NHS Economic Evaluation Database Guide
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The National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database is funded by the Department of Health's NHS Research and Development Programme, and produced by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), and provides cost-benefit analyses about healthcare interventions.

The economic evaluation literature is recorded in many electronic databases and paper-based resources. For NHS EED, the staff at CRD systematically identifies economic evaluations by searching a range of electronic databases, journals, and paper-based resources.

The NHS Economic Evaluation Database contains over 17,000 records of quality assessed economic evaluations. The database aims to assist decision-makers by systematically identifying and describing economic evaluations, appraising their quality and highlighting their relative strengths and weaknesses.

Note that NIHR funding to produce DARE and NHS EED ceased at the end of March 2015. These databases can still be accessed on Ovid, but will not be updated. More information can be found at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/newspage.asp#changesdare.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
CLEED   1995-2015

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. This database includes 1 segment.

This database is updated online quarterly.

 
Fields

The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.

All Fields in this Database
  Author’s Conclusions (AC) Local Holdings (LH) Reviewed Article Title (TO)
  Accession Number (AN) Local Messages (LM) Reviewed Article Volume (DV)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) MeSH Subject Headings (SH) Reviewed Article Year of Publication (DI)
  Authors (AU) Product Online Date (OD) Reviewed Source (SR)
  Catalog Holdings (XH) Publication Date (PD) Source (SO)
  Copyright (CO) Publication Type (PT) Study Design (SD)
  CRD Commentary (CR) Publisher (PB) Study Information (IF)
  Database Entry Date (CY) Record Status (ST) Study Sample (SS)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) References (RF) Subject Code (SU)
  Editors (ED) Reviewed Article Authors (AY) Subject Heading Words (HW)
  Exploded MeSH Heading (XM) Reviewed Article Book Chapter (CH) Summary Language (SL)
  Exploded Sub-Heading (XS) Reviewed Article Editors (ER) Text (TX)
  Floating Sub-Heading (FS) Reviewed Article Issue/Part (PO) Text Word (TW)
  Hypothesis/Study Question (HY) Reviewed Article Journal Name (SJ) Title (TI)
  ISSN (IS) Reviewed Article Journal Word (RW) Update Flag (UF)
  Issue/Part (IP) Reviewed Article Page (PR) URL (UR)
  Journal Name (JN) Reviewed Article Publisher (RP) Year (YR)
  Journal Word (JX)    
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, defaults to the following “multi-purpose” (.mp.) fields for this database:ti,ab,hw.

  Subject Heading Words (HW) Text (TX) Title (TI)
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Author’s Conclusions (AC) MeSH Subject Headings (SH) Study Design (SD)
  Accession Number (AN) Publication Type (PT) Study Information (IF)
  Authors (AU) Record Status (ST) Study Sample (SS)
  Copyright (CO) References (RF) Summary Language (SL)
  CRD Commentary (CR) Reviewed Article Authors (AY) Title (TI)
  Database Entry Date (CY) Reviewed Article Editors (ER) Update Flag (UF)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) Reviewed Article Publisher (RP) URL (UR)
  Hypothesis/Study Question (HY) Reviewed Article Year of Publication (DI) Year (YR)
  ISSN (IS) Reviewed Source (SR)  
  Local Messages (LM) Source (SO)  
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Author’s Conclusions (AC) MeSH Subject Headings (SH) Study Design (SD)
  Accession Number (AN) Publication Type (PT) Study Information (IF)
  Authors (AU) Record Status (ST) Study Sample (SS)
  Copyright (CO) References (RF) Summary Language (SL)
  CRD Commentary (CR) Reviewed Article Authors (AY) Title (TI)
  Database Entry Date (CY) Reviewed Article Editors (ER) Update Flag (UF)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) Reviewed Article Publisher (RP) URL (UR)
  Hypothesis/Study Question (HY) Reviewed Article Year of Publication (DI) Year (YR)
  ISSN (IS) Reviewed Source (SR)  
  Local Messages (LM) Source (SO)  
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Elements of Reviewed Source (SR) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the reviewed source.

  Reviewed Article Authors (AY) Reviewed Article Journal Name (SJ) Reviewed Article Volume (DV)
  Reviewed Article Book Chapter (CH) Reviewed Article Page (PR) Reviewed Article Year of Publication (DI)
  Reviewed Article Editors (ER) Reviewed Article Publisher (RP)  
  Reviewed Article Issue/Part (PO) Reviewed Article Title (TO)  
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.

