Evidence Based Medicine Reviews:
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (COCH) is part of Ovid's Evidence Based Medicine Reviews collection, and includes the full text of the regularly updated systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare prepared by The Cochrane Collaboration.

The reviews are presented in two types:

  1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews are full-text systematic reviews of methodological studies. The reviews are both highly structured and systematic. Evidence from methodological research is included or excluded on the basis of explicit quality criteria, thus minimizing bias. Each review covers a specific and well-defined area of methodology. Data from studies are often combined statistically to increase the power of the findings of numerous studies, which on their own may be too small to produce reliable results. In such cases, the review may also include graphs presenting the data from each individual study.

  2. Protocols provide place-markers for reviews, which are currently being written. They summarize the background and the rationale of the review.

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews is produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, an international network of individuals and institutions committed to preparing, maintaining, and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of health care.

This database does not support Ovid's AutoAlerts. If you want to create a reusable search strategy, save the search as a Permanent Saved Search instead. See the Ovid Online Help System for details about saved searches.

This database is updated online weekly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) Full Text (TX) Local Messages (LM)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Group Name (GN) Outline Headings (OH)
  Accession Number (AN) Group Name (Word) (GW) Pages (PG)
  Author (AU) Implications for Practice (IC) Publication Type (PT)
  Author's Response (AP) Implications for Research (IR) References (RF)
  Caption Text (CT) Institution (IN) Short Title (OT)
  Cited Author (CA) ISSN (IS) Source (SO)
  Date of Most Recent Amendment (DR) Issue/Part (IP) Title (TI)
  Date of Most Recent Substantive Amendment (DS) Journal Name (JN) Update Code (UP)
  Date of Publication (DP) Journal Words (JW) Update Flag (UF)
  Document Type (DT) Keywords (KW) Volume (VO)
  External Accession Number (EN) Language (LG) Year of Publication (YR)
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database:ti,ab,hw.
  Abstract (AB) Full Text (TX) Short Title (OT)
  Caption Text (CT) Keywords (KW) Title (TI)
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Document Type (DT) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) Group Name (GN) Source (SO)
  Author (AU) ISSN (IS) Title (TI)
  Date of Most Recent Amendment (DR) Keywords (KW)  
  Date of Most Recent Substantive Amendment (DS) Local Messages (LM)  
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Document Type (DT) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) Implications for Practice (IC) References (RF)
  Author (AU) Implications for Research (IR) Short Title (OT)
  Date of Most Recent Amendment (DR) Keywords (KW) Source (SO)
  Date of Most Recent Substantive Amendment (DS) Language (LG) Title (TI)
  Group Name (GN) Local Messages (LM) Update Code (UP)
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Issue/Part (IP) Pages (PG) Year of Publication (YR)
  Journal Name (JN) Volume (VO)  
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]            
nsaids.ab.
substance abuse.ab.
 

The Abstract (AB) field summarizes the content of the document and generally describes the background, methods, results, and conclusions. Only documents which appeared in print with an abstract will include an abstract in this database.

Stopwords such as "of" or "the" display in documents but are not searchable and do not appear in the Abstract field.

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AF All Searchable Fields
fatty acid.af.
 

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Headings.

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AN

Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
00099262-199805060-00077.an.

  The Accession Number (AN) field contains a 22-digit number which uniquely identifies each document in the database. While searching this field, include all leading zeros and internal hyphens. The Accession Number is not related to the 8-digit MEDLINE Unique Identifier.
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AU Author [Phrase Indexed]
alderson p.au.
haynes$.au.
 

The Author (AU) field includes the names of all authors of a review or protocol in the order in which they appear in the document. Author names appear in the format of last name followed by first and middle names, or last name followed by up to two initials.

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CA Cited Author [Phrase Indexed]
avorn j.ca.
  The Cited Author (CA) field includes the names of authors cited in references. Author names are entered into the index in the format of last name followed by first and middle names, or last name followed by initials.
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CT Caption Text [Word Indexed]
mitochondria.ct.
  The Caption Text (CT) field includes the descriptive text for tables, figures, and other graphics as they appear in the journal in which the document was published.
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DP

Date of Publication [Word Indexed]
1998.dp.

  The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the month, year, and possibly day that the journal was published. This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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DR Date of Most Recent Amendment [Word Indexed]
1996.dr.
 

