Biological Abstracts® Database Guide
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Biological Abstracts® encompasses the entire field of life sciences and provides comprehensive coverage of the world’s published biological and biomedical research. This includes traditional areas of biology, such as botany, zoology and microbiology, as well as experimental, clinical and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, environmental studies, and agriculture. Interdisciplinary fields such as biochemistry, biophysics and bioengineering are also included. More than 6.500 serials are monitored for inclusion. The database also includes short communications such as technical notes and letters. Abstracts are provided for full-length articles.

The Biological Abstracts® database includes content of the print publication from 1969 to present and is updated six times a year.

Controlled Vocabulary

The Controlled Vocabulary (Authority File) contains lists of the controlled vocabulary terms used in BIOSIS Previews, Biological Abstracts and Biological Abstracts/RRM databases from 1993 forward. In most implementations of the databases, controlled vocabulary terms are accompanied by information including Broader and Narrower Terms, Related Terms, Used For Terms, and Scope Notes.

Segments and Years of Coverage
Name   Years of Coverage
Biological Abstracts   1969 - Present
Biological Abstracts Archive  

1926-1968 -- see the Biological Abstracts® Archive Database Guide for archive details

The BIOSIS segmentation changes each calendar year, due to special considerations for this database. Contact Ovid Support for segmentation information for your jumpstarts.

The limit of databases that you can select for a multifile search session is based upon database segments rather than actual databases. The Ovid multifile segment limit is set at 120 to avoid impacting your search sessions. Until 2019, your Biological Abstracts subscription will not amount to more than 37 segments.

This database is updated online bi-monthly.

 

Fields
The following list is sorted alphabetically by field alias. Click a field name to see the description and search information.
All Fields in this Database
  Abstract (AB) ISSN (IS) Patent Country (PC)
  Accession Number (AN) Issue (IP) Patent Number (PN)
  Author Email (AE) Item URL (IU) Publication Type (PT)
  All Searchable Fields (AF) Journal Name (JN) Publisher Information (PI)
  Author/Editor/Inventor  (AU) Journal URL (JL) Record Owner (RO)
  BIOSIS Update (BU) Journal Words (JX) Registry Numbers (RN)
  Biosystematic Codes (BC) Languages (LG) Sequence Data (SQ)
  Book Author/Editor (BE) Literature Type (LT) Series ISBN (SB)
  Book Title (English) (BT) Local Messages (LM) Series ISSN (SI)
  Chemical Information (CI) Major Concepts (MC) Series Title (SE)
  Chemicals & Biochemicals (CB) Meeting Information (MF) Series Volume (SV)
  Concept Codes (CC) Meeting Sponsor (SP) Source (SO)
  Country (CY) Methods & Equipment (MQ) Super Taxa (ST)
  Date Granted (DG) Miscellaneous Descriptors (MI) Taxa Notes (TN)
  Date of Publication (DP) Organisms (OR) Textword (TW)
  Digital Object Identifier (DO) Original Language Book Title (non-English) (BO) Time (TM)
  Diseases (DS) Original Title (non-English) (OT) Title (TI)
  Gene Name (GN) Pagination (PG) Update Code (UP)
  Geopolitical Locations (GE) Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms (PS) URL (UR)
  Heading Words (HW) Patent Assignee (PA) Volume (VO)
  Institution (IN) Patent Class (CL) Year of Publication (YR)
  ISBN (IB)    
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Default Fields for Unqualified Searches (MP): Searching for a term without specifying a field in Advanced search, or specifying .mp., defaults to the following ‘multi-purpose’ (.mp.) fields for this database: ab,bc,bo,bt,cb,cc,ds,ge,gn,mc,mi,mq,or,ps,sq,st,ti,tm,tn.
  Abstract (AB) Geopolitical Locations (GE) Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms (PS)
  Biosystematic Codes (BC) Gene Name (GN) Sequence Data (SQ)
  Original Language Book Title (non-English) (BO) Major Concepts (MC) Super Taxa (ST)
  Book Title (English) (BT) Miscellaneous Descriptors (MI) Time (TM)
  Chemicals & Biochemicals (CB) Methods & Equipment (MQ) Title (TI)
  Concept Codes (CC) Organisms (OR) Taxa Notes (TN)
  Diseases (DS)    
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Default Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: The following fields are included by default for each record.

  Abstract (AB) Local Messages (LM) Publisher Information (PI)
  Accession Number (AN) Literature Type (LT) Record Owner (RO)
  Author/Editor/Inventor (AU) Major Concepts (MC) Registry Numbers (RN)
  Biosystematic Codes (BC) Meeting Information (MF) Series ISBN (SB)
  Chemicals & Biochemicals (CB) Meeting Sponsor (SP) Series ISSN (SI)
  Concept Codes (CC) Methods & Equipment (MQ) Source (SO)
  Country (CY) Miscellaneous Descriptors (MI) Sequence Data (SQ)
  Date Granted (DG) Organisms (OR) Super Taxa (ST)
  Diseases (DS) Original Title (non-English) (OT) Time (TM)
  Geopolitical Locations (GE) Patent Assignee (PA) Title (TI)
  Gene Name (GN) Patent Class (CL) Taxa Notes (TN)
  Institution (IN) Patent Country (PC) Update Code (UP)
  ISBN (IB) Patent Number (PN) Year of Publication (YR)
  ISSN (IS) Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms (PS)  
  Languages (LG) Publication Type (PT)  
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All Fields for Display, Print, Email, and Save: Use the Select Fields button in the Results Manager at the bottom of the Main Search Page to choose the fields for a record.

  Abstract (AB) Journal URL (JL) Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms (PS)
  Author Email (AE) Languages (LG) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) Literature Type (LT) Publisher Information (PI)
  Author/Editor/Inventor (AU) Local Messages (LM) Record Owner (RO)
  Biosystematic Codes (BC) Major Concepts (MC) Registry Numbers (RN)
  Chemicals & Biochemicals (CB) Meeting Information (MF) Series ISBN (SB)
  Concept Codes (CC) Meeting Sponsor (SP) Series ISSN (SI)
  Country (CY) Methods & Equipment (MQ) Source (SO)
  Date Granted (DG) Miscellaneous Descriptors (MI) Sequence Data (SQ)
  Diseases (DS) Organisms (OR) Super Taxa (ST)
  Geopolitical Locations (GE) Original Title (non-English) (OT) Time (TM)
  Gene Name (GN) Patent Assignee (PA) Title (TI)
  Institution (IN) Patent Class (CL) Taxa Notes (TN)
  ISBN (IB) Patent Country (PC) Update Code (UP)
  ISSN (IS) Patent Number (PN) Year of Publication (YR)
  Item URL (IU)    
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Elements of Source (SO) Field: Ovid searches the following fields as part of the record source.
  Abstract (AB) ISBN (IB) Publication Type (PT)
  Accession Number (AN) Issue (IP) Series Title (SE)
  Book Author/Editor (BE) Journal Name (JN) Series Volume (SV)
  Book Title (English) (BT) Original Language Book Title (non-English) (BO) Volume (VO)
  Date of Publication (DP) Pagination (PG) Year of Publication (YR)
  Initial Page (PI)    
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The following list is sorted alphabetically by the two-letter label, and includes the relevant alias, at least one example for all searchable fields, and a description of the field.
Label Name / Example
AB Abstract [Word Indexed]
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.ab.