  Issue/Part (IP) Journal Word (JX) Year (YR)
  Journal Name (JN) Publisher (PB)  
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AC Author’s Conclusions [Word Indexed]
economic benefit.ac.
 

The Author's Conclusions (AC) field summarizes the author's conclusions about the study and its results.

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AF All Searchable Fields [Search Alias]
heart.af.
 

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Heading (SH).

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AN Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
nhseed-988273.an.
 

The Accession Number (AN) field contains a unique number which identifies a record in the NHS-EED database.  All accession numbers are preceded by the letters "NHSEED".

Additionally, if the record has been added since the last database update, the update flag "New" will display after the accession number. Search the Update Flag (UF) field to retrieve all of the most recently added citations: new.uf.

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AU Authors [Phrase Indexed]
centre for reviews and dissemination.au.
 

The Author (AU) field includes the name of the group or individuals who authored the NHS-EED document.

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AY Reviewed Article Authors [Phrase Indexed]
zygun d a.ay.
 

The Reviewed Article Author (AY) field contains the names of all the authors of the article or study being reviewed. 

Type the desired author's last name, followed by a space and the initial, if known. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name, enter one version and you will be able to find the others.

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CH Reviewed Article Book Chapter [Word Indexed]
decision analysis.ch.
 

The Reviewed Article Book Chapter Title (CH) field includes, if applicable, the chapter title of the book in which the reviewed article was published.  This field displays as part of the Reviewed Source (SR) field.

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CO Copyright [Word Indexed]
University of York.co.
 

The Copyright (CO) field contains the copyright information associated with an article.

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CR CRD Commentary [Word Indexed]
vaccination programme.cr.
 

The CRD Commentary (CR) field contains comments on the quality of the study under review under the following headings: Choice of comparator(s), validity of estimate of benefit, validity of estimate of costs, and other issues.

Among the issues addressed by the CRD are whether the rationale for the choice of comparator(s) was justifiable, the design of the study/review estimating clinical effectiveness, factors to consider in the economic analysis, and factors to consider in the synthesis of the study.

This field can also be searched as part of the Text (TX) field.

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CY Database Entry Date [Phrase Indexed]
2002.cy.
 

The Database Entry Date (CY) field contains the year in which the article was added to the database.

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DI Reviewed Article Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
2003.di.
 

The Reviewed Article Year of Publication (DI) field includes the year of publication of the reviewed article. 

This field displays as part of the Reviewed Source (SR) field.

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DO Digital Object Identifier [Phrase Indexed]
10.1002/14651858.do.
 

The DOI (DO) field contains the Digital Object Identifier - a unique and persistent digital identification code for any object of intellectual property.

The DOI itself consists of two parts: a prefix which is assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency, for example "10.1002", and a suffix which is assigned by the publisher and can be any code that the publisher chooses, such as "14651858". The full DOI appears as such: "10.1002/14651858".

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DV Reviewed Article Volume [Word Indexed]
"63".dv.
 

The Reviewed Article Volume (DV) field includes the volume of the reviewed article. This field displays as part of the Reviewed Source (SR) field.

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ED Editors [Phrase Indexed]
centre for reviews and dissemination.ed.
 

The Editor (ED) field contains the editor(s) associated with the article.

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ER Reviewed Article Editors [Phrase Indexed]
centre for reviews and dissemination.ed.
 

The Reviewed Article Editors (ER) field includes the editors of the reviewed article. This field displays as part of the Reviewed Source (SR) field.

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FS Floating Sub-Heading [Phrase Indexed]
therapeutic use.fs.
 

Subheadings are qualifiers added to MeSH subject headings to refine their meaning.  Terms such as "etiology" or "therapy", when combined with a MeSH heading, give a precise idea of what an article covers.

The Floating Subheadings (FS) field contains both the 2-letter codes, such as "po" and the full headings, such as "poisoning". These are displayed following the corresponding MeSH Subject Headings.

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HW Subject Heading Words [Word Indexed]
bipolar.hw.
 

The Subject Heading Word (HW) field allows you to search for and retrieve every MeSH Subject Heading (SH) and Publication Type (PT) that includes a particular word. 

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HY Hypothesis/Study Question [Word Indexed]
meningitis.hy.
 

The Hypothesis/Study Question (HY) field summarizes the general objective of the study in terms of the hypothesis or question(s) posed and the alternative health technology stated as a comparator. Justification of the choice of comparator is reported if available.