The Date of Most Recent Amendment (DR) field contains the month, year, and possibly day that the review or protocol was last updated.

The format for searching this field is MM-DD-YYYY. Note MM and DD which are less then 10 must be padded with 0's, for example, 8-29-1997 should be searched as 08-29-1997.

While searching this field, include all internal hyphens and zeros.

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DS Date of Most Recent Substantive Amendment [Word Indexed]
1998.ds.
 

The Date of Most Recent Substantive Amendment (DS) field contains the month, year, and possibly day that the review or protocol was revised in a substantial way.

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DT

Document Type [Phrase Indexed]
review.dt.

  The Document Type (DT) field contains either "Review" or "Protocol". Documents of the type "Review" are complete systematic reviews associated with a Group within the Cochrane Collaboration. Documents of type "Protocol" are specification for systematic reviews that are either "in process" or proposals for systematic reviews which will be done by the particular group within the Cochrane Collaboration.
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EN External Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
CD000980.en.
 

The External Accession Number field (EN) contains a six-digit number that uniquely identifies the record in the Cochrane Library database. Each number is preceded by the letters: CD. The External Accession Number is not related to the Ovid accession number or to the Medline Unique Identifier.

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GN Group Name [Phrase Indexed]
cochrane skin group.gn.
 

The Group Name (GN) field contains the full names of the groups within the Cochrane Collaboration. Searching in this field will retrieve all the reviews or protocols associated with a group or groups.

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GW Group Name (Word) [Word Indexed]
anxiety.gw.
back.gw.
 

The Group Name (Word) (GW) index includes the words from every Cochrane group in the database. Searching in this field will retrieve all the reviews or protocols associated with a group or groups.

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IC Implications for Practice [Word Indexed]
seizures.ic.
bed rest.ic.
 

The Implications for Practice (IC) field contains the portion of the review which discusses the main conclusions of the review and their implications for clinical practice.

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IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
"2".ip.
  The Issue/Part (IP) field includes the issue and supplement number in which the document was published. This field displays as part of the Source field (SO).
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IR Implications for Research [Word Indexed]
intrapartum oligohydramnios.ir.
 

The Implications for Research (IR) field contains the portion of the review which discusses how the results of the review should affect research in the field.

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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
cochrane database of systematic reviews.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published.

Stopwords such as "of" are included in Journal Name, but when "the" is the first word of a journal, it has been stripped.

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JW Journal Words [Word Indexed]
database.jw.
 

The Journal Word (JW) field contains individual words from every journal name.

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KW Keywords [Word Indexed]
metabolism.kw.
leukocytes.kw.
 

The Keywords (KW) field contains MeSH headings that have been assigned by members of the Cochrane Collaboration. These headings are used to describe the content of reviews. Protocols do not have keywords assigned to them.

Though the headings look like MeSH terms, they should not be searched as such. For example, if the keywords display as myocardial infarction/ai it should be searched as myocardial infarction ai.kw.

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LG Language [Phrase Indexed]
english.lg.
  The Language (LG) field contains the language or languages in which the main body of the document is written.
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LM Local Messages [Display Only]
 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by your Ovid System administrator to indicate holdings information about journals held in your library or institution.

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OH Outline Headings
conflict of interest.oh.
 

The Outline Headings (OH) field searches the author-defined section names of full text documents. The section names can be viewed conveniently by clicking the Outline button on the full text display window.

Use this field to locate documents containing discussions of significant length regarding a desired topic. For a broader search, you can expand your search to include the Title (TI), Abstract (AB), Caption Text (CT), and Full Text (TX) fields as well.

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OT Short Title [Word Indexed]
arthritis.ot.
 

The Short Title (OT) field contains a shortened form of the title, as determined by the Cochrane Collaboration.

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PG Pages [Phrase Indexed]
"9".pg.
"103".pg.
 

The Pages (PG) field contains the starting page number in the printed journal in which the document was published. The field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Often, a search using the publication year and the beginning page number is enough to locate a particular citation.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
review.pt.
  The Publication Type (PT) field describes a document's overall form and substance in broad categories. These publication types are assigned by Ovid Technologies in order to unify the differing document types used by various journal publisher. Enter the first few letters of the desired publication type, or root on the letter "a" to view and select from the complete list of publication types.
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RF References [Word Indexed]
obstet gynecol.rf.
barnett go.rf.
 