 

The Abstract (AB) field contains the abstract text as provided by the author of the source document. BIOSIS editors provide abstract text for book main citations, those which describe the book as a whole, and for meeting summary and main cite items, which describe the meeting as a whole. Abstract coverage begins in 1976.

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AE

Author Email [Display Only]

 

The Author E-Mail (AE) index contains e-mail addresses of the source document authors. Each e-mail address element is placed into the index separately, so your search should include as many elements as possible (for example, jane, smith, villanova, and edu). Author E-Mail information displays in the Author (AU) field.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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AF

All Searchable Fields [Display Only]

 

Use All Searchable Fields (AF) to search simultaneously in all fields in this list.

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AN, UI

Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]
bacd200300375463.an.

 

The Accession Number (AN) index contains a unique identifying number for each item. The Accession Number is composed of three elements: a product identification code, product year, and an item number, as in BACDYYYYnnnnnnnn.

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AU

Author/Editor/Inventor [Phrase Indexed]
abraham william t.au.

 

The Author/Editor/Inventor (AU) index contains the author's name or organization responsible for the source document. The role and e-mail information for the authors are not present in the index but display in the record.

The format for authors is last name followed by one or more initials: Smith James or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald), enter one version and then scroll through the list of names to find the other.

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BC

Biosystematic Codes [Phrase Indexed]
61200.bc.
gastropoda.bc.

 

The Biosystematic Codes (BC) index contains the BIOSIS Biosystematic Code for an organism(s) and the corresponding organism classifier discussed in the source document. The Biosystematic Code will be presented in brackets ([]) followed by the organism classifier. The classifier may also be followed by new taxon, which identifies when new taxa are discussed in the source item.

You can search Biosystematic Codes by name or code; you can also add "new taxon" to each (for example, muridae new taxon.bc. or 86375 new taxon.bc.).

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BE

Book Author/Editor [Phrase Indexed]
institut oceanographique.be.

 

The Book Author/Editor (BE) index contains the author's name or an individual organization responsible for the source book. The role of the author is not present in the index but displays in the record. Book Author/Editor coverage begins in 1993.

The format for authors is last name followed by first name or initials: Smith James or Smith J. Enter the last name, or if it is a common name, enter the last name and first initial. If you are unsure of the spelling of the last name (macdonald or mcdonald) enter one version, then scroll through the list of names to find the other. This field displays in the Source (SO) field.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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BO

Original Language Book Title (non-English) [Word Indexed]

 

The Original Language Book Title (non-English) (BO) index contains the non-English title and subtitle of a book. This field does not appear if the source book was published in English or, in the case of titles published in multiple languages, the English language version is the one processed by BIOSIS. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Original Language Book Tiltle coverage begins in 1993.

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BT

Book Title (English) [Word Indexed]
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.bt.

 

The Book Title (English) (BT) index contains the English-language version of the book title and subtitle. Literalizations are substituted for special characters and symbols. If the Book Title is the result of a BIOSIS translation of a non-English title it appears in square brackets ([]). This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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BU

BIOSIS Update [Phrase Indexed]
20060607.bu.

 

The BIOSIS Update (BU) index contains the day the item was originally produced by BIOSIS. For items produced 1969 - 1997, BIOSIS Update contains only the year of production. For items produced from 1998 and later, BIOSIS Update contains the month, day, and year of production.

This field displays as part of the Update Code (UP) field.

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CB

Chemicals & Biochemicals [Phrase Indexed]
rab5 small gtpase.cb.

 

The Chemicals & Biochemicals (CB) field contains the name of a chemical or biochemical which is described in the source. Each Chemical/Biochemical name could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

Chemical Variant       Chemical Role
CAS Registry Number   Chemical Process
Drug Modifiers   Enzyme Commission number

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: p38 kinase: 165245-96-5, regulation you can search the phrase "p38 kinase.cb." or "p38 kinase regulation.cb." to ensure that the modifier "regulation" refers to the term of interest. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase (as above) to ensure the accuracy of your search.

The Chemical Role is searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Chemical Role in the tool.

Chemicals and Biochemicals coverage begins in 1993.

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CC

Concept Codes [Phrase Indexed]
14506.cc.
“cardiovascular system - heart patholgy ”.cc.

 

The Concept Codes (CC) index contains the five-digit numeric code as well as the code expansions used to represent BIOSIS indexing categories.

You can search Concept Codes by either code or expansion, for example, Behavioral Biology Human behavior.cc. or 07004.cc.

Note that concept code groups are routinely uploaded to the first three digits. Entering the first few letters of the full heading or the first few digits of the code in the index is a particularly effective way to search Concept Codes.

Concept Codes are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Concept Codes in the tool.

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CI

Chemical Information [Search Alias]

 

The Chemical Information (CI) index contains Chemicals & Biochemicals (CB), Gene Name (GN), and Sequence Data (SQ). This is an alias index.

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CL

Patent Class [Display Only]

 

The Patent Class (CL) index contains the class and subclass numbers of the United States Patent Classification Scheme that has been assigned to the source patent by the US Patent Office. Patent Class coverage begins in 1986.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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CY

Country [Phrase Indexed]
canada.cy.

 

The Country (CY) index contains the corresponding author's country taken from the postal address. In some cases abbreviations are used, for example: USA. Country coverage begins in 1978.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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DG

Date Granted [Phrase Indexed]

 

The Date Granted (DG) index contains the date found on the cover of the issue of the Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office from which the source patent was taken. The month will be abbreviated for citations published before 2001. Date Granted coverage begins in 1986.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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DO

Digital Object Identifier [Phrase Indexed]

 

The DOI (DO) field contains the record's Digital Object Identifier.