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IF Study Information [Word Indexed]
Primary prevention.if.
 

The Study Information (IF) field contains general study information such as effectiveness analyses, study population, and cost and funding information.

This field can also be searched as part of the Text (TX) field.

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IP Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
2008.ip.
 

The Issue/Part (IP) field includes the issue associated with the current NHS-EED database.  Because the nature of the database is to be continually updated, the issue associated with each abstract will change with a new release of the database.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO).

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IS ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
1465-1858.is.
 

The ISSN field (IS) contains the International Standard Serial Number for the journal in which the document was published.

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JN Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
nhs economic evaluation database nhseed.jn.
 

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which the article was published.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO).

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JX Journal Word [Word Indexed]
Economic.jx.
 

The Journal Word (JX) field contains individual words from every journal name. 

This field displays as part of the Source (SO).

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LH Local Holdings [Display Only]
 

The Local Holdings (LH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") if a journal is available at your site.

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LM Local Messages [Display Only]
 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by your Ovid System administrator to indicate holdings information about journals held in your library or institution.

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OD Product Online Date [Phrase Indexed]
20000301.od.
 

The Product Online Date (OD) field contains the date of the initial release of NHS EED.

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PB Publisher [Word Indexed]
Wiley.pb.
 

The Publisher (PB) field includes the publisher name for an article.

This field usually displays as part of the Source (SO).

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PD Publication Date [Word Indexed]
20080416.pd.
 

The Publication Date (PD) field contains the publication date code for the current issue of NHS-EED.

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PO Reviewed Article Issue/Part [Word Indexed]
"5".po.
 

The Reviewed Article Issue/Part (PO) field includes the issue and supplement number in which the reviewed article was published. 

This field displays as part of the Reviewed Source (SR) field.

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PR Reviewed Article Page [Word Indexed]
"3".pr.
 

The Reviewed Article Page (PR) field includes the page number of the reviewed article. 

This field displays as part of the Reviewed Source (SR) field.

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PT Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
review.pt.
 

The Publication Type (PT) field describes a document's overall form and substance in broad categories.

Enter the first few letters of the desired publication type or enter the letter "a" to view and select for the complete list of publication types.

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RF References [Word Indexed]
"2006".rf.
Palfrey.rf.
 

The References (RF) field includes complete bibliographic citations for the publications cited by the authors in full text documents.

Enter the desired reference information, consisting of words typically found in a reference.  Consider searching on words in the document title, journal name or abbreviation, author name, page number, or year.

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RP Reviewed Article Publisher [Word Indexed]
Kluwer.rp.
 

The Reviewed Article Publisher (RP) field includes the publisher of the reviewed article. 

This field displays as part of the Reviewed Source (SR) field.

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RW Reviewed Article Journal Word [Word Indexed]
Transfusion.rw.
 

The Reviewed Article Journal Words (RW) field contains individual words from every journal in which a reviewed article was published.

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SD Study Design [Word Indexed]
retrospective.sd.
 

The Study Design (SD) field is defined (for example, randomised controlled trial or cohort study) and the number of centres is stated along with the duration of follow-up of the treatment cohort. If it is an experimental study,the participant allocation method is described, for example the block randomisation or stratified allocation.

The loss to follow up and reasons for withdrawals are stated along with any blinding method used for the assessment of outcomes, for example: Patient; Clinician; Assessor of patients' outcome.

The SD field can also be searched as part of the Text (TX) field.

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SH MeSH Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
Infusion Pumps.sh.
 

The MeSH Subject Headings (SH) field contains the Medical Subject Headings used by indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to describe the content of an article. NLM's MeSH terms are organized in a hierarchy, or "tree" structure.

MeSH headings are entered into the index as phrases and should be searched as they appear in the NLM MeSH books or in our Tree display.

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SJ Reviewed Article Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
zentralblatt fur neurochirurgie.sj.
 

The Reviewed Article Journal Name (SJ) field contains the full name of the journal in which the Reviewed Article was published. 

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SL Summary Language [Phrase Indexed]
English.sl.
 

The Summary Language (SL) field contains the language or languages in which the article is written.

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SO Source [Display Only]
 

The Source (SO) field contains the bibliographic information from the NHS-EED database, including issue number, journal name, product title, product subtitle, publisher and division.