The Reference (RF) field includes complete bibliographic citations for the publications cited by authors in full text documents. These references can be viewed along with the citation or with full text.

Enter the desired reference information, consisting of words typically found in reference. Consider searching on words in document title, journal name or abbreviation, author name, page number, or year.

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SO Source
cochrane database of systematic reviews.so.
1996.so.
  The Source (SO) field includes the basic information needed to locate a source document, including the Journal Name (JN), Volume (VO), Issue/Part (IP), Pages (PG), Date of Publication (DP) and Year of Publication (YR) .
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TI

Title [Word Indexed]
protein restriction.ti.

 

The Title (TI) field contains the English language version of the title as it appears in the journal.

Stopwords such as "of" or "the" display in documents but do not appear in the title index. However, the word "a", which is a stopword in other fields, can be searched in the title field.

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TX Full Text [Word Indexed]
pentoxifylline.tx.
 

The Full Text (TX) field contains the complete document text. This field allows you to retrieve all documents with even the most passing mention of your search term. Since this field contains such a large quantity of diverse information, most searches for a specific subject retrieve more relevant results if conducted in the Title (TI) or Abstract (AB) fields.

Stopwords, which include commonly occurring words such as "of" and "the" display in the documents but do not appear in the Full Text index.

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UF Update Flag [Phrase Indexed]
updated.uf.
 

The Update Flag (UF) field contains "New" if the review or protocol has been newly added since the last database update or "Updated" if the review or protocol has changed in a significant way. If the review or protocol has not changed since the last update, there will be nothing in this field. Search new.uf. to see all the reviews and/or protocols which have been added since the last update of the database. This field will be output as part of the Date of Most Recent Amendment (DR) field.

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UP Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
19971128.up.
 

The Update Code (UP) field contains a 8-digit number representing the year, month and day in (YYYYMMDD format) in which documents were published in this database.

Enter the desired date in the format "YYYYMMDD" where "YYYY" corresponds to the 4-digit year, "MM" to the 2-digit month and "DD" to the day. Use truncation "199711$.up." or "1997$.up." to retrieve all the records added in a particular month or year.

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VO

Volume [Phrase Indexed]
"1".vo.

  The Volume (VO) field contains the volume of the printed journal in which the document was published. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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YR Year of Publication [Word Indexed]
1997.yr.
  The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which the printed journal containing the document was published. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.
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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example
OR x or y vitamin c or ascorbic acid

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y vitamin c and ascorbic acid

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y vitamin c not ascorbic acid

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y autism aspergers

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y autism adj3 aspergers

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab. /freq=5

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ rat$

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y" "Heat / Cold Application"
"n" "3".vo

 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords
Stopwords are words of little intrinsic meaning that occur too frequently to be useful in searching text. You cannot search for the following stopwords by themselves, but you can include them within phrases by placing the entire phrase within quotation marks.
a can how no seem through
about could however nor seen thus
after did if not several to
again do in now should under
all does into obtain show up
almost done is obtained showed upon
also during it of shown use
although each its often shows used
always either itself on significant using
among enough just only significantly various
an especially kg or since very
and etc km other so was
another followed largely our some we
any following like out such were
approximately for made over suggest what
are found mainly overall than when
as from make per that whereas
at further may perhaps the which
be give might possible their while
because given min previously theirs with
been giving mm quite them within
before had more rather then without
being hardly most really there would
between has mostly regarding these  
both have must resulted they  
but having nearly resulting this  
by here neither same those  
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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
New Reviews Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to new reviews
  Select this limit to restrict retrieval to those reviews and/or protocols which have been added since the last update of the database.
Protocols Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Protocols
 

Select this limit to restrict retrieval to protocols. Protocols reflect areas which are currently under development for the generation of a systematic review.

Recently Updated Reviews Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to recently updated reviews
 

Select this limit to restrict retrieval to those reviews and/or protocols which have been significantly modified since the last update of the database.

Full Systematic Reviews Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Full Systematic Reviews
 

Select this limit to restrict retrieval to full systematic reviews. Only complete reviews will be included when this limit is applied. Protocols will be eliminated.