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DP

Date of Publication [Display Only]

 

The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the issue year of the journal. Date of Publication is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

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DS

Diseases [Phrase Indexed]
haemobartonella felis infection bacterial disease.ds.

 

The Diseases (DS) index contains the name of a plant, animal, or human disease, disorder, or pathological condition as discussed in the source document. Each Disease could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

Disease Variant   Disease Affiliation
Disease MeSH Term   Disease Detail

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: focal epilepsy: (Epilepsy (MeSH)), nervous system disease, diagnosis You can search the phrase "focal epilepsy diagnosis.ds." to ensure that the modifier "diagnosis" refers to the term of interest. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase (as above) to ensure the accuracy of your search.

The Disease affiliations are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Disease Modifiers in the tool. Disease coverage begins in 1998.

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GE

Geopolitical Locations [Phrase Indexed]
ivory coast.ge.

 

The Geopolitical Locations (GE) index describes a location or place mentioned in the source document. Each Geopolitical Location could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

  Geographic Variant
  Geopolitical Terms
  Zoogeographical Region

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: Edmonton: Alberta, Canada, North America, Nearctic region you can search the phrase edmonton.ge. or edmonton canada.ge. to ensure that the modifier "canada" refers to the term of interest. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase (as above) to ensure the accuracy of your search.

The Geopolitical Terms and Zoogeographical Regions are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Geographic Classifiers in the tool. Geopolitical Locations coverage begins in 1993.

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GN

Gene Name [Phrase Indexed]
gene expression.gn.

 

The Gene Name (GN) index contains the name of a gene, gene family or loci as well as the organism classifier within square brackets ([]), as described in the source document. Each Gene Name could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

  Gene Name Variant
  Gene Detail

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: human ABO gene [Hominidae]: A-1 allele, A-2 allele, B allele, O-1 allele, O-2 allele you can search the phrase human ABO gene.gn. or human ABO gene hominidae A-1 allele.gn. to ensure that the modifier "A-1 allele" refers to the term of interest. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase (as above) to ensure the accuracy of your search.

Gene Name coverage begins in 2001.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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HW

Heading Words [Word Indexed]
gastropoda.hw.
cardiovascular.hw.

 

Sometimes you may wish to retrieve every Subject field that includes a particular word or phrase. You may do this by searching the word or phrase word in the Heading Word (HW) field.

Heading Word includes the fields:

Chemicals & Biochemicals (CB)       Major Concepts (MC)       Registry Numbers (RN)
Concept Codes (CC)   Methods & Equipment (MQ)   Sequence Data (SQ)
Diseases (DS)   Miscellaneous Descriptors (MI)   Super Taxa (ST)
Gene Name (GN)   Organisms (OR)   Taxa Notes (TN)
Geopolitical Locations (GE)   Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms (PS)   Time (TM)

Stopwords, which include commonly occurring words such as "of" and "the" will not be indexed. All valid terms in the tool are also included.

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IB

ISBN [Phrase Indexed]
"0721618448".ib.

 

The ISBN (IB) index contains the International Standard Book Number that was assigned to the source book or book series by the publisher; it may also contain an indication of which edition of the book the ISBN was assigned to: hardcover, cloth, paperback, and so on.

ISBN coverage begins in 1980.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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IN

Institution [Word Indexed]
mcgill.in.

 

The Institution (IN) index contains the postal address of the corresponding author of the source document, identified by 'Reprint Author.' The Institution is in the language of the source document, and may include the following information: department name or corporate division, institution or organization name, street address, city, town, country, state or province, zip code or postal code, and country. Institution coverage begins in 1978. The information is taken from the source document and is not standardized. Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution (harvard, not university). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

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IP

Issue [Phrase Indexed]
"1432".ip.

 

The Issue (IP) index contains the number of the issue of a serial publication of the source item. Supplement information will also appear here when applicable. The IP field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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IS

ISSN [Phrase Indexed]
0021 4892.is.

 

The ISSN (IS) index contains the International Standard Serial Number assigned to the serial or series title of the source item. The ISSN is nine characters, two sets of numeric characters separated by a hyphen. The ISSN may be followed by a parenthetical note, indicating the edition to which it refers.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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IU

Item URL [Word Indexed]
"emory.edu".iu.

 

The Item URL (IU) field contains the URL address for an item. The format is highly variable, but follows the Internet-common practice for URLs. Item URL coverage begins in 1998.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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JL

Journal URL [Word Indexed]
"www.bioscience.org".jl.

 

The Journal URL (JL) field contains the URL address from which a serial publication may be obtained. The format is highly variable, but follows the Internet-common practice for URLs.

Journal URL coverage begins in 1998.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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JN

Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]
journal of virology.jn.
journal of virol$.jn.

 

The Journal Name (JN) index contains the title of the serial publication of which the source item appears. This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

Stopwords such as "of" are included in the JN index, but when "the" is the first word of a journal, it is stripped.

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JX

Journal Words [Word Indexed]
journal of phytopathology.jx.
Journal of Japan Society of Coloproctology.jx

 

The Journal Word (JX) index contains individual words from every journal name. This field can be used to retrieve every occurrence of a journal which includes a particularly distinctive word or phrase, such as "forestry." "Archives of Internal Medicine.jx." will retrieve both the "Archives of Internal Medicine" and the "Japanese Archives of Internal Medicine." A single heavily posted word, such as "journal" will search slowly. Therefore, include such a word within a phrase from the title, when appropriate. For example, if you are looking for a title with "pharmaceutical journal," enter the phrase in one search statement rather than searching "journal" and then "pharmaceutical" and then combining the two. The JX index is not available on the Microsoft Windows NT platform.

Stopwords such as "the" or "of" are not included.

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LG

Languages [Phrase Indexed]
english.lg.

 

The Languages (LG) field contains the language(s) of publication of an article. This field may contain up to 10 language names. Use "Display Index(es)" to determine a language's three-letter short-code.

Language coverage begins in 1978.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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LM

Local Messages

 

The Local Messages (LM) field contains messages created by your Ovid System administrator to indicate holdings information about journals held in your library or institution.

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LT

Literature Type [Phrase Indexed]
editorial.lt.

 

The Literature Type (LT) index contains one or more terms which describe the type of content of the source document.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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MC

Major Concepts [Phrase Indexed]
allied medical sciences.mc.

 

The Major Concepts (MC) index indicates the broad subject area discussed in the source item. Terms following the colon indicate the broader subject areas.