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SR Reviewed Source [Display Only]
"2006".sr.
Alzheimer's.sr.
 

The Reviewed Source (SR) field includes the complete bibliographic citation(s) for the publication(s) being reviewed.  These references can be viewed with the citation or with the full text.

The Reviewed Source field is word indexed.  To search, enter the desired reference information, consisting of words typically found in a reference.  Consider searching for words in the document title, journal name or abbreviation, author name, page number or year.

If you know the specific type of information you are seeking (such as a document title), you may also choose to search in one of the following fields: 

Reviewed Article Authors (AY)   Reviewed Article Journal Name (SJ)   Reviewed Article Volume (DV)
Reviewed Article Book Chapter (CH)   Reviewed Article Page (PR)   Reviewed Article Year of Publication (DI)
Reviewed Article Editors (ER)   Reviewed Article Publisher (RP)    
Reviewed Article Issue/Part (PO)   Reviewed Article Title (TO)    
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SS Study Sample [Word Indexed]
gender.ss.
 

The Study Sample (SS) field contains details of the method of sample selection, sample or trial size, power calculation, and refusal to participate. The field is used to record any sample randomization methods, evidence that the initial study sample was appropriate for the clinical study question, and if power calculations determined the sample size.

In reporting the trial/study size, the abstract writer will distinguish between the number of subjects (such as patients, doctors, or health care provider units) overall, in the intervention group, and in the control group, and the percentage of subjects invited to participate who refused. The percentage of subjects excluded for any reasons from the initial sample is also recorded.

This field can also be searched as part of the Text (TX) field.

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ST Record Status [Word Indexed]
evaluated.st.
 

The Record Status (ST) field contains the status of the article as reported by the CRD.

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SU Subject Code [Phrase Indexed]
used.ur.
 

The Subject Code (SU) field contains a subject code assigned by CRD. 

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TI Title [Word Indexed]
Economic assessment of platelet glycoprotein.ti.
 

The Title (TI) field contains the title of the NHS-EED record, which generally corresponds to the title of the Reviewed Source as well.

Stopwords, which include commonly occurring words such as "of" and "the", will not be indexed. However, the word "a," which is a stopword in other fields, can be searched in the Title field.

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TO Reviewed Article Title [Word Indexed]
Alternative approaches to human blood resources.to.
 

The Reviewed Article Title (TO) field contains the title of article being reviewed. 

Stopwords such as "of" or "the" will display in documents but do not appear in the title index. However, the word "a," which is a stopword in other fields, can be searched in the Reviewed Article Title field.

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TW

Text Word [Word Index]
zygote.tx.

 

The Text Word (TW) field is ideal for broad retrieval of an author's specialized terminology. Searches in this field are conducted simultaneously in the Title (TI), Keyword (KW), and Full Text (TX) fields.

If you believe that your search word or phrase has been used very frequently in the literature (e.g. "blood pressure,") you may wish to focus the results more closely by using the Title (TI) or Subject Headings (SH) fields, or by using one of the limits to restrict the results of your search.

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TX Text [Word Indexed]
high-risk coronary angioplasty.tx.
 

The Full Text (TX) field contains the complete document text.  This field allows you to retrieve all documents with even the most passing mention of your search term.

Since this field contains such a large quantity of diverse information, most searches for a specific subject will result in retrieval of higher relevance if conducted in the Title (TI) or MeSH Subject Heading (SH) field.

Stopwords, which include commonly occurring words such as "of" and "the", will not be indexed.

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UF Update Flag [Phrase Indexed]
new.uf.
 

The Update Flag (UF) field contains "New" if the review has been newly added since the last database update.  If the record has not changed since the last update, there will be nothing in this field.

Search new.uf. to see all of the reviews which have been added since the last update of the database.

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UR URL [Phrase Indexed]
elsevierhealth.ur.
 

The URL (UR) field contains the URL information for the original article.

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XH Catalog Holdings [Display Only]
 

The Catalog Holdings (XH) field indicates (with a "Y" or an "N") if a journal is held locally.

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XM Exploded MeSH Heading [Phrase Indexed]
zygophyllaceae.xm.
 

The Exploded MeSH Heading (XM) field contains pre-exploded MeSH Headings. MeSH Subject Headings are hierarchical, with up to twelve levels of narrower terms from the top of a hierarchy. In order to retrieve a term and all of its narrower terms, a subject heading must be "exploded", that is, the subject heading and all narrower terms are "OR'd" together. OVID pre-explodes highly-posted broader terms with their narrower terms during loading. These pre-exploded MeSH Headings are displayed in the MeSH Subject Headings (SH) field.