Withdrawn Records Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Withdrawn Records
 

The limit to Withdrawn Records will restrict the search to records that have been withdrawn by the publisher. The reason for the withdrawal can be found within the EBM Full Text.

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Tools

Currently no tools are available for this database.

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Changing to this Database
To change a search session to a segment of this database from another database or another segment, use the following syntax in the Ovid Syntax tab:
  Command Syntax: ..c/coch
  Sentence Syntax: use coch
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Sample Documents

The format of a Cochrane Review has several objectives. It helps readers to find the results of research quickly and to assess the validity, applicability and implications of those results. It guides reviewers to report their work explicitly and concisely, and minimizes the effort required to do this. The format is also suited to electronic publication and updating, and it generates reports that are informative and readable when viewed on a computer monitor or printed.

Each review consists of:

  • A title, citation details, and contact addresses.
  • An abstract in a structured format.
  • The text of the review, consisting of:
    • an introduction (background and objective),
    • materials (selection criteria and search strategy) and methods,
    • results (description of studies, methodological quality, and results),
    • discussion, and
    • conclusions.
  • Standard tables and figures, showing:
    • characteristics of the included studies,
    • specification of the interventions that were compared,
    • the results of the included studies, and
    • a log of the studies that were excluded.
  • References.

Standard headings and tables guide reviewers preparing a report and make it easier for readers to identify information that is of particular interest to them. The headings are listed below. The content that should follow each heading is described in the appendix attached to this section (Guide to the format of a Cochrane Review).

For the complete Cochrane Collaboration Handbook, see http://cochrane.co.uk/

Outline of a Cochrane Review
Cover sheet: 
   Title
   Short title
   Reviewer(s)
   Contact address 
      Name
      Organisation and address
      Telephone number
      Facsimile number
      E-mail
   Date last edited
   Date of last substantive update
   Sources of support to the review<
Abstract:
   Objectives
   Search strategy
   Selection criteria
   Data collection & analysis
   Main results
   Conclusions
Text:
   Background
   Objectives
   Selection criteria 
      Types of studies
      Types of participants
      Types of interventions
      Types of outcome measures
   Search strategy
   Methods
   Description of studies
   Methodological quality
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusions
      Implications for practice
      Implications for research
   Acknowledgements
   Conflicts of interest