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: Allergy: Clinical Immunology, Human Medicine, Medical Sciences you can search the phrase allergy.mc. or allergy medical sciences.mc. to ensure that the modifier "medical sciences" refers to the term of interest. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase (as above) to ensure the accuracy of your search.

Major Concepts are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Major Concept Terms in the tool.

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MF

Meeting Information [Word Indexed]
paris.mf.

 

The Meeting Information (MF) index contains the title, location, date or date range of a scientific meeting or conference described in the item or from which the item was taken.

Meeting Title coverage begins in 1969; Location and Date coverage begins in 1993.

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MI

Miscellaneous Descriptors [Word Indexed]
abiotic stress.mi.

 

The Miscellaneous Descriptors (MI) field contains terms and phrases or names taken from the source document. Qualifiers may also be listed after the colon. These entries are not specific to any of the other index lists. Records from 1969 - 1992 contain all indexing terms in a single upper case entry.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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MQ

Methods & Equipment [Phrase Indexed]
Scanning electron microscopy.mq.

 

The Methods & Equipment (MQ) index contains terms describing a method, apparatus or scientific technique discussed in the source document. Each term could be followed by one of more of the following modifiers:

Methods & Equipment Variant       Methods & Equipment Role
Equipment Type   Methods & Equipment Detail
Methods & Equipment Supplier    

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: cryopreservation: preservation method, efficacy, clinical trial, preservation you can search the phrase "cryopreservation".mq. or "cryopreservation efficacy".mq. to ensure that the modifier "efficacy" refers to the term of interest.

The geopolitical terms and zoogeographic regions are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Geographic Classifiers in the tool.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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OR

Organisms [Phrase Indexed]
algae biomass.or.
rodentia.or.

 

The Organisms (OR) index contains the name of an organism as given by the author(s) of the source document. Each organism name could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

Type of Name       Developmental Stage       Organism Detail
Organism Variant   Organism Role   Organism Classifier
Organism Variant Type of Name   Fossil Indicator    
Organism New Taxon   Gender    

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: Sprague-Dawley rat: adult, male [Muridae] You can search the phrase "sprague-dawley rat.or." or "sprague-dawley rat male.or." to ensure that the modifier "male" refers to the term of interest. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase (as above) to ensure the accuracy of your search. Organisms coverage begins in 1993.

Taxonomic levels are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Type of Name, Organism New Taxon is searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary New Taxon Modifiers, Developmental Stages are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Developmental Stage, Organism Role is searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Organism Role, Fossil Indicator is searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Fossil Modifiers and Gender is searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Gender in the tool.

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OT

Original Title (non-English) [Display Only]

 

The Original Title (non-English) (OT) field contains the non-English title of an item (both main and subtitles), and is primarily used for books. This field is optional for all item types and will not appear if the source document was written in English. Literalizations are substituted for special characters and symbols. The title appears in upper and lower case with natural-language punctuation and ends with a period, question mark, parentheses, brackets, or exclamation point. The title may be transliterated and, therefore, may include one or more embedded double quotation marks. This occurs most often in Bulgarian transliterated titles.

Original Title (non-English) coverage begins in 1998.

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PA

Patent Assignee [Word Indexed]

 

The Patent Assignee (PA) field contains the name of the person or organization to whom the rights to the patent have been assigned. This field is optional for patents. The data appears in upper and lower case, and lists the name of the assignee, the assignee's city, and the assignee's country when available.

Patent Assignee coverage begins in 1986.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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PC

Patent Country [Word Indexed]

 

The Patent Country (PC) index contains the name of the country in which the patent was granted.

Patent Country coverage begins in 1986.

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PG

Pagination [Word Indexed]
"1303".pg.

 

The Pagination (PG) index contains the total or inclusive pagination for the source document.

This field displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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PI

Publisher Information [Word Indexed]
Inst Oceanographique.pi.

 

The Publisher Information (PI) index contains the name and address of the publisher who produced the source book. The information is not standardized. Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution (heart not association). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

Publisher Information coverage begins in 1993.

Publisher Information is available in the Biological Abstracts Archive.

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PN

Patent Number [Word Indexed]

 

The Patent Number (PN) index contains an abbreviation indicating the patent granting country followed by the patent number assigned by the granting agency.

Patent Number coverage begins in 1986.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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PS

Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms [Phrase Indexed]
pelvic floor.ps.

 

The Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms (PS) field contains components of organisms above the macromolecular level as discussed in the source document. Each Part, Structure and System of Organisms could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

  Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms Variant
  Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms Organ System
  Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms Detail

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: gastrocnemius muscle: muscular system, ultrastructure You can search the phrase "gastrocnemius muscle.ps." or "gastrocnemius muscle ultrastructure.ps." to ensure that the modifier "ultrastructure" refers to the term of interest. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase (as above) to ensure the accuracy of your search.

The Organ Systems are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Organ System Modifiers in the tool.

Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms coverage begins in 1998.

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PT

Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
meeting.pt.

 

The Publication Type (PT) index contains one or more terms used to describe the type of the source document.

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RN

Registry Numbers [Phrase Indexed]
(before 1993) sulbactam.rn.
68373-14-8.rn.

 

The Registry Numbers (RN) index contains five-to-nine-digit CAS Registry Number's (R) and chemical names for the chemicals discussed in the source document. Beginning in 1993 the Registry Numbers will display with their main terms, either in the Chemicals and Biochemicals (CB) field or the Sequence Data (SQ) field.

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RO

Record Owner [Display Only]

 

The Record Owner (RO) field indicates the original producer of the item or the current copyright holder.

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SB

Series ISBN [Display Only]

 

The Series ISBN (SB) field contains the International Standard Book Number that was assigned to the book series.

Series ISBN coverage begins in 1980.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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SE

Series Title [Display Only]

 

The Serials Title (SE) contains the name of the series that the book or item was issued as part of. The Series Title is indexed under Title (TI) and displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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SI

Series ISSN [Display Only]

 

The Series ISSN (SI) field contains the International Standard Serial Number assigned to the series. The ISSN is nine characters, two sets of numeric characters separated by a hyphen.

Series ISSN coverage begins in 1980.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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SO

Source
journal of virology.so.
2 supplement.so.
"1992".so.

 

The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information needed to locate a citation, including the full Journal Name (JN), Book Title (BT) or Monograph Publisher, the Volume (VO), Issue (IP), Pagination (PG), Date of Publication (DP), Book Author/Editor (BE), Original Language Book Title (BO), and Year of Publication (YR). The Source field also displays the Series Title (SE) and Series Volume (SV) information.