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XS Exploded Sub-Heading [Phrase Indexed]
tu.xs.
 

The Exploded Subheadings (XS) field contains the two-letter codes for the pre-exploded subheadings. Sometimes multiple MeSH Subheadings can be logically grouped together.  Such related groups of subheadings are "pre-exploded" under one broad subheading.  This means that all the grouped subheadings can be retrieved together by searching on the "pre-exploded" version of the broad subheading. These pre-exploded MeSH Headings are displayed in the MeSH Subject Headings (SH) field.

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YR Year [Phrase Indexed]
2008.yr.
 

The Year of Publication (YR) field contains the year in which the article was published.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO).

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y meta-analysis or placebo "42.3% in the placebo group"
  The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y meta-analysis and placebo "evidence for the final outcomes was derived from a meta-analysis of six randomised placebo-controlled double blind clinical trials"
  The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y placebo not meta-analysis "Relative risk in the active group compared to placebo was 0.78 with 95% confidence interval of 0.67 to 0.91."
  The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y side effects anj antidepressants "The response rate for patients who received the study drug in the RCT was the average of the response rates found in published reports of studies of antidepressants known to be effective."
  The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y side effects adj2 antidepressants "This was followed by a 10- to 15-minute telephone assessment (including current use of antidepressants, side effects, severity of depressive symptoms) 8 and 16 weeks after the initial prescription."
  The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n Antidepressants.tx./FREQ=3 "Antidepressants in the group of SSRIs in the study were fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Antidepressants in the group of TCAs in the study were imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine, dothiepin, doxepin, maprotiline, oxaprotiline, lofepramine, desipramine, and nortriptyline. Antidepressants in the group of other cyclic antidepressants in the study were: mianserin, traxodone, moclobemide, bupropion, amineptime, and nomifensine."
  The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$

rat$

"the effectiveness of prophylaxis regimens, adverse effects, survival rates and quality of life adjustments"
  Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n

dog$1

"Walking the dog was the activity most often related to injury"
  Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y

wom#n

"Cost-effectiveness of detecting breast cancer in lower socioeconomic status African American and Hispanic women through mobile mammography services"
  Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y

colo?r

"Cost-effectiveness of colour duplex sonography compared with angiography"
  The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Literal String ("") "x / y"

"yes/no"

"binary outcomes (yes/no)"
"n"

"3".dv

"Journal of Health Services Research & Policy. 3(3): 141-148"
 

Quotation marks can be used to retrieve records that contain literal strings, when the string includes special characters, such as a forward slash (/).

Quotation marks can also be used to retrieve records that contain numbers that may otherwise be confused for earlier searches. In the example, a search for 3.vo would limit the string from your third search in your search history to the volume field. By including the number in quotation marks, the search will retrieve documents with a 3 in the volume number.

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Stopwords

Stopwords are not included in this database. You can search for words or phrases like is there hope.tw.  With stopwords enabled, such searches would have returned an error.

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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Age Group Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to infant
 

A limit by Age Group restricts retrieval by any of the age groups indexed in the database. Since only human age groups are indexed, this limit will also restrict retrieval to human subjects.

If you choose this option you will be presented with a list of age groups from which to select.

Animals Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to animals
 

A limit to Animals restricts retrieval to documents which are primarily about animal subjects.  It retains articles about both human and animal subjects.

Consider also the Limit to Animal Type, which will allow you to select from a list of common experimental research animals.

Animal Type Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to cats
 

A limit by Animal Type restricts retrieval to any of the basic animal types.

If you choose this option you will be presented with a short alphabetical list of some common research animal types from which to select.

Consider also the Limit to Animal, which restricts retrieval to documents which are about any animal subject.

CheckTags Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to pregnancy
 

Indexers apply check tags to articles to identify research categories. Categories include research subjects (such as female or adult). If you choose this option you will be presented with a list of categories from which to select.

CRD Commentary Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to crd commentary
 

A limit to CRD Commentary will restrict retrieval to documents that contain an evaluation of the original article by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.

English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english
 

A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles which are written in the English language. Foreign language articles with English abstracts will be eliminated by a limit to English.

Female Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to female
 

A limit to Female restricts retrieval to documents which are about females, either human or animal.