Tables and figures:
   Table of comparisons
   Table of included studies
   Table of excluded studies
   Data tables and graphs
References:
   References to studies 
      Studies included in this review
      Studies excluded from this review
      Studies awaiting assessment
      Ongoing studies
   Other references
      Additional references
      Previously published versions of this review
Sample 1
Accession Number
  00021607-200707000-00022
Title
  Review: Anticoagulants increase intracerebral bleeding and do not 
  reduce death or disability in acute cardioembolic stroke.
Source
  ACP Journal Club. v147(1):p.17, July/August, 2007.
Reviewed Source
  Paciaroni M, Agnelli G, Micheli S, Caso V. Efficacy and safety of
  anticoagulant treatment in acute cardioembolic stroke: a meta-analysis
  of randomized controlled trials. Stroke. 2007;38:423-30.
Commentary Author
  S. Claiborne Johnston, MD, PhD
Commentary Author's Institution
  University of California, San Francisco; San Francisco, California, USA
Keywords
  Anticoagulants;
  Cerebrovascular accident
Abstract
  Question:
  In patients with acute cardioembolic stroke, are anticoagulants effective
  and safe as initial treatment?
  Methods:
  Data sources
  MEDLINE and EMBASE/Excerpta Medica (1980 to February 2006), the Cochrane
  Library (2006, issue 1), bibliographies of relevant studies, and abstracts
  of major international meetings.
  Study selection and assessment
  Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared anticoagulants
  (unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or heparinoids)
  with other treatments or placebo in patients (randomized within 48 h of
  stroke onset) who received an objective diagnosis of stroke of presumed
  cardioembolic origin and were assessed using objective methods. 7 RCTs
  (n = 4624) were included. 3797 patients had atrial fibrillation, and 827
  had other mixed cardioembolic sources. The anticoagulants were intravenous
  dalteparin (1 RCT), intravenous heparin (2 RCTs), subcutaneous heparin (1
  RCT), intravenous danaparoid (1 RCT), subcutaneous nadroparin (1 RCT), and
  tinzaparin (1 RCT). Studies were assessed for allocation methods, allocation
  concealment, blinding, and completeness of follow-up.
  Outcomes
  A composite outcome of death or disability at >= 3 months, all strokes or
  early recurrent stroke within 14 d, and symptomatic intracranial bleeding.
  Main results:
  Anticoagulants did not differ significantly from placebo or aspirin for
  death or disability, all strokes, or recurrent stroke, but they increased
  the risk for symptomatic intracranial bleeding .
  Conclusions:
  In patients with acute cardioembolic stroke, anticoagulants do not differ
  significantly from placebo or aspirin for the composite outcome of death or
  disability or for stroke, including recurrent early stroke. However, they 
  increase the risk for intracranial bleeding.
Commentary
  Ischemic stroke was commonly treated with short-term anticoagulation 10
  years ago, most frequently with heparin. A series of randomized trials,
  many included in this meta-analysis by Paciaroni and colleagues, showed
  that there was no benefit to anticoagulation when given within hours of
  an ischemic stroke and that it increased the risk for major hemorrhagic 
  complications. However, cardioembolic strokes were not well-represented
  in most of these trials.
  The benefit of long-term anticoagulation with warfarin in patients with
  cardioembolic stroke is well-established. Some experts have argued that
  short-term anticoagulation in patients with recent cardioembolic stroke
  should reduce the risk for early recurrence and that this benefit is
  likely to outweigh the risk for hemorrhagic complications. This meta-analysis
  argues that they are wrong, and in doing so, it eliminates one of the last
  widely accepted indications for full-dose heparin after ischemic stroke.
  This meta-analysis extracted data from subgroups in larger trials (including
  data not previously reported) and thus adds to the literature rather than 
  just summarizing it. With the data clearly presented, the conclusions are
  obvious: Any benefit from short-term anticoagulation in reducing risk for
  recurrent ischemic stroke is outweighed by the risk for hemorrhagic stroke,
  with no net benefit in mortality and disability.
  Prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis remains an uncertain indication for
  heparins in nonambulatory patients with stroke and is currently being
  studied in randomized trials. The lower doses required for prophylaxis are
  more effective than compression devices, but this benefit may be balanced by
  a greater risk for brain hemorrhage . Patients with cardioembolic transient
  ischemic attack may also benefit from short-term anticoagulation since the
  risk for recurrence is particularly high in these patients, and the risk for
  brain hemorrhage should be substantially lower in the absence of major brain
  infarction. However, this indication needs to be evaluated in trials.
  Short-term aspirin does improve outcomes after ischemic stroke and should be
  given to all patients.
References
  1. Dennis MS. Effective prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis after stroke:
  low-dose anticoagulation rather than stockings alone: against. Stroke.
  2004;35:2912-3.
  2. Johnston SC. Clinical practice. Transient ischemic attack.
  N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1687-92.
Publication Type
  Therapeutics.
Document Type
  Therapeutics. 
Sample 2
Accession Number
  00021607-200701000-00001
Author
  Straus, Sharon MD, MSc; Haynes, Brian MD, PhD; Glasziou, Paul MBBS, PhD;
  Dickersin, Kay PhD; Guyatt, Gordon MD, MSc
Institution
  University of Calgary; Calgary, Alberta, Canada (Straus)
  McMaster University; Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (Haynes)
  University of Oxford; Oxford, England, UK (Glasziou)
  Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, Maryland, USA (Dickersin)
  McMaster University; Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (Guyatt)
Title
  Misunderstandings, misperceptions, and mistakes.
Source
  ACP Journal Club. v146(1):p.A8A9, January/February, 2007.
Commentary Author
  Sharon Straus, MD, MSc, Brian Haynes, MD, PhD, Paul Glasziou, MBBS, PhD,
  Kay Dickersin, PhD, Gordon Guyatt, MD, MSc
Commentary Author's Institution
  University of Calgary; Calgary, Alberta, Canada,
  McMaster University; Hamilton, Ontario, Canada,
  University of Oxford; Oxford, England, UK,
  Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, Maryland, USA,
  McMaster University; Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Keywords
  Evidence-based medicine
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Publication Type
  EBM Trends.
Document Type
  Editorial.
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