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SP

Meeting Sponsor [Word Indexed]
academy.sp.

 

The Meeting Sponsor (SP) index contains the name of an organization that supported or funded the scientific meeting.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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SQ

Sequence Data [Phrase Indexed]
nucleotide sequence.sq.

 

The Sequence Data (SQ) index contains an accession number for a molecular sequence as assigned by a databank and as cited in the source document. Each Sequence Data number could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

  Molecular Sequence Database
  CAS Registry Number (R)
  Sequence Detail

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being index separately. You can search for individual terms or search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: AF006664: DDBJ, EMBL, GenBank, 194330-44-4, amino acid sequence, nucleotide sequence you can search the phrase "af006664".sq. or "af006664 amino acid sequence".sq. You can search the modifiers separately, or search a term and modifier as a phrase to ensure that the modifier "amino acid sequence" refers to the term of interest.

Sequence Detail is searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Sequence Type Modifiers in the tool.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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ST

Super Taxa [Phrase Indexed]
pisces.st.

 

The Super Taxa (ST) index contains the organism classifier and corresponding BIOSIS Biosystematic Code followed by the high-level taxonomic terms. This permits retrieval of items that refer to broad categories of organisms, including microorganisms. Super Taxa are presented in order from lowest level taxa to highest.

The Super Taxa is searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Super Taxa Terms in the tool.

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SV

Series Volume [Display Only]

 

The Series Volume (SV) field contains the volume number or other sequential designation of the source book. The Series Volume field is indexed under Volume (VO) and displays as part of the Source (SO) field.

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TI

Title [Word Indexed]
dna.ti.
dna probe.ti.

 

The Title (TI) index contains the English-language title that is described within the citation. Literalizations are substituted for special characters and symbols, such as 'alpha' for Greek letter alpha and 'fwdarw' for a forward arrow.

Stopwords such as "of" or "the" display in documents but do not appear in the TI index. However, the word "a," which is a stopword in other fields, CAN be searched in titles.

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TM

Time [Phrase Indexed]
jurassic.tm.
cambrian paleozoic.tm.

 

The Time (TM) index contains a geological time period or era mentioned in the source document. Each geological time period could be followed by one or more of the following modifiers:

  Geologic Time Classifier
  Geologic Time Detail

The modifiers are individually added to the terms to create phrases, as well as being indexed separately. You can search for individual terms of search for terms and modifiers as phrases.

For example if the source data is: Quaternary: Cenozoic you can search the phrase "quaternary".tm. or "quaternary cenozoic".tm. to ensure that the modifier "cenozoic" refers to the term of interest.

The Geologic Time Classifiers are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Geologic Time Classifier in the tool.

Time coverage begins in 1993.

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TN

Taxa Notes [Phrase Indexed]
marsupials.tn.
nonvascular plants.tn.

 

The Taxa Notes (TN) index contains the organism classifier followed by common names of broad groups of organisms and microorganisms discussed in the source document.

The Taxa Notes are searchable by means of the Controlled Vocabulary Taxa Note Terms in the tool.

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TW

Textword [AB, HW, MI, MQ, SQ, TI]
ultrastructure.tw.

 

The Textword (TW) index includes all of the fields in a database which contain text words and are appropriate for a subject search.

The Textword index includes Abstract (AB), Heading Words (HW), Miscellaneous Descriptors (MI), Methods & Equipment (MQ), Sequence Data (SQ), and Title (TI).

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UR

URL [Word Indexed]
pdf.ur.

 

The URL (UR) index contains all the electronic URL address present in the Journal URL (JL) and Item URL (IU) fields. The format is highly variable, but follows the Internet-common practice for URLs.

Note: this field is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

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UP

Update Code [Phrase Indexed]
“201006”.up.

 

The Update Code (UP) field contains a six-digit number indicating the year and week of the update. The format is YYYYWW, where WW indicates the week in which the document was added. For example, 200316 signifies the 16th week of 2003.

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VO

Volume [Word Indexed]
"123".vo.

 

The Volume (VO) index contains the volume number or other sequential designation of the serial publication of the source item. This index also includes the Series Volume information. Volume is displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

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YR

Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]
"2004".yr.

 

The Year of Publication (YR) index contains the publication year as it appears within the source document.

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Advanced Searching
You can use special search syntax to combine search terms or strategically develop a search.
Operator Syntax Search Example Sample Results
OR x or y vitamin c or
ascorbic acid
"variations of vitamin C and phenolics"
"ascorbic acid as a cofactor"

 

The OR operator retrieves records that contain any or all of the search terms. For example, the search heart attack or myocardial infarction retrieves results that contain the terms heart attack, myocardial infarction or both terms; results are all inclusive. You can use the OR operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
AND x and y vitamin c and
ascorbic acid
"ascorbic acid in an O/W cream reduced oxidative stress in human skin significantly better than the derivative sodium ascorbyl-2-phosphate, a more stable vitamin C replacement "

 

The AND operator retrieves only those records that include all of the search terms. For example, the search blood pressure and stroke retrieves results that contain the term blood pressure and the term stroke together in the same record; results are exclusive of records that do not contain both of these terms. You can use the AND operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
NOT x not y blastula not embryo "at the mesenchyme blastula stage"

 

The NOT operator retrieves records that contain the first search term and excludes the second search term. For example, the search health reform not health maintenance organizations retrieves only those records that contain the term health reform but excludes the term health maintenance organizations. In this way, you can use the NOT operator to restrict results to a specific topic.
You can use the NOT operator in both unqualified searches and searches applied to a specific field.
Adjacency (ADJ) x y blastula embryo "injected them into wild type blastula...the mutant embryos"

 

The Adjacent operator (ADJ) retrieves records with search terms next to each other in that specific order. You do not need to separate search terms manually by inserting ADJ between them, because when you separate terms with a space on the command line, Ovid automatically searches for the terms adjacent to one another. For example, the search blood pressure is identical to the search blood adj pressure.
Defined Adjacency (ADJn) x ADJn y patterning adj3 embryo "spatial patterning in the early mouse embryo "

 

The defined adjacency operator (ADJn) retrieves records that contain search terms within a specified number (n-1) of words from each other in any order (stop-words included). To use the adjacency operator, separate your search terms with ADJ and a number from 1 to 99 as explained below:

           ADJ1     Next to each other, in any order
           ADJ2     Next to each other, in any order, up to 1 word in between
           ADJ3     Next to each other, in any order, up to 2 words in between
           ADJ99   Next to each other, in any order, up to 98 words in between

