simple carbohydrate, a proteinaceous material, a gum or hydrocolloid polycarbohydrate and a 
  salt is described. The complex carbohydrate used may be derived from a whole, dehulled cereal grain, 
  legume seed or plant tuber. Simple carbohydrates may be derived from a sugar solid or syrup. 
  Proteinaceous material must contain a min. protein content of 20% wt. as determined by 6.25% x 
  nitrogen content. The gum or hydrocolloid polycarbohydrate may be of vegetable, algal, animal 
  or bacterial origin. The salt may be sodium or potassium chloride, phosphate, acetate, citrate, 
  lactate or gluconate, or an ammonium phosphate, acetate, citrate, lactate or gluconate, 
  or any combination of these. [From En summ.]
Language 
  English
Year of Publication 
  1999
Entry Date 
  19990601
Update Code 
  2012112

  * Copyright 2013 International Food Information Service (IFIS Publishing). All Rights Reserved. *
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