Human Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to human
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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number
  NHSEED-21995000629 
Authors
  Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.
Title
  Laparoscopic colon surgery: report of a series (Brief record)
Source
  NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED). Other economic studies:
  bibliographic details. 2009 Issue 2, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  Chichester, UK. Division: ST.
Reviewed Source
  Original article: Fine, A P, Lanasa, S, Gannon, M P, Cline, C W,
  James, R. Laparoscopic colon surgery: report of a series. American
  Surgeon. 61(5): 412-416, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858. 
Reviewed Article Authors
  Fine, A P. Lanasa, S. Gannon, M P. Cline, C W. James, R
Digital Object Identifier
  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858
MeSH Subject Headings
  Humans
  Carcinoma / su [Surgery]
  Colectomy / mt [Methods]
  Colon / su [Surgery]
  Colon, Sigmoid / su [Surgery]
  Colonic Neoplasms / su [Surgery]
  Colostomy
  Comparative Study
  Hospital Costs
  Hospitals, Community / ec [Economics]
  Hospitals, Teaching / ec [Economics]
  Laparoscopy / ae [Adverse Effects]
  Laparoscopy / mt [Methods]
  Length of Stay
  Lymph Node Excision
  Rectum / su [Surgery]
  Retrospective Studies
  Time Factors
Record Status
  This study has been evaluated by a health economist for CRD. This
  study is not an economic evaluation and has not received an abstract.
  It is considered to be a cost study and the bibliographic details are
  included here for information.
Summary Language
  English
Year of Publication
  1995
Year of Latest Amendment
  2009
Reviewed Article Year of Publication
  1995
Study Information
  Index terms: 
ISSN
  1465-1858
Copyright
  Copyright (C) 2007 University of York. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sample 2
Accession Number
  NHSEED-21995000628 
Authors
  Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.
Title
  A cost-effectiveness study of a randomised trial of laparoscopy versus laparotomy for ectopic pregnancy (Structured abstract)
Source
  NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED). Other economic studies:
  bibliographic details. 2009 Issue 2, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  Chichester, UK. Division: ST.
Reviewed Source
  Original article: Gray, D T, Thorburn, J, Lundorff, P, Strandell, A,
  Lindblom, B. A cost-effectiveness study of a randomised trial of
  laparoscopy versus laparotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 345(8958):
  1139-1143, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858. 
Reviewed Article Authors
  Gray, D T. Thorburn, J. Lundorff, P. Strandell, A. Lindblom, B
Digital Object Identifier
  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858
MeSH Subject Headings
  Female
  Humans
  Pregnancy
  Cost-Benefit Analysis
  Follow-Up Studies
  Laparoscopy / ec [Economics]
  Laparotomy / ec [Economics]
  Pregnancy, Ectopic / su [Surgery]
  Pregnancy, Tubal / su [Surgery]
  Sweden Treatment Outcome
Record Status
  This record was compiled by CRD commissioned reviewers according to
  a set of guidelines developed in collaboration with a group of leading
  health economists.
Summary Language
  English
Year of Publication
  1995
Year of Latest Amendment
  2009
Reviewed Article Year of Publication
  1995
Study Design
  Randomised controlled trial (RCT), single centre study. The duration
  of the study was approximately forty days.
Study Sample
  Between May 1987 and June 1989, 264 patients were treated at a
  hospital in Sweden. Of these, 109 had diagnostic laparoscopy and met
  the criteria for inclusion. 52 were in the treatment group
  (laparotomy) and 57 were in the laparoscopy group. No power cal
  culations were reported.
Study Information
  Health technology:
  Therapeutic laparoscopy versus open laparotomy for the treatment of
  laparoscopically diagnosed ectopic pregnancy.
Hypothesis/Study Question
  Laparoscopy is a new treatment and is compared with the traditional
  treatment, laparotomy, in terms of cost-effectiveness, for the
  treatment of ectopic pregnancies.
ISSN
  1465-1858
CRD Commentary
  This was a good study with a very clear presentation of costs and
  quantities. However there does not appear to have been a power
  calculation for the RCT.
References
  Other publications of related interest:
  Comment in: Lancet 1995;345(8958):1127-8 and Lancet 1995;346(8975):638-9
Copyright
  Copyright (C) 2007 University of York. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Producer Information
Producer

Centre for Reviews & Dissemination
University of York
York YO10 5DD
UK
FAX: +44 (0)1904 321040
email: crd@york.ac.uk

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