For example, the search physician adj5 relationship retrieves records that contain the words physician and relationship with a maximum of four words in between in either direction. This particular search retrieves records containing such phrases as physician patient relationship, patient physician relationship, or relationship between cancer patient and physician.
Please note Ovid’s order of operation handles terms within parentheses first. Therefore it is recommended to apply the ADJn operator in one-on-one operations to avoid missing out on results. E.g. stroke adj4 (blood pressure or high blood pressure) could potentially miss out on some combinations of stroke with high blood pressure. The optimum way to execute this on Ovid is: (stroke adj4 blood pressure) OR (stroke adj4 high blood pressure).
Frequency (FREQ) x.ab./FREQ=n blood.ab./freq=5 "to isolate peripheral blood...with cynomolgus monkey blood...Blood samples were collected...centrifugation of blood samples...lower red blood cell"

 

The frequency operator (FREQ) lets you specify a threshold of occurrence of a term in the records retrieved from your search. Records containing your search term are retrieved only if the term occurs at least the specified (n) number of times. In general, records that contain many instances of your search term are more relevant than records that contain fewer instances. The frequency operator is particularly useful when searching a text field, such as Abstract or Full Text, for a common word or phrase.
Unlimited Truncation ($) x$ rat$ "Method of using deuterated calcium"
"with fluid temperature response "

 

Unlimited truncation retrieves all possible suffix variations of the root word indicated. To apply unlimited truncation to a term, type the root word or phrase followed by either of the truncation characters: $ (dollar sign) or : (colon). For example, in the truncated search disease$, Ovid retrieves the word disease as well as the words diseases, diseased, and more.
Limited Truncation ($) x$n dog$1 "pharmacology studies in beagle dogs"
"Characterization of the dog Agouti gene "

 

Limited truncation specifies a maximum number of characters that may follow the root word or phrase. For example, the truncated search dog$1 retrieves results with the words dog and dogs; but it does not retrieve results with the word dogma.
Mandated Wildcard (#) xx#y wom#n "and women aged 25-54 years"
"infection on the woman "

 

Searching with a mandated wildcard retrieves all possible variations of a word in which the wildcard is present in the specified place. You can use it at the end of a term to limit results to only those that contain the word plus the mandated character. For example, the search dog# retrieves results that contain the word dogs, but not those that contain the word dog, effectively limiting results to only those that contain the plural form of the word. The mandated wild card character (#) is also useful for retrieving specialized plural forms of a word. For example, the search wom#n retrieves results that contain both woman and women. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
Optional Wildcard (?) xx?y colo?r "a visible color"
"Colour mutants show that "

 

The optional wild card character (?) can be used within or at the end of a search term to substitute for one or no characters. This wild card is useful for retrieving documents with British and American word variants since it specifies that you want retrieval whether or not the extra character is present. For example, the optional wild card search colo?r retrieves results that contain the words color or colour. You can use multiple wild cards in a single query word.
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Stopwords

The Ovid search engine applies so called "run-time stopword processing". This means the search engine on the fly ignores the stopwords: and, as, by, for, from, in, is, of, on, that, the, this, to, was, were & with.

Therefore a search: at risk for diabetes.ti will also find: at risk of diabetes. The distance of one word in between is kept, but the stopword "for" is ignored.

 
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Limits
The following limits are available for this database. See Database Limits in the Ovid Online Help for details on applying limits.

Limit

Syntax
Abstracts Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to abstracts
Command Syntax: ..l/1 ab=y
  A limit to Abstracts will restrict retrieval to documents which include an abstract. The Abstract (AB) field contains a summary of the document. By limiting to Abstracts you will be restricting your search to records from 1976 to the present.
Animals Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to animals
  A limit to Animals will restrict retrieval to records which contain Animals in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Algae Sentence Syntax:
(Super Taxonomic Group)
limit 1 to algae
limit 1 to charophyta
  A limit to Algae will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Article Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to article
  A limit to Article will restrict retrieval to the 'article' Publication type.
Bacteria Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to bacteria
limit 1 to cyanobacteria
  A limit to Bacteria will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Book Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to book
  A limit to Book will restrict retrieval to the 'book' Publication type.
Continent Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to asia
limit 1 to south america
 

A limit to Continent will restrict retrieval to one or more of the seven continents. Continent limits limits work on all records from 1993 forward. Some records before 1993 also work with this limit.

Note: this limit is available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Country Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to canada
limit 1 to burkina faso
 

A limit to Country will restrict retrieval to one or more of over 175 countries. Country limits are only valid on records from 1993 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Developmental Stage Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to blastula
limit 1 to immature
 

A limit to Developmental Stage will present a list of developmental stages. Developmental Stages limits are only valid on records from 2003 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Disease Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to nutritional disease
limit 1 to metabolic disease
 

A limit to Disease will present a list of diseases to choose from. Disease limits limits work on all records from 1998 forward. Some records before 1998 also work with this limit.

Note: this limit is available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

English Language Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to english language
Command Syntax: ..l/1 en=y
 

A limit to English will restrict retrieval to articles which are written in the English language. Articles exclusively in foreign languages with English abstracts will be eliminated by a limit to English. By limiting to English Language you will also be restricting your search to records from 1978 to the present.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Fossil Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to fossil
 

A limit to Fossil will restrict retrieval to fossils, and is only valid from 2003 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Full Text

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to full text

 

A limit to Full Text will restrict retrieval to those citations for which there is a full text link. Both Ovid full text and external full text are included in this limit.

Fungi Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ascomycetes
limit 1 to myxophyta
  A limit to Fungi will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Gender Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to male
limit 1 to female
 

A limit to Gender will present a list of gender values. Gender limits are only valid on records from 2003 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Geopolitical Region Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to antarctic region
limit 1 to australasian region
limit 1 to ethiopian region
limit 1 to nearctic region
limit 1 to neotropical region
limit 1 to oriental region
limit 1 to palearctic region
 

A limit to Geopolitical Region will present a list of regions to choose from. Geopolitical Region limits limits work on all records from 1993 forward. Some records before 1993 also work with this limit.

Note: this limit is available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Human Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to human
Command Syntax: ..l/1 hu=y
  A limit to Human will restrict retrieval to articles which are primarily about human subjects; it will retain articles, however, about both human and animal subjects.
Invertebrates Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to invertebrates
limit 1 to insects
  A limit to Invertebrates will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Languages Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to french
Command Syntax: ..l/1 lg=fre
 

A limit to Language will restrict retrieval to any of the languages indexed by BIOSIS. If you choose this option, you will be presented with an alphabetic list of languages from which to select. Language limits are only valid for records from 1978 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Latest Update

Sentence Syntax:

limit 1 to latest update

 

New documents are added to the BIOSIS database at regular intervals. A limit to latest update will restrict retrieval to documents which were most recently added to the database.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Literature Types Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to obituary
limit 1 to protocol
 

A limit by Literature Type will restrict retrieval to specific literature types such as Bibliography, Nomenclature, and Taxonomic Key. If you select this limit, you will be presented with a list of literature types from which to choose.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Mammals Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to mammals
limit 1 to primates
  A limit to Mammals will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Meeting Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to meeting
  A limit to Meeting will restrict retrieval to the 'meeting' Publication type.
Microorganisms Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to microorganisms
limit 1 to microorganism
  A limit to Microorganisms will restrict retrieval to records which contain Microorganisms in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
New Taxa Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to new taxa
 

A limit to New Taxa will restrict retrieval to all source documents in which new taxa are discussed.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

New Taxon Modifiers Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to new species
limit 1 to new subgenus
 

A limit by New Taxon Modifiers will present a list of new taxa to choose from. New Taxon limits are only valid on records from 2003 forward. To limit the full coverage of the database to new taxa, use the limit to New Taxa.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Nonvascular plants Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to nonvascular plants
limit 1 to fungi
  A limit to Nonvascular Plants will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Oceans and Bodies of Water Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to pacific ocean
limit 1 to mediterranean sea
 

A limit to Oceans and Bodies of Water will present a list of major oceans, seas and gulfs. Oceans and Bodies of Water limits work on all records from 1993 forward. Some records before 1993 also work with this limit.

Note: this limit is available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Organ System Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to reproductive system
limit 1 to "dental and oral system"
 

A limit to an Organ System will present a list of organ systems. Organ System limits are only valid on records from 1998 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Organism Role Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to fermentation agent
limit 1 to parasite
 

A limit to Organism Role will present a list of organism roles. Organism Role limits are only valid on records from 2003 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Ovid Full Text Available Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to Ovid Full Text Available

 

A limit to Ovid Full Text Available will restrict retrieval to those citations for which an Ovid full text link is available. When viewing a citation with full text available use the LINK button to display the full text.

Plants Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to plants
limit 1 to plant
  A limit to Plants will restrict retrieval to records which contain Plants in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Protozoa Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to ciliata
limit 1 to cnidosporidea
limit 1 to flagellata
limit 1 to sarcodina
limit 1 to sporozoa
limit 1 to suctoria
  A limit to Protozoa will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Publication Type Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to meeting
limit 1 to Technical Report
  A limit by Publication Type will restrict retrieval to specific publication types such as Book, Book Chapter and Company Profile. If you select this limit, you will be presented with a list of publication types from which to choose.
Publication Year Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to yr=2003
Command Syntax: ..l/1 yr=2003
  You can restrict retrieval to any of the years which this database segment covers. If you choose this option, you will be prompted to enter the desired year; the format is 4 digits ("2003") or a range ("2001-2006").
Review Articles Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to "review articles"
 

A limit to Review Articles will restrict retrieval to documents which include literature reviews, software reviews, and taxonomic reviews.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Sequence Data Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to amino acid sequence
limit 1 to nucleotide sequence
 

A limit to Sequence Data will restrict retrieval to either Amino Acid Sequence or Nucleotide Sequence. Sequence Data limits are only valid on records from 1989 forward.

Note: this limit is not available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

States, Provinces and Territories Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to alberta
limit 1 to texas
limit 1 to queensland
 

A limit to States, Provinces, and Territories will present a list of each state, territory, district, and province in the United States, Canada and Australia. States, Provinces, and Territories limits work on all records from 1993 forward. Some records before 1993 also work with this limit.

Note: this limit is available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Type of Name Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to genus
limit 1 to variety
 

A limit to Type of Name will present a list of organism taxonomic levels. Type of Name limits work on all records from 2003 forward. Some records before 2003 also work with this limit.

Note: this limit is available in the Biological Abstracts® Archive.

Vascular plants Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to vascular plants
limit 1 to dicots
  A limit to Vascular Plants will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Vertebrates Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to vertebrates
limit 1 to birds
  A limit to Vertebrates will restrict retrieval to records which contain the term in Super Taxa (ST) and/or Taxa Notes (TN).
Viruses Sentence Syntax: limit 1 to viruses
limit 1 to bacterial viruses
limit 1 to animal viruses
  A limit by Virus will present a list of 4 modifiers from which to select: Animal Viruses, Bacterial Viruses, Plant Viruses or Viruses, which include all the previous modifiers.
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Tools
The following Search Tools are available for this database. For specific information on using these tools, refer to the Ovid Online Help linked below.
  • Permuted Index
  • Scope Notes
  • Explode
  • Tree

  • If you are unsure of what term to use, or if the search term you are using doesn't work, you can use one of these terms to enter the tree:

    Major Concepts

         

    Gender

         

    Sequence Data

    Super Taxa

     

    Taxa Notes

     

    Geopolitical Locations

    New Taxon Modifiers

     

    Parts, Structures, and Systems

     

    Geologic Time

    Fossil Modifiers

     

    Diseases

     

    Methods and Equipment

    Type of Name

     

    Chemicals and Biochemicals

     

    Concept Codes

    Developmental Stage

     

    Drug Modifiers

     

      

    Organism Role

     

    Chemical Role

       
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Changing to this Database

Search Labels: See the Segmentation information in this field guide for applicable database segment labels.

Use the Change Database link to change to and from Thomson Scientific BIOSIS segments.

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Sample Documents
Sample 1
Accession Number
  BACD201100040713
Record Owner Copyright 2018 Clarivate Analytics. Author/Editor/Inventor Konradi, Christine [Author, Reprint Author; E-mail: christine.konradi@vanderbilt.edu]; Zimmerman, Eric I. [Author]; Yang, Kevin [Author]; Lohmann, Kathryn M. [Author]; Gresch, Paul [Author]; Pantazopoulos, Harry [Author]; Berretta, Sabina [Author]; Heckers, Stephan [Author]. Institution Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Pharmacol, MRB 3,Room 8160A,465 21st Ave S, Nashville, TN 37232 USA. Country USA Title Hippocampal Interneurons in Bipolar Disorder Source Archives of General Psychiatry. 67(12). DEC 2010. Publication Type Article. ISSN 0003-990X(print); 1538-3636(electronic) Concept Codes [02506] Cytology - Animal
[02508] Cytology - Human
[07004] Behavioral biology - Human behavior
[10062] Biochemistry studies - Nucleic acids, purines and pyrimidines
[10064] Biochemistry studies - Proteins, peptides and amino acids
[12504] Pathology - Diagnostic
[17020] Endocrine - Neuroendocrinology
[20504] Nervous system - Physiology and biochemistry
[20506] Nervous system - Pathology
[21002] Psychiatry - Psychopathology, psychodynamics and therapy
[24500] Gerontology
[25000] Pediatrics
[34502] Immunology - General and methods Language English Abstract Context: Postmortem studies have reported decreased density and decreased gene expression of hippocampal interneurons in bipolar disorder, but neuroimaging studies of hippocampal volume and function have been inconclusive.Objective: To assess hippocampal volume, neuron number, and interneurons in the same specimens of subjects with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects.Design: Whole human hippocampi of 14 subjects with bipolar disorder and 18 healthy control subjects were cut at 2.5-mm intervals and sections from each tissue block were either Nissl-stained or stained with antibodies against somatostatin or parvalbumin. Messenger RNA was extracted from fixed tissue and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed.Setting: Basic research laboratories at Vanderbilt University and McLean Hospital.Samples: Brain specimens from the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center at McLean Hospital.Main Outcome Measures: Volume of pyramidal and nonpyramidal cell layers, overall neuron number and size, number of somatostatin-and parvalbumin-positive interneurons, and messenger RNA levels of somatostatin, parvalbumin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 1.Results: The 2 groups did not differ in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the bipolar disorder group showed reduced volume of the nonpyramidal cell layers, reduced somal volume in cornu ammonis sector 2/3, reduced number of somatostatin-and parvalbumin-positive neurons, and reduced messenger RNA levels for somatostatin, parvalbumin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 1.Conclusion: Our results indicate a specific alteration of hippocampal interneurons in bipolar disorder, likely resulting in hippocampal dysfunction. Major Concepts Neurology: Human Medicine, Medical Sciences; Psychiatry: Human Medicine, Medical Sciences Biosystematic Codes [86215] Hominidae Super Taxa [86215] Hominidae, Primates, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia Taxa Notes Hominidae: Animals, Chordates, Humans, Mammals, Primates, Vertebrates Organisms human: common, adolescent, aged, aged/80 and over, middle age, adult, female, male [Hominidae] Parts, Structure & Systems of Organisms neuron: nervous system; brain: nervous system; pyramidal cell: nervous system; hippocampal interneuron: nervous system; nonpyramidal cell: nervous system Diseases bipolar disorder: (Bipolar Disorder (MeSH)), behavioral and mental disorders; hippocampal dysfunction: nervous system disease, diagnosis Chemicals & Biochemicals antibodies; gene: expression; messenger RNA; parvalbumin; somatostatin: 51110-01-1; glutamic acid decarboxylase-1 Geopolitical Locations Arava Desert: Israel, Asia, Palearctic region; Israel: Asia, Palearctic region; Negev Desert: Israel, Asia, Palearctic region Methods & Equipment neuroimaging: clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques; real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction: laboratory techniques, genetic techniques; Nissl staining: laboratory techniques Miscellaneous Descriptors hippocampal volume; hippocampal function; postmortem study Year of Publication 2010 Update Code 201103. BIOSIS Update: 20110118.
Sample 2
Accession Number
  BACD201100001647
Record Owner
  Copyright 2018 Clarivate Analytics.
Author/Editor/Inventor
  Gearhart, Patricia M. [Author]; Gearhart, Chris [Author]; Thompson, Debra A. [Author]; Petersen-Jones, Simon M. 
  [Author, Reprint Author; E-mail: peter315@cvm.msu.edu].
Institution
  Michigan State Univ, Dept Small Anim Clin Sci, Vet Med Ctr D 208, Coll Vet Med, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
Country
  USA
Title
  Improvement of Visual Performance With Intravitreal Administration of 9-cis-Retinal in Rpe65-Mutant Dogs
Source
  Archives of Ophthalmology. 128(11). NOV 2010. 1442-1448.
Publication Type
  Article.
ISSN
  0003-9950(print); 1538-3601(electronic)
Concept Codes [03502] Genetics - General
[03506] Genetics - Animal
[12512] Pathology - Therapy
[20004] Sense organs - Physiology and biochemistry
[22002] Pharmacology - General
[22031] Pharmacology - Sense organs, associated structures and functions Language English Abstract Objective: To determine the efficacy of intravitreal administration of 9-cis-retinal in restoring visual function in Rpe65-mutant dogs. Methods: Intravitreal injection of 9-cis-retinal was administered in 1 eye of 7 Rpe65-/- dogs at a range of ages. Electroretinogram analysis and testing of visual performance was used to evaluate outcomes after a single injection and in 2 dogs after a second injection in the same eye.Results: In 5 of 7 injected dogs, 9-cis-retinal injection resulted in increased rod electroretinogram responses and improved functional vision. Three injected dogs exhibited increased 33-Hz flicker amplitudes characteristic of cone-mediated responses. Electroretinogram improvement was no longer evident by week 10 postinjection in 1 dog monitored over time. A second injection of 9-cis-retinal was performed in the same eye of 2 of the 7 dogs and also resulted in rescue of visual function.Conclusion: Our findings establish that 9-cis-retinoid therapy can restore visual function in a canine model of human disease resulting from RPE65 mutations.Clinical Relevance: These positive proof-of-principle results provide support for the development of intravitreal devices for sustained delivery of 9-cis-retinal as a therapy for conditions resulting from failure of the visual cycle. Major Concepts Pharmacology; Molecular Genetics: Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics; Sense Organs: Sensory Reception Biosystematic Codes [85765] Canidae Super Taxa [85765] Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia, Vertebrata, Chordata, Animalia Taxa Notes Canidae: Animals, Carnivores, Chordates, Mammals, Nonhuman Vertebrates, Nonhuman Mammals, Vertebrates Organisms dog: common, female, male [Canidae] Parts, Structures & Systems of Organisms eye: sensory system Chemicals & Biochemicals 9-cis-retinal: 514-85-2, ophthalmic-drug, efficacy, intravitreal administration Gene Name dog RPE65 gene [Canidae]: mutant Methods & Equipment electroretinogram analysis: clinical techniques, diagnostic techniques Miscellaneous Descriptors visual function Digital Object Identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archphthalml.2010.210 Year of Publication 2010 Update Code 201101. BIOSIS Update: 20101214